CCNA
Routing and
Switching
ICND2 200-105
Official Cert Guide
WENDELL ODOM, CCIE No. 1624
with contributing author

SCOTT HOGG, CCIE No. 5133

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240

9781587205798_BOOK.indb i

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ii

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2
200-105 Official Cert Guide
Wendell Odom with contributing author Scott Hogg
Copyright© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Published by:
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a
review.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing July 2016
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016936746
ISBN-13: 978-1-58720-579-8
ISBN-10: 1-58720-579-3

Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco ICND2 200-105 exam for CCNA Routing
and Switching certification. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as
possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied.
The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall
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accompany it.
The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco
Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
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Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service
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Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. or for special sales opportunities (which may include electronic versions. Inc. please contact governmentsales@pearsoned. We greatly appreciate your assistance. Editor-in-Chief: Mark Taub Copy Editor: Bill McManus Product Line Manager: Brett Bartow Technical Editor(s): Aubrey Adams.. custom cover designs. Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process. training goals. For questions about sales outside the U. or branding interests).com or (800) 382-3419. For government sales inquiries. Feedback Information At Cisco Press.indb iii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. please contact intlcs@pearson. our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book. Each book is crafted with care and precision.com.iii Special Sales For information about buying this title in bulk quantities. or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs. Proofreader: Paula Lowell 9781587205798_BOOK. you can contact us through email at feedback@ciscopress.com.S. and content particular to your business. please contact our corporate sales department at corpsales@pearsoned.com. marketing focus. Elan Beer Business Operation Manager. Cisco Press: Jan Cornelssen Editorial Assistant: Vanessa Evans Managing Editor: Sandra Schroeder Cover Designer: Chuti Prasertsith Development Editor: Drew Cupp Composition: Bronkella Publishing Senior Project Editor: Tonya Simpson Indexer: Publishing Works.

consultant. Scott is a Cisco Champion. links to his blogs. and CCIE R&S. 9781587205798_BOOK. and course developer. systems engineer. founding member of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force (RMv6TF).iv CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide About the Author Wendell Odom. and Security. CCNP ROUTE. 4610. he currently works writing and creating certification study tools. This book is his 27th edition of some product for Pearson. and a member of the Infoblox IPv6 Center of Excellence (COE).certskills. He helped develop the popular Pearson Network Simulator. Scott is a frequent presenter and writer on topics including IPv6. Scott authored the Cisco Press book IPv6 Security. Inc. CCNA DC. CISSP No. About the Contributing Author Scott Hogg. and he is the author of all editions of the CCNA Routing and Switching and CCENT Cert Guides from Cisco Press. CCIE No. He maintains study tools. Cloud. 5133. and other resources at http://www.indb iv 6/1/16 12:01 PM . SDN. is the CTO for Global Technology Resources. He has written books about topics from networking basics. instructor. CCIE No. 1624 (Emeritus). CCNA R&S. has been in the networking industry since 1981.com. (GTRI). He has worked as a network engineer. CCNP QoS. and certification guides throughout the years for CCENT.

performing data center and network audits. and switching. routing. the Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert. Western Australia. Elan Beer. Europe. In 1993. and assisting clients with their short.and long-term design objectives.indb v 6/1/16 12:01 PM . With a background in telecommunications design. including video. and troubleshooting as well as service provider technologies. Elan has a global perspective of network architectures via his international clientele. Elan has been involved in numerous large-scale data center and telecommunications networking projects worldwide. is a senior consultant and Cisco instructor specializing in data center architecture and multiprotocol network design. Elan has been focused on data center design. For the past 27 years. graduate diplomas in computing and education. Since then. and associated industry certifications. Aubrey has technically reviewed a number of Pearson Education and Cisco Press publications. Most recently.v About the Technical Reviewers Aubrey Adams is a Cisco Networking Academy instructor in Perth. Africa. Elan has been instrumental in large-scale professional service efforts designing and troubleshooting internetworks. he was among the first to attain Cisco System’s highest technical certification. Australia. Elan has designed networks and trained thousands of industry experts in data center architecture. 1837. Aubrey has qualifications in electronic engineering and management. China. and online products. Elan has used his expertise to design and troubleshoot data centers and internetworks in Malaysia. Since 2007. configuration. and the Middle East. simulation. Elan was among the first to obtain the Cisco Certified System Instructor (CCSI) certification. and in 1996. 9781587205798_BOOK. He has taught across a broad range of both related vocational and education training areas and university courses. CCIE No. North America.

9781587205798_BOOK. my wonderful wife: The best part of everything we do together in life.vi CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Dedications For Kris Odom.indb vi 6/1/16 12:01 PM . Love you. doll.

That work included many new math-related apps in the ICND1 book. once again getting the “opportunity” to manage two books with many elements at the same timeline. Tonya Simpson. for finding those small technical areas. and co-author of the Cisco Press CCNA Cloud CLDADM 210-455 Cert Guide. Joe Stralo. Presto. Thanks for managing the whole production process again.indb vii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . the juggling act continues. In particular.vii Acknowledgments Brett Bartow again served as associate publisher and executive editor on the book. Welcome and thanks to Lisa Matthews for her work on the DVD and online tools. it’s a much better book because of the two of you. it is done well and beautifully. Truly. Thanks to Sandra Schroeder. Thanks Drew for jumping in and getting into the minutia while keeping the big-picture features on track. and an important part of deciding what the entire Official Cert Guide series direction should be. Word docs with gobs of queries and comments feed into the machine. and out pops these beautiful books. And Tonya. Many thanks to Aubrey and Elan. and passive-voice sentences to pulling the design and layout together. and delivered with excellence. As part of writing these books. for taking the time to read and think about every new part of the book. Thanks for the hard work. but also many new features that sit on the DVD and on this book’s website as review tools. we work in concert with Cisco. Greg Cote. Hank did not write the chapter. And thanks for the work on the online/DVD elements as well! Aubrey Adams and Elan Beer both did a great job as technical editors for this book. and Phil Vancil were a great help while we worked on these titles. thanks for putting it all together and making it look easy. 9781587205798_BOOK. We’ve worked together on probably 20+ titles now. just keeping focus with such a long pair of books in a short time frame. and all the production team for making the magic happen. He took over the job for this book during a pretty high-stress and high-load timeframe. gave me some valuable assistance when researching before writing the cloud computing chapter (27). As always. crummy word choices. A special thanks goes out to various people on the Cisco team who work with Pearson to create Cisco Press books. and once again. like the Key Topics reviews. Drew Cupp did his usual wonderful job with this book as development editor. From fixing all my grammar. from the breadth of some of the new topics. they do it all. Brett has been a pleasure to work with. Hank Preston of Cisco Systems. Hank helped me refine my understanding based on his great experience with helping Cisco customers implement cloud computing. but his insights definitely made the chapter much better and more realistic. This book presented a little more of a challenge. and for telling me where I need to do more. Lisa! I love the magic wand that is production. for the timely input. Once again. Besides the usual wisdom and good decision making to guide the project. IT as a Service Architect. he was the driving force behind adding all the new apps to the DVD/web. just as they did for the ICND1 100-105 Cert Guide.

Sean! A special thanks to you readers who submit suggestions and point out possible errors. thanks for the great job. A longtime co-collaborator with Pearson’s CCNA Simulator. who helps make this sometimes challenging work lifestyle a breeze. Chris. Thanks for the usual fine work. Thanks to my daughter Hannah. does various tasks related to specific chapters. Kris. Chris owns the mind map process now. I love walking this journey with you. And thanks to Jesus Christ. doll. with a great deal of attention paid to choosing how to use figures to communicate ideas. Mike Tanamachi. Mike! I could not have made the timeline for this book without Chris Burns of Certskills Professional. Without question.indb viii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . did his usual great job creating the finished figure files once again. past comments I have received directly and “overheard” by participating at CLN have made this edition a better book. Sean did a lot of technology work behind the scenes. 9781587205798_BOOK. Thanks to my wonderful wife. and then catches anything I need to toss over my shoulder so I can focus on the books. Lord of everything in my life. you are the man! Sean Wilkins played the largest role he’s played so far with one of my books. by design.viii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide The figures in the book continue to be an important part of the book. owns big parts of the lab development process for the associated labs added to my blogs. and especially to those of you who post online at the Cisco Learning Network. No way the books are out on time without Sean’s efforts. illustrator and mind reader.

indb ix 68 437 438 460 488 516 6/1/16 12:01 PM .ix Contents at a Glance Introduction xxxv Your Study Plan 2 Part I Ethernet LANs Chapter 1 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation Chapter 4 LAN Troubleshooting Chapter 5 VLAN Trunking Protocol Chapter 6 Miscellaneous LAN Topics Part I Review 13 14 42 98 120 142 164 Part II IPv4 Routing Protocols Chapter 7 Understanding OSPF Concepts Chapter 8 Implementing OSPF for IPv4 Chapter 9 Understanding EIGRP Concepts Chapter 10 Implementing EIGRP for IPv4 Chapter 11 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols Chapter 12 Implementing External BGP Part II Review 169 169 194 224 244 272 300 324 Part III Wide-Area Networks Chapter 13 Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Chapter 14 Private WANs with Ethernet and MPLS Chapter 15 Private WANs with Internet VPN Part III Review 327 328 362 386 434 Part IV IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS Chapter 16 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 17 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 18 Quality of Service (QoS) Part IV Review 9781587205798_BOOK.

indb x 6/1/16 12:01 PM .x CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Part V IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting Chapter 19 IPv4 Routing in the LAN Chapter 20 Implementing HSRP for First-Hop Routing Chapter 21 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part V Review 519 520 544 566 588 Part VI IPv6 Chapter 22 IPv6 Routing Operation and Troubleshooting Chapter 23 Implementing OSPF for IPv6 616 Chapter 24 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 644 Chapter 25 IPv6 Access Control Lists Part VI Review 591 664 688 Part VII Miscellaneous Chapter 26 Network Management Chapter 27 Cloud Computing Chapter 28 SDN and Network Programmability Part VII Review 592 691 692 730 760 780 Part VIII Final Prep 783 Chapter 29 Final Review Part IX Appendixes Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B Technical Content 784 801 803 810 Glossary 813 Index 852 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 16: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix E Mind Map Solutions Appendix F Study Planner Appendix G Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 Appendix H Understanding Frame Relay Concepts Appendix I Implementing Frame Relay Appendix J IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools Appendix K Topics from Previous Editions Appendix L Exam Topic Cross Reference 9781587205798_BOOK.

xi Contents Introduction xxxv Your Study Plan 2 A Brief Perspective on Cisco Certification Exams Five Study Plan Steps 2 3 Step 1: Think in Terms of Parts and Chapters 3 Step 2: Build Your Study Habits Around the Chapter Step 3: Use Book Parts for Major Milestones 4 5 Step 4: Use the Final Review Chapter to Refine Skills and Uncover Weaknesses 6 Step 5: Set Goals and Track Your Progress 7 Things to Do Before Starting the First Chapter 8 Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD 8 Should I Plan to Use the Two-Exam Path or One-Exam Path? 8 Study Options for Those Taking the 200-125 CCNA Exam 9 Other Small Tasks Before Getting Started 10 Getting Started: Now 11 Part I Ethernet LANs 13 Chapter 1 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 14 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 14 Foundation Topics 16 Virtual LAN Concepts 16 Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 18 VLAN Tagging Concepts 18 The 802.indb xi 6/1/16 12:01 PM .1Q and ISL VLAN Trunking Protocols 20 Forwarding Data Between VLANs 21 Routing Packets Between VLANs with a Router 21 Routing Packets with a Layer 3 Switch 23 VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 24 Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 24 VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration 25 VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration 28 VLAN Trunking Protocol 29 VLAN Trunking Configuration 30 9781587205798_BOOK.

1D) 44 The Need for Spanning Tree 45 What IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Does 47 How Spanning Tree Works 48 The STP Bridge ID and Hello BPDU 49 Electing the Root Switch 50 Choosing Each Switch’s Root Port 52 Choosing the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 54 Influencing and Changing the STP Topology 54 Making Configuration Changes to Influence the STP Topology 55 Reacting to State Changes That Affect the STP Topology 55 How Switches React to Changes with STP 56 Changing Interface States with STP 57 Rapid STP (IEEE 802.xii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Implementing Interfaces Connected to Phones 34 Data and Voice VLAN Concepts 34 Data and Voice VLAN Configuration and Verification Summary: IP Telephony Ports on Switches 36 38 Chapter Review 39 Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts 42 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 43 Foundation Topics 44 Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w) Concepts 58 Comparing STP and RSTP 59 RSTP and the Alternate (Root) Port Role 60 RSTP States and Processes 62 RSTP and the Backup (Designated) Port Role 62 RSTP Port Types 63 Optional STP Features 64 EtherChannel 64 PortFast 65 Chapter 3 BPDU Guard 65 Chapter Review 66 Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 68 69 Foundation Topics 71 Implementing STP 71 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xii 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

xiii Setting the STP Mode 72 Connecting STP Concepts to STP Configuration Options 72 Per-VLAN Configuration Settings 72 The Bridge ID and System ID Extension 73 Per-VLAN Port Costs 74 STP Configuration Option Summary 74 Verifying STP Operation 75 Configuring STP Port Costs 78 Configuring Priority to Influence the Root Election 80 Implementing Optional STP Features 81 Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard 81 Configuring EtherChannel 84 Configuring a Manual EtherChannel 84 Configuring Dynamic EtherChannels 86 Implementing RSTP 88 Identifying the STP Mode on a Catalyst Switch 88 RSTP Port Roles 91 RSTP Port States 92 RSTP Port Types 92 Chapter Review 94 Chapter 4 LAN Troubleshooting 98 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 99 Foundation Topics 99 Troubleshooting STP 99 Determining the Root Switch 99 Determining the Root Port on Nonroot Switches 101 STP Tiebreakers When Choosing the Root Port 102 Suggestions for Attacking Root Port Problems on the Exam Determining the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 103 104 Suggestions for Attacking Designated Port Problems on the Exam STP Convergence 105 Troubleshooting Layer 2 EtherChannel 106 Incorrect Options on the channel-group Command 106 Configuration Checks Before Adding Interfaces to EtherChannels 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xiii 105 108 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

1x 144 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xiv 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xiv CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Analyzing the Switch Data Plane Forwarding 109 Predicting STP Impact on MAC Tables 110 Predicting EtherChannel Impact on MAC Tables 111 Choosing the VLAN of Incoming Frames 112 Troubleshooting VLANs and VLAN Trunks 113 Access VLAN Configuration Incorrect 113 Access VLANs Undefined or Disabled 114 Mismatched Trunking Operational States 116 Mismatched Supported VLAN List on Trunks 117 Mismatched Native VLAN on a Trunk 118 Chapter Review 119 Chapter 5 VLAN Trunking Protocol 120 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 120 Foundation Topics 122 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Concepts 122 Basic VTP Operation 122 Synchronizing the VTP Database 124 Requirements for VTP to Work Between Two Switches VTP Version 1 Versus Version 2 VTP Pruning 126 127 127 Summary of VTP Features 128 VTP Configuration and Verification 129 Using VTP: Configuring Servers and Clients 129 Verifying Switches Synchronized Databases 131 Storing the VTP and Related Configuration 134 Avoiding Using VTP 135 VTP Troubleshooting 135 Determining Why VTP Is Not Synchronizing 136 Common Rejections When Configuring VTP 137 Problems When Adding Switches to a Network Chapter Review Chapter 6 137 139 Miscellaneous LAN Topics 142 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 143 Foundation Topics 144 Securing Access with IEEE 802.

xv AAA Authentication 147 AAA Login Process 147 TACACS+ and RADIUS Protocols AAA Configuration Examples DHCP Snooping 147 148 150 DHCP Snooping Basics 151 An Example DHCP-based Attack How DHCP Snooping Works 152 152 Summarizing DHCP Snooping Features 154 Switch Stacking and Chassis Aggregation 155 Traditional Access Switching Without Stacking 155 Switch Stacking of Access Layer Switches 156 Switch Stack Operation as a Single Logical Switch 157 Cisco FlexStack and FlexStack-Plus 158 Chassis Aggregation 159 High Availability with a Distribution/Core Switch 159 Improving Design and Availability with Chassis Aggregation Chapter Review Part I Review 160 162 164 Part II IPv4 Routing Protocols 169 Chapter 7 Understanding OSPF Concepts “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 170 170 Foundation Topics 172 Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features 172 Routing Protocol Functions 172 Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 173 Comparing IGPs 175 IGP Routing Protocol Algorithms 175 Metrics 175 Other IGP Comparisons 176 Administrative Distance 177 OSPF Concepts and Operation 178 OSPF Overview 179 Topology Information and LSAs 179 Applying Dijkstra SPF Math to Find the Best Routes 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xv 180 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

indb xvi 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xvi CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Becoming OSPF Neighbors 180 The Basics of OSPF Neighbors 181 Meeting Neighbors and Learning Their Router ID 181 Exchanging the LSDB Between Neighbors 183 Fully Exchanging LSAs with Neighbors 183 Maintaining Neighbors and the LSDB 184 Using Designated Routers on Ethernet Links 185 Calculating the Best Routes with SPF 186 OSPF Area Design 188 OSPF Areas 189 How Areas Reduce SPF Calculation Time 190 OSPF Area Design Advantages 191 Chapter Review 191 Chapter 8 Implementing OSPF for IPv4 194 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 194 Foundation Topics 196 Implementing Single-Area OSPFv2 196 OSPF Single-Area Configuration 197 Matching with the OSPF network Command 198 Verifying OSPFv2 Single Area 200 Configuring the OSPF Router ID 203 OSPF Passive Interfaces 204 Implementing Multiarea OSPFv2 206 Single-Area Configurations 207 Multiarea Configuration 209 Verifying the Multiarea Configuration 210 Verifying the Correct Areas on Each Interface on an ABR 210 Verifying Which Router Is DR and BDR 211 Verifying Interarea OSPF Routes 212 Additional OSPF Features 213 OSPF Default Routes 213 OSPF Metrics (Cost) 215 Setting the Cost Based on Interface Bandwidth 216 The Need for a Higher Reference Bandwidth 217 OSPF Load Balancing 217 9781587205798_BOOK.

indb xvii 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xvii OSPFv2 Interface Configuration 218 OSPFv2 Interface Configuration Example 218 Verifying OSPFv2 Interface Configuration 219 Chapter Review 221 Chapter 9 Understanding EIGRP Concepts 224 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 224 Foundation Topics 226 EIGRP and Distance Vector Routing Protocols 226 Introduction to EIGRP 226 Basic Distance Vector Routing Protocol Features 227 The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 228 Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 229 Route Poisoning 231 EIGRP as an Advanced DV Protocol 232 EIGRP Sends Partial Update Messages. As Needed 232 EIGRP Maintains Neighbor Status Using Hello 233 Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features 233 EIGRP Concepts and Operation 234 EIGRP Neighbors 234 Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information 235 Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table 236 The EIGRP Metric Calculation 236 An Example of Calculated EIGRP Metrics 237 Caveats with Bandwidth on Serial Links 238 EIGRP Convergence 239 Feasible Distance and Reported Distance 240 EIGRP Successors and Feasible Successors 241 The Query and Reply Process 242 Chapter Review 243 Chapter 10 Implementing EIGRP for IPv4 244 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 244 Foundation Topics 246 Core EIGRP Configuration and Verification 246 EIGRP Configuration 246 Configuring EIGRP Using a Wildcard Mask 248 9781587205798_BOOK.

xviii

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide
Verifying EIGRP Core Features 249
Finding the Interfaces on Which EIGRP Is Enabled 250
Displaying EIGRP Neighbor Status 253
Displaying the IPv4 Routing Table 253
EIGRP Metrics, Successors, and Feasible Successors 255
Viewing the EIGRP Topology Table 255
Finding Successor Routes 257
Finding Feasible Successor Routes 258
Convergence Using the Feasible Successor Route 260
Examining the Metric Components 262
Other EIGRP Configuration Settings 262
Load Balancing Across Multiple EIGRP Routes 263
Tuning the EIGRP Metric Calculation 265
Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 266
Automatic Summarization at the Boundary of a Classful Network 266
Discontiguous Classful Networks 267
Chapter Review 269
Chapter 11

Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols 272
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 272
Foundation Topics 273
Perspectives on Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Problems 273
Interfaces Enabled with a Routing Protocol 274
EIGRP Interface Troubleshooting 275
Examining Working EIGRP Interfaces 276
Examining the Problems with EIGRP Interfaces 278
OSPF Interface Troubleshooting 281
Neighbor Relationships 284
EIGRP Neighbor Verification Checks 285
EIGRP Neighbor Troubleshooting Example 286
OSPF Neighbor Troubleshooting 288
Finding Area Mismatches 290
Finding Duplicate OSPF Router IDs 291
Finding OSPF Hello and Dead Timer Mismatches 293
Other OSPF Issues 294
Shutting Down the OSPF Process 294
Mismatched MTU Settings 296
Chapter Review 296

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xix
Chapter 12

Implementing External BGP 300
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

300

Foundation Topics 302
BGP Concepts 302
Advertising Routes with BGP
Internal and External BGP

303

304

Choosing the Best Routes with BGP
eBGP and the Internet Edge

305

306

Internet Edge Designs and Terminology

306

Advertising the Enterprise Public Prefix into the Internet
Learning Default Routes from the ISP
eBGP Configuration and Verification
BGP Configuration Concepts

309

309

310

Configuring eBGP Neighbors Using Link Addresses
Verifying eBGP Neighbors

311

312

Administratively Disabling Neighbors

314

Injecting BGP Table Entries with the network Command
Injecting Routes for a Classful Network
Advertising Subnets to the ISP

318

Learning a Default Route from the ISP

Part II Review

314

315

Advertising a Single Prefix with a Static Discard Route
Chapter Review

307

319

320

321

324

Part III

Wide-Area Networks

327

Chapter 13

Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 328
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz

328

Foundation Topics 330
Leased-Line WANs with HDLC 330
Layer 1 Leased Lines

331

The Physical Components of a Leased Line
The Role of the CSU/DSU

332

334

Building a WAN Link in a Lab

335

Layer 2 Leased Lines with HDLC

336

Configuring HDLC 337

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CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide
Leased-Line WANs with PPP 340
PPP Concepts 340
PPP Framing 341
PPP Control Protocols 341
PPP Authentication 342
Implementing PPP 343
Implementing PPP CHAP 344
Implementing PPP PAP 346
Implementing Multilink PPP

347

Multilink PPP Concepts 348
Configuring MLPPP 349
Verifying MLPPP 351
Troubleshooting Serial Links 353
Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems 354
Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems 354
Keepalive Failure 355
PAP and CHAP Authentication Failure 356
Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems 357
Chapter Review 358
Chapter 14

Private WANs with Ethernet and MPLS 362
“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 363
Foundation Topics 364
Metro Ethernet 364
Metro Ethernet Physical Design and Topology 365
Ethernet WAN Services and Topologies 366
Ethernet Line Service (Point-to-Point) 367
Ethernet LAN Service (Full Mesh) 368
Ethernet Tree Service (Hub and Spoke) 369
Layer 3 Design Using Metro Ethernet 370
Layer 3 Design with E-Line Service 370
Layer 3 Design with E-LAN Service 371
Layer 3 Design with E-Tree Service 372
Ethernet Virtual Circuit Bandwidth Profiles 373
Charging for the Data (Bandwidth) Used 373
Controlling Overages with Policing and Shaping 374

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indb xxi 6/1/16 12:01 PM . 4G. LTE) 392 Fiber Internet Access 393 Internet VPN Fundamentals 393 Site-to-Site VPNs with IPsec 395 Client VPNs with SSL 396 GRE Tunnels and DMVPN 397 GRE Tunnel Concepts 398 Routing over GRE Tunnels 398 GRE Tunnels over the Unsecured Network 400 Configuring GRE Tunnels 402 Verifying a GRE Tunnel 404 Troubleshooting GRE Tunnels 406 Tunnel Interfaces and Interface State 406 Layer 3 Issues for Tunnel Interfaces 409 Issues with ACLs and Security 409 Multipoint Internet VPNs Using DMVPN 410 PPP over Ethernet 413 PPPoE Concepts 414 PPPoE Configuration 415 PPPoE Configuration Breakdown: Dialers and Layer 1 416 PPPoE Configuration Breakdown: PPP and Layer 2 417 PPPoE Configuration Breakdown: Layer 3 417 9781587205798_BOOK.xxi Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 375 MPLS VPN Physical Design and Topology 377 MPLS and Quality of Service 378 Layer 3 with MPLS VPN 379 OSPF Area Design with MPLS VPN 381 Routing Protocol Challenges with EIGRP 382 Chapter Review 383 Chapter 15 Private WANs with Internet VPN 386 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 386 Foundation Topics 389 Internet Access and Internet VPN Fundamentals 389 Internet Access 389 Digital Subscriber Line 390 Cable Internet 391 Wireless WAN (3G.

xxii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide PPPoE Configuration Summary 418 A Brief Aside About Lab Experimentation with PPPoE PPPoE Verification 419 420 Verifying Dialer and Virtual-Access Interface Bindings Verifying Virtual-Access Interface Configuration Verifying PPPoE Session Status 425 425 Step 0: Status Before Beginning the First Step Step 1: Status After Layer 1 Configuration 426 427 Step 2: Status After Layer 2 (PPP) Configuration Step 3: Status After Layer 3 (IP) Configuration PPPoE Troubleshooting Summary Chapter Review Part III Review 422 424 Verifying Dialer Interface Layer 3 Status PPPoE Troubleshooting 421 428 429 430 430 434 Part IV IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS Chapter 16 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 437 438 438 Foundation Topics 440 IPv4 Access Control List Basics 440 ACL Location and Direction 440 Matching Packets 441 Taking Action When a Match Occurs 442 Types of IP ACLs 442 Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 443 List Logic with IP ACLs 444 Matching Logic and Command Syntax 445 Matching the Exact IP Address 445 Matching a Subset of the Address with Wildcards Binary Wildcard Masks 446 447 Finding the Right Wildcard Mask to Match a Subnet Matching Any/All Addresses 448 Implementing Standard IP ACLs 448 Standard Numbered ACL Example 1 449 Standard Numbered ACL Example 2 450 448 Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 452 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xxii 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

Jitter. Delay.xxiii Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 453 Practice Building access-list Commands 454 Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range 454 Chapter Review 456 Chapter 17 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists 460 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 461 Foundation Topics 462 Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 462 Matching the Protocol. and Destination IP 463 Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 464 Extended IP ACL Configuration 467 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 468 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 469 Practice Building access-list Commands 470 Named ACLs and ACL Editing 471 Named IP Access Lists 471 Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 473 Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 475 ACL Implementation Considerations 476 Troubleshooting with IPv4 ACLs 477 Analyzing ACL Behavior in a Network 477 ACL Troubleshooting Commands 479 Example Issue: Reversed Source/Destination IP Addresses 480 Steps 3D and 3E: Common Syntax Mistakes 481 Example Issue: Inbound ACL Filters Routing Protocol Packets 481 ACL Interactions with Router-Generated Packets 483 Local ACLs and a Ping from a Router 483 Router Self-Ping of a Serial Interface IPv4 Address 483 Router Self-Ping of an Ethernet Interface IPv4 Address 484 Chapter Review 485 Chapter 18 Quality of Service (QoS) 488 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 488 Foundation Topics 490 Introduction to QoS 490 QoS: Managing Bandwidth. and Loss 491 Types of Traffic 492 Data Applications 492 Voice and Video Applications 493 9781587205798_BOOK. Source IP.indb xxiii 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

xxiv CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide QoS as Mentioned in This Book 495 QoS on Switches and Routers 495 Classification and Marking 495 Classification Basics 495 Matching (Classification) Basics 496 Classification on Routers with ACLs and NBAR 497 Marking IP DSCP and Ethernet CoS 499 Marking the IP Header 499 Marking the Ethernet 802.1Q Header Other Marking Fields 500 501 Defining Trust Boundaries 501 DiffServ Suggested Marking Values 502 Expedited Forwarding (EF) 502 Assured Forwarding (AF) 502 Class Selector (CS) 503 Congestion Management (Queuing) 504 Round Robin Scheduling (Prioritization) 505 Low Latency Queuing 505 A Prioritization Strategy for Data. and Video 507 Shaping and Policing 507 Policing 508 Where to Use Policing Shaping 509 510 Setting a Good Shaping Time Interval for Voice and Video 511 Congestion Avoidance 512 TCP Windowing Basics 512 Congestion Avoidance Tools 513 Chapter Review 514 Part IV Review 516 Part V IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting Chapter 19 IPv4 Routing in the LAN 519 520 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 521 Foundation Topics 522 VLAN Routing with Router 802. Voice.indb xxiv 6/1/16 12:01 PM .1Q Trunks 522 Configuring ROAS 524 Verifying ROAS 526 Troubleshooting ROAS 528 9781587205798_BOOK.

xxv VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch SVIs 529 Configuring Routing Using Switch SVIs 529 Verifying Routing with SVIs 531 Troubleshooting Routing with SVIs 532 VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch Routed Ports 534 Implementing Routed Interfaces on Switches 535 Implementing Layer 3 EtherChannels 537 Troubleshooting Layer 3 EtherChannels 541 Chapter Review 541 Chapter 20 Implementing HSRP for First-Hop Routing 544 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 544 Foundation Topics 546 FHRP and HSRP Concepts 546 The Need for Redundancy in Networks 547 The Need for a First Hop Redundancy Protocol 549 The Three Solutions for First-Hop Redundancy 550 HSRP Concepts 551 HSRP Failover 552 HSRP Load Balancing 553 Implementing HSRP 554 Configuring and Verifying Basic HSRP 554 HSRP Active Role with Priority and Preemption 556 HSRP Versions 559 Troubleshooting HSRP 560 Checking HSRP Configuration 560 Symptoms of HSRP Misconfiguration 561 Chapter Review 563 Chapter 21 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing 566 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 567 Foundation Topics 567 Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 567 Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 568 Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 568 Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet 569 Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 571 Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xxv 572 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

xxvi CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 572 DHCP Issues 573 Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 575 Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 576 IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 577 Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route 577 Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 579 show ip route Reference 579 Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 581 Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 581 Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 581 Overlaps When Using VLSM 583 Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 584 Pointers to Related Troubleshooting Topics 585 Router WAN Interface Status 585 Filtering Packets with Access Lists 586 Chapter Review 586 Part V Review 588 Part VI IPv6 591 Chapter 22 IPv6 Routing Operation and Troubleshooting 592 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 592 Foundation Topics 592 Normal IPv6 Operation 592 Unicast IPv6 Addresses and IPv6 Subnetting 593 Assigning Addresses to Hosts 595 Stateful DHCPv6 596 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 597 Router Address and Static Route Configuration 598 Configuring IPv6 Routing and Addresses on Routers 598 IPv6 Static Routes on Routers 599 Verifying IPv6 Connectivity 600 Verifying Connectivity from IPv6 Hosts 600 Verifying IPv6 from Routers 601 Troubleshooting IPv6 604 Pings from the Host Work Only in Some Cases 605 Pings Fail from a Host to Its Default Router 606 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xxvi 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

But Fails 610 Routing Looks Good.indb xxvii 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xxvii Problems Using Any Function That Requires DNS 607 Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: Stateful DHCP Issues 608 Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: SLAAC Issues 609 Traceroute Shows Some Hops. But Traceroute Still Fails 612 Chapter Review 612 Chapter 23 Implementing OSPF for IPv6 616 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 616 Foundation Topics 618 OSPFv3 for IPv6 Concepts 618 IPv6 Routing Protocol Versions and Protocols 619 Two Options for Implementing Dual Stack with OSPF 619 OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 Internals 621 OSPFv3 Configuration 621 Basic OSPFv3 Configuration 621 Single-Area Configuration on the Three Internal Routers 623 Adding Multiarea Configuration on the Area Border Router 625 Other OSPFv3 Configuration Settings 626 Setting OSPFv3 Interface Cost to Influence Route Selection 626 OSPF Load Balancing 627 Injecting Default Routes 627 OSPFv3 Verification and Troubleshooting 628 OSPFv3 Interfaces 630 Verifying OSPFv3 Interfaces 630 Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Interfaces 631 OSPFv3 Neighbors 632 Verifying OSPFv3 Neighbors 632 Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Neighbors 633 OSPFv3 LSDB and LSAs 636 The Issue of IPv6 MTU 636 OSPFv3 Metrics and IPv6 Routes 638 Verifying OSPFv3 Interface Cost and Metrics 638 Troubleshooting IPv6 Routes Added by OSPFv3 640 Chapter Review 642 9781587205798_BOOK.

indb xxviii 670 670 678 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xxviii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 24 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 644 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 644 Foundation Topics 646 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration 646 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Basics 647 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Example 648 Other EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration Settings 650 Setting Bandwidth and Delay to Influence EIGRP for IPv6 Route Selection 650 EIGRP Load Balancing EIGRP Timers 651 652 EIGRP for IPv6 Verification and Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6 Interfaces 654 EIGRP for IPv6 Neighbors 656 EIGRP for IPv6 Topology Database EIGRP for IPv6 Routes Chapter Review Chapter 25 653 657 659 661 IPv6 Access Control Lists 664 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 664 Foundation Topics 666 IPv6 Access Control List Basics 666 Similarities and Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs 666 ACL Location and Direction 667 IPv6 Filtering Policies 668 ICMPv6 Filtering Caution 668 Capabilities of IPv6 ACLs 669 Limitations of IPv6 ACLs 669 Matching Tunneled Traffic 670 IPv4 Wildcard Mask and IPv6 Prefix Length ACL Logging Impact Router Originated Packets 670 Configuring Standard IPv6 ACLs 671 Configuring Extended IPv6 ACLs 674 Examples of Extended IPv6 ACLs 676 Practice Building ipv6 access-list Commands 9781587205798_BOOK.

xxix Other IPv6 ACL Topics 679 Implicit IPv6 ACL Rules 679 An Example of Filtering ICMPv6 NDP and the Negative Effects 679 How to Avoid Filtering ICMPv6 NDP Messages 683 IPv6 ACL Implicit Filtering Summary 684 IPv6 Management Control ACLs 685 Chapter Review 686 Part VI Review 688 Part VII Miscellaneous 691 Chapter 26 Network Management 692 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 692 Foundation Topics 694 Simple Network Management Protocol 694 SNMP Concepts 695 SNMP Variable Reading and Writing: SNMP Get and Set 696 SNMP Notifications: Traps and Informs 696 The Management Information Base Securing SNMP 697 698 Implementing SNMP Version 2c 699 Configuring SNMPv2c Support for Get and Set 699 Configuring SNMPv2c Support for Trap and Inform Verifying SNMPv2c Operation Implementing SNMP Version 3 SNMPv3 Groups 701 702 704 705 SNMPv3 Users.indb xxix 710 719 720 6/1/16 12:01 PM . Passwords. and Encryption Keys Verifying SNMPv3 707 708 Implementing SNMPv3 Notifications (Traps and Informs) Summarizing SNMPv3 Configuration IP Service Level Agreement An Overview of IP SLA 711 712 713 Basic IP SLA ICMP-Echo Configuration 714 Troubleshooting Using IP SLA Counters 715 Troubleshooting Using IP SLA History SPAN 716 718 SPAN Concepts 718 The Need for SPAN When Using a Network Analyzer SPAN Session Concepts 9781587205798_BOOK.

xxx CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Configuring Local SPAN 721 SPAN Session Parameters for Troubleshooting 724 Choosing to Limit SPAN Sources 725 Chapter Review 726 Chapter 27 Cloud Computing 730 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 730 Foundation Topics 732 Cloud Computing Concepts 732 Server Virtualization 732 Cisco Server Hardware 732 Server Virtualization Basics 733 Networking with Virtual Switches on a Virtualized Host 735 The Physical Data Center Network 736 Workflow with a Virtualized Data Center 737 Cloud Computing Services 739 Private Cloud 739 Public Cloud 741 Cloud and the “As a Service” Model 741 Infrastructure as a Service 742 Software as a Service 743 (Development) Platform as a Service 743 WAN Traffic Paths to Reach Cloud Services 744 Enterprise WAN Connections to Public Cloud 744 Accessing Public Cloud Services Using the Internet 745 Pros and Cons with Connecting to Public Cloud with Internet Private WAN and Internet VPN Access to Public Cloud 746 Pros and Cons with Connecting to Cloud with Private WANs Intercloud Exchanges A Scenario: Branch Offices and the Public Cloud Branch Offices with Internet and Private WAN Virtual Network Functions and Services 749 749 Migrating Traffic Flows When Migrating to Email SaaS 750 751 752 Virtual Network Functions: Firewalls and Routers 752 754 Address Assignment Services and DHCP NTP 747 748 Summarizing the Pros and Cons of Public Cloud WAN Options DNS Services 745 756 757 Chapter Review 758 9781587205798_BOOK.indb xxx 6/1/16 12:01 PM .

and Management Planes 762 The Data Plane 762 The Control Plane 763 The Management Plane 764 Cisco Switch Data Plane Internals 765 Controllers and Network Architecture 766 Controllers and Centralized Control The Southbound Interface 767 The Northbound Interface 768 SDN Architecture Summary 766 770 Examples of Network Programmability and SDN Open SDN and OpenFlow 770 771 The OpenDaylight Controller Cisco Open SDN Controller 771 772 The Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure The Cisco APIC Enterprise Module Comparing the Three Examples 773 774 776 Cisco APIC-EM Path Trace ACL Analysis Application APIC-EM Path Trace App 777 777 APIC-EM Path Trace ACL Analysis Tool Timing and Exam Topic Chapter Review Part VII Review 778 778 780 Part VIII Final Prep 783 Chapter 29 Final Review 784 Advice About the Exam Event 784 Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 784 Think About Your Time Budget Versus Number of Questions 785 A Suggested Time-Check Method 786 Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 786 Exam-Day Advice 787 Reserve the Hour After the Exam in Case You Fail 788 9781587205798_BOOK. Control.indb xxxi 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xxxi Chapter 28 SDN and Network Programmability 760 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 761 Foundation Topics 762 SDN and Network Programmability Basics 762 The Data.

indb xxxii 6/1/16 12:01 PM .xxxii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Exam Review 788 Take Practice Exams 789 Practicing Taking the ICND2 or CCNA R&S Exam Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions Taking Other Practice Exams 792 Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 792 794 Review Mind Maps from Part Review Do Labs 790 790 795 795 Assess Whether You Are Ready to Pass (and the Fallacy of Exam Scores) 796 Study Suggestions After Failing to Pass 797 Other Study Tasks 798 Final Thoughts 799 Part IX Appendixes 801 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 803 Appendix B CCNA ICND2 200-105 Exam Updates 810 Glossary 813 Index 852 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 16: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix E Mind Map Solutions Appendix F Study Planner Appendix G Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 Appendix H Understanding Frame Relay Concepts Appendix I Implementing Frame Relay Appendix J IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools Appendix K Topics from Previous Editions Appendix L Exam Topic Cross Reference 9781587205798_BOOK.

*Be sure to check the box that you would like to hear from us to receive exclusive discounts on future editions of this product. To start the registration process.ciscopress. go to www. Enter the product ISBN 9781587205798 and click Submit.indb xxxiii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . simply register your product. After the process is complete.xxxiii Reader Services To access additional content for this book. you will find any available bonus content under Registered Products.com/register and log in or create an account*. 9781587205798_BOOK.

■ Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. ■ Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. ■ Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element.indb xxxiv 6/1/16 12:01 PM . mutually exclusive elements. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). ■ Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. ■ Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element. 9781587205798_BOOK. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command).xxxiv CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Icons Used in This Book Printer PC Laptop Server Phone IP Phone Router Switch Frame Relay Switch Cable Modem Access Point ASA DSLAM WAN Switch CSU/DSU Hub PIX Firewall Bridge Layer 3 Switch Network Cloud Ethernet Connection Serial Line Virtual Circuit Ethernet WAN Wireless Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference.

the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam is the seventh separate version of the exam (which warrants a different exam number).Introduction About the Exams Congratulations! If you’re reading far enough to look at this book’s Introduction. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry at all. Simple enough. Historically. and 200-125 CCNA exams. and the related 100-105 ICND1. 9781587205798_BOOK. networking equals Cisco. but the two-exam path does so spread over two exams rather than one. you’ve probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification. To make sure you reference the correct exam. The CCENT certification requires a single step: pass the ICND1 exam. In many geographies and markets around the world.indb xxxv 6/1/16 12:01 PM . 200-105 ICND2. with more than 80 percent market share in some markets. If that form holds true. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer. CCENT 100-105 ICND1 200-105 ICND2 200-125 CCNA Figure I-1 CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S) Cisco Entry-Level Certifications and Exams Note that Cisco has begun referencing some exams with a version number on some of their websites. the exams in Figure I-1 will likely be called version 3 (or v3 for short). just make sure to use the correct exam number as shown in the figure. as shown in Figure I-1: pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. However. or just pass the CCNA exam. Most everyone new to Cisco certifications begins with either CCENT or CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S). Both paths cover the same exam topics. The Exams to Achieve CCENT and CCNA R&S Cisco announced changes to the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certifications. when looking for information. but you do not when working through the single-exam (200-125) option. early in the year 2016. the paths to certification are not quite obvious at first. Cisco has a ridiculously high market share in the router and switch marketplace. You also pick up the CCENT certification by going through the two-exam path. using forums. Cisco certification makes perfect sense. you need to know Cisco. and registering for the test. Cisco gives you two options to achieve CCNA R&S certification. dating back to 1998.

Like a sim question. Anyone who has user-level skills in getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment. The question types are ■ Multiple-choice. multiple-answer ■ Testlet (one scenario with several multiple-choice questions) ■ Drag-and-drop ■ Simulated lab (sim) ■ Simlet You should take the time to learn as much as possible by using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. like a testlet.xxxvi CCNA INTRO Official Exam Certification Guide Types of Questions on the Exams The ICND1. and your verification and troubleshooting skills with simlet questions. You can find out more about what’s on the exam from two primary sources: this book and the Cisco website. Using these two question styles with the simulator enables Cisco to test your configuration skills with sim questions. The Cisco Published Exam Topics First. Instead of changing/fixing the configuration. Cisco wants the public to know both the variety of topics 9781587205798_BOOK. Cisco tells the world the specific topics on each of their certification exams. However. At the testing center. a lab scenario. you have a chance to do a few other tasks on the PC. what to study a little. For every Cisco certification exam. Although the first four types of questions in the list should be familiar to anyone who has taken standardized tests or similar tests in school. and can access the devices. At heart. Your job is to fix a problem with the configuration. What’s on the CCNA Exams…and in the Book? Ever since I was in grade school. you sit in a quiet room with a PC. so that you control and use simulated Cisco devices. Both use a network simulator to ask questions. you see a network topology. someone would always ask. “What’s on the test?” Even in college. you also see several multiple-choice questions. Before the exam timer begins. a lab scenario. you answer questions about the current state of the network. and can access the devices. single-answer ■ Multiple-choice. the last two types are more common to IT tests and Cisco exams in particular. ICND2. whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon. and CCNA R&S exams all follow the same general format. people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams.” This tool walks through each type of question Cisco may ask on the exam. ■ Simlet questions: This style combines sim and testlet question formats. for instance. the goal is to know what to study hard. you can take a sample quiz just to get accustomed to the PC and the testing engine. and what to not study at all. which you can find by going to Cisco.indb xxxvi 6/1/16 12:01 PM . In particular: ■ Sim questions: You see a network topology.com and searching for “exam tutorial.

For example.com/go/certifications. cisco. which describes one of the most important topics in both CCENT and CCNA R&S: Configure. and troubleshoot). CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. for content. and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting Note that this one exam topic has three verbs (configure. And if to do that you need to understand concepts and need to have other knowledge. This Book: About the Exam Topics This book provides a complete study system for the Cisco published exam topics for the ICND2 200-105 exam. The Cisco exam topics provide the definitive list of topics and skill levels required by Cisco for the exams. but also understand them well enough to verify that the configuration works. and to troubleshoot problems when it is not working. Note that this book lists those same exam topics in Appendix L. For those of you thinking more specifically about the CCNA R&S certification. In short.indb xxxvii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . and the other with a list of chapters in this book with the corresponding exam topics included in each chapter. the list of exam topics would take about five pages of this book if laid out in a list. and troubleshoot. plus additional subtopics that provide more details about that technology area. this book covers about one-half of the CCNA exam topics. The scope of the book is defined by the exam topics. and the CCNA 200-125 single-exam path to CCNA. verify. 9781587205798_BOOK. All the topics in this book either directly relate to some ICND2 exam topic or provide more basic background knowledge for some exam topic. verify. verify.” This PDF appendix lists two cross references: one with a list of the exam topics in the order in which Cisco lists them on their website. they also list the depth to which you must master the topic. IPv4 addressing). Cisco does more than just list the topic (for example. Look for notices about the use of unscored items. you should be able to not only configure IPv4 addresses and subnets. but read the short material above the exam topics as listed at the Cisco web page for each certification and exam. consider the following exam topic. The CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide (and ICND1 100105 exam topics) covers about half of the topics listed for the CCNA 200-125 exam. For example. The exam questions will attempt to assess whether you can configure. the ICND1 100-105 exam topics list has 41 primary exam topics (topics with verbs). You should take the time to not only read the exam topics. and navigate until you see the exam topics. Although very useful. Just go to http://www. So. The primary exam topics each list one or more verbs that describe the skill level required. and how Cisco intends the exam topics to be a set of general guidelines for the exams. those details are implied. But the list of exam topics provides only a certain level of depth. and this book (and the ICND2 200-105 exam topics) covers the other half.Introduction xxxvii and what kinds of knowledge and skills are required for each topic. look for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching pages. “Exam Topic Cross Reference.

with lists and tables for comparisons. each “Chapter Review” section presents a variety of other book features. use the Chapter Review tasks to start working on mastering your memory of the facts and skills with configuration. verification. or. about three-quarters of the chapter is about the technology.. ■ Chapter Review: This section includes a list of study tasks useful to help you remember concepts. in the technology chapters of the book. It gives you a study system designed to help you not only learn facts but also to develop the skills you need to pass the exams. the technology content in the chapter).. and determine how to approach reading the Foundation Topics (that is. including the following: ■ Review Key Topics: In the “Foundation Topics” section. The “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter contains rich content to explain the topics on the exam and to show many examples. or not so much. the Key Topic icon appears next to the most important items.indb xxxviii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . You start with the “Do I Know This Already?” (DIKTA) quiz. When finished with the Foundation Topics. It also highlights the most important topics in each chapter as key topics. and practice skills-based content in the chapter. organized for reading and study as follows: ■ “Do I Know This Already?” quiz: Each chapter begins with a prechapter quiz. Figure I-2 shows how each chapter uses these three key elements. part. 2) Companion Website 3) DVD Three Primary Tasks for a First Pass Through Each Chapter In addition to these three main chapter features. DIKTA Quiz High Score Take Quiz Low Score Figure I-2 Foundation Topics Chapter Review (Skim) Foundation Topics (Read) Foundation Topics 1) In-Chapter. You can use the score to determine whether you already know a lot. so you know what to master first in your study. and then by part (a part contains multiple chapters). connect ideas. and about one-quarter is for the related study features. and for final review. Chapter Features and How to Use Each Chapter Each chapter of this book is a self-contained short course about one topic area.xxxviii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Book Features This book (and the related CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide) goes beyond what you would find in a simple technology book. To do that. and troubleshooting. ■ Foundation Topics: This is the heading for the core content section of the chapter. the next section of this Introduction discusses the book features introduced by chapter. While all 9781587205798_BOOK. This section makes extensive use of figures. for the purpose of later review and mastery. And because the book organizes your study by chapter. The rest of this section explains these book features. Most of the book’s features tie in some way to the need to study beyond simply reading the “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter. and then a final review at the end of the book.

The Introduction’s section titled “About Building Hands-On Skills” discusses your options. some tables have been marked as memory tables. The Part Review also suggests using the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam software that comes with the book. ■ Labs: Many exam topics use the verbs “configure. and see how much you can remember and complete mentally. ■ Command References: Some book chapters cover a large number of router and switch commands. and use the DVD Glossary to cross-check your own mental definitions. The Chapter Review refers you to these other tools. Make sure you have a good understanding of each term. scan the chapter for these items to review them. for extra practice in answering multiple-choice questions on a computer. 6 IPv6 (22-25) 7 Miscellaneous (26-28) 4 IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS (16-18) 5 IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting (19-21) 3 Wide Area Networks (13-15) 2 IPv4 Routing Protocols (7-12) 1 Ethernet LANs (1-6) Figure I-3 9781587205798_BOOK.Introduction xxxix content matters.” and “troubleshoot”. Part Features and How to Use Part Review The book organizes the chapters into seven parts. Use these tables for reference. but also use them for study— just cover one column of the table. more important to learn. The “Review Key Topics” section lists the key topics in a table. and then reveals the completed table. This section includes reference tables for the commands used in that chapter. Figure I-3 lists the titles of the parts and identifies the chapters in those parts by chapter numbers. along with an explanation. ■ Complete Tables from Memory: Instead of just rereading an important table of information. so these items are noted as key topics. These tables exist in the Memory Table app that is available on the DVD and from the companion website. However. The Part Review element that comes at the end of each book Part suggests that you repeat the DIKTA questions. some is. of course. all these refer to skills you should practice at the command-line interface (CLI) of a router or switch.” “verify. you do need to understand each term well enough to understand exam questions and answers. ■ Review DIKTA Questions: Re-answering the DIKTA questions from the chapter is a useful way to review facts. so you can work on memorizing the content. Each part contains a number of related chapters. or needs more review to master. This section lists the key terminology from the chapter.indb xxxix The Book Parts and Corresponding Chapter Numbers 6/1/16 12:01 PM . ■ Key Terms You Should Know: You do not need to be able to write a formal definition of all terms from scratch. The app shows the table with some content removed.

the Part Review includes some tasks meant to help pull the ideas together from this larger body of work. practicing answering exam questions. and to build the skills needed for the more challenging analysis questions on the exams. However. Chapter 29 focuses on a three-part approach to helping you pass: practicing your skills. (For more information about mind maps. as well as CCNA exams. You can take simulated ICND2 exams. and uncovering your weak spots. The Part Review elements make use of mind maps in several ways: to connect concepts and the related configuration commands. Final Review Chapter 29.indb xl 6/1/16 12:01 PM . because the Part Review takes place after completing a number of chapters.) In addition to these tasks. and even to connect terminology.) ■ Labs: Each “Part Review” section will direct you to the kinds of lab exercises you should do with your chosen lab product. (You can take simulated ICND1 and CCNA R&S exams with the DVD in the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. this book. including the following: ■ DVD-based practice exams: The companion DVD contains the powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam engine. and doing more lab exercises. Other Features In addition to the features in each of the core chapters.) 9781587205798_BOOK. as a whole. To that end.xl CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Each book part ends with a “Part Review” section that contains a list of activities for study and review. The following list explains the types of tasks added to each Part Review beyond the types mentioned for the Chapter Review: ■ Answer Part Review Questions: The books come with exam software and databases of questions. These questions tend to connect multiple ideas together. “Final Review. The process of creating mind maps helps you build mental connections. along with a much larger set of practice questions.” lists a series of preparation tasks that you can best use for your final preparation before taking the exam. many “Part Review” sections have you perform other tasks with book features mentioned in the “Chapter Review” section: repeating DIKTA quiz questions. ■ Mind Maps: Mind maps are graphical organizing tools that many people find useful when learning and processing how concepts fit together. (Check out the later section “About Building Hands-On Skills” for information about lab options. to connect show commands and the related networking concepts. much like the “Chapter Review” section at the end of each chapter. see the section “About Mind Maps” later in this Introduction. reviewing key topics. One database holds questions written specifically for Part Reviews. Chapter 29 uses the same familiar book features discussed for the Chapter Review and Part Review elements. has additional study resources. with the DVD and activation code included in this book. labs that would be more appropriate for this stage of study and review. to help you think about topics from multiple chapters.

with links to the pages with the labs related to this book. This book and the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide are the first Cisco Press Cert Guides with extensive interactive applications.indb xli 6/1/16 12:01 PM .Introduction xli ■ CCNA ICND2 Simulator Lite: This lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson provides you with a means. ■ Author’s website and blogs: I maintain a website that hosts tools and links that are useful when studying for CCENT and CCNA. PDF (for reading on your computer). ■ Companion website: The website http://www. and links to my CCENT Skills blog and CCNA Skills blog. and Mobi (the native Kindle version).com: The website http://www. A Big New Feature: Review Applications One of the single biggest new features of this edition of the book is the addition of study apps for many of the Chapter Review activities. In the past.com/networksimulator or other retail outlets. Basically. The site lists information to help you build your own lab. Start at http://www. In addition to three versions of the eBook. Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book. most every activity that can be done in the “Chapter Review” sections can now be done with an application.ciscopress. or the chapter plus a DVD-only appendix. click the Blog tab for a page about the blogs in particular. blogs.com/title/9781587205798 posts up-to-the-minute materials that further clarify complex exam topics. right now.pearsonitcertification. You can purchase a copy of this software from Pearson at http://pearsonitcertification. plus PPP and CHAP. videos. study pages that correspond to each chapter of this book and the ICND1 book. ■ eBook: If you are interested in obtaining an eBook version of this title. No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. Readers tell us they find that content useful. ■ CCNA Simulator: If you are looking for more hands-on practice.com is a great resource for all things IT-certification related. I have created a mapping guide that maps each of the labs in the simulator to the specific sections in these CCNA cert guides. EPUB (for reading on your tablet. and other certification preparation tools from the industry’s best authors and trainers. we have included a special offer on a coupon card inserted in the DVD sleeve in the back of the book. certskills.com. or Nook or other eReader). but the content is static. The apps can be found both on the DVD that comes with the book and on the book’s 9781587205798_BOOK. all Chapter Review activities used only the book chapter. you might want to consider purchasing the CCNA Network Simulator. Check this site regularly for new and updated postings written by the author that provide further insight into the more troublesome topics on the exam. mobile device. This offer allows you to purchase the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test at a 70 percent discount off the list price. ■ PearsonITCertification. To help you with your studies. EIGRP. to experience the Cisco CLI. You can get this mapping guide for free on the Extras tab of the companion website. ■ Mentoring Videos: The DVD included with this book includes four other instructional videos about the following topics: OSPF. Check out the great CCNA articles. you also receive additional practice test questions and enhanced practice test features. EIGRP metrics.

On the DVD you can find the apps under the “Chapter and Part Review” tab. Just spin the DVD and use the disk menu (which should automatically start) to explore all the content. or clicking inside an app to navigate.indb xlii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . and review content from one of your recently finished chapters. but static. But most of that content is static—useful. interactive experience that you can easily run over and over. Table I-1 Book Features with Both Traditional and App Options Feature Traditional App Key Topics Table with list. If you buy the print book. ■ Good for tactile learners: Sometimes looking at a static page after reading a chapter lets your mind wander. you can access your review activities from anywhere— no need to have the book or DVD with you. but that not everyone uses them consistently. and have a DVD drive. Our in-depth reader surveys show that readers who use the Chapter Review tools like them. to help keep you focused on the activity. these new apps provide you with an easy-to-use. So. flip pages to find Key Topics Table app Config Checklist Just one of many types of key topics Config Checklist app Memory Table Two static PDF appendixes (one with Memory Table app sparse tables for you to complete.xlii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide companion website. 9781587205798_BOOK. Table I-1 summarizes these new applications and the traditional book features that cover the same content. and make them both more useful and more interesting. you have all the content on the DVD. ■ Convenient: When you have a spare 5–10 minutes. ■ Untethered from book/DVD: Because these apps are available on the book’s companion website in addition to the DVD. go to the book’s website. with the appendixes often being located on the DVD. with the Glossary in the back of the book Glossary Flash Cards app IPv4 ACL Practice A static PDF appendix (D) with practice problems An interactive app that asks the same problems as listed in the appendix How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book Traditionally. one with completed tables) Key Terms Listed in each “Chapter Review” section. Tactile learners may do better by at least typing answers into an app. we want to increase the number of people using the review tools. The advantages of using these apps are as follows: ■ Easier to use: Instead of having to print out copies of the appendixes and do the work on paper. all chapter review activities use the book chapter plus appendixes.

indb xliii Chapter 7. The core chapters cover the following topics: Part I: Ethernet LANs ■ Chapter 1. Chapters. you can get the DVD files by registering your book on the Cisco Press website.Introduction xliii If you buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. ■ Chapter 4. discusses a variety of small topics. the very last page of your eBook file will contain instructions for how to register the book and access the companion website. “Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs.” discusses the concepts behind IEEE Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and how it makes some switch interfaces block frames to prevent frames from looping continuously around a redundant switched LAN. verify. focusing on link state fundamentals. ■ Chapter 2. Simply go to your account page. go to your account page and click the Registered Products tab. The steps are the same as noted earlier for those who buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. com/register and enter the ISBN of the print book: 9781587205798. including: 802. Book Organization. and Appendixes This book contains 28 core chapters. “Miscellaneous LAN Topics. “Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts. Chapters 1 through 28. Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND2 exam. flooding link state data. and calculating routes based on the lowest cost metric. After you have registered your book. ■ Chapter 6. If you buy the eBook from some other bookseller. including VLAN trunking. ■ Chapter 3.” as the last chapter in the book specifically about LANs. ■ Chapter 5. “LAN Troubleshooting. AAA authentication.” explains the concepts and configuration surrounding virtual LANs. From there. DHCP snooping. The chapter includes troubleshooting topics for STP/RSTP. “VLAN Trunking Protocol.” examines the most common LAN switching issues and how to discover those issues when troubleshooting a network. To do so. The core chapters are organized into sections. Layer 2 EtherChannel. and VLAN trunking. neighbor relationships. “Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation. switch stacking. VLANs.1x. click the Registered Products tab. and troubleshoot the use of VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) to define and advertise VLANs across multiple Cisco switches.ciscopress. “Understanding OSPF Concepts.” introduces the fundamental operation of the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. If you buy the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test from Cisco Press. LAN switching. with Chapter 29 as the “Final Review” chapter. Part II: IPv4 Routing Protocols ■ 9781587205798_BOOK. and select Access Bonus Content to access the book’s companion website. your book will automatically be registered on your account page.” shows how to configure.” shows how to configure and verify STP on Cisco switches. simply go to http://www. 6/1/16 12:01 PM . click the Access Bonus Content link to get access to the book’s companion website. and chassis aggregation.

and how it quickly converges to alternate feasible successor routes. and specifically how to configure. and troubleshoot Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 9781587205798_BOOK. “Implementing EIGRP for IPv4. for several technologies related to using the Internet to create a private WAN connection between different enterprise sites.indb xliv 6/1/16 12:01 PM . ■ Chapter 14. and both standard and extended IP ACLs. ■ Chapter 18. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols. showing how to configure. “Implementing OSPF for IPv4. Part IV: IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS ■ Chapter 16. “Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists. Part III: Wide Area Networks ■ Chapter 13. and troubleshoot BGP in limited designs. “Private WANs with Internet VPNs. “Implementing External BGP. while alternating between OSPF examples and EIGRP examples.” introduces the fundamental operation of the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) for IPv4 (EIGRPv4). ■ Chapter 11.” takes the concepts discussed in the previous chapter and shows how to configure and verify those same features. “Implementing HSRP for First-Hop Routing.” walks through the most common problems with IPv4 routing protocols. how EIGRP calculates metrics. “Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists.” explains the core concepts of how to build a leased-line WAN and the basics of the two common data link protocols on these links: HDLC and PPP. Layer 3 switching with routed ports. “Understanding EIGRP Concepts. ■ Chapter 17. “Private WANs with Ethernet and MPLS. “IPv4 Routing in the LAN.” discusses a wide variety of concepts all related to the broad topic of QoS. ■ Chapter 15. ■ Chapter 12.” explores the concepts behind building a WAN service using Ethernet through different Metro Ethernet services. Part V: IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 19. Layer 3 switching with SVIs. ■ Chapter 20.” shows to a configuration and troubleshooting depth different methods to route between VLANs. verify.” examines how standard IP ACLs can filter packets based on the source IP address so that a router will not forward the packet. verify.” works through a variety of conceptual material.” examines both named and numbered ACLs. “Quality of Service (QoS).” takes the concepts discussed in the previous chapter and shows how to configure and verify those same features. and using Layer 3 EtherChannels.” examines the basics of the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and its use between an enterprise and an ISP. “Implementing Point-to-Point WANs. plus some configuration and verification topics. as well as using Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) VPNs. ■ Chapter 10.” discusses the need for a First Hop Redundancy Protocol (FHRP). including Router on a Stick (ROAS).xliv CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Chapter 8. ■ Chapter 9. focusing on EIGRP neighbor relationships.

Part VI: IPv6 ■ Chapter 22. ■ Chapter 27. ■ Chapter 25. “SDN and Network Programmability.indb xlv 6/1/16 12:01 PM . ■ The Glossary contains definitions for all of the terms listed in the “Key Terms You Should Know” sections at the conclusion of Chapters 1 through 28. then shows how to configure. “IPv6 Access Control Lists. “Numeric Reference Tables. “Implementing OSPF for IPv6. Part IX: Appendixes (In Print) ■ Appendix A. in particular explaining the many study options available in the book. It then shows some of the most common problems with IPv6 routing and discusses how to troubleshoot these problems to discover the root cause. verification. “Network Management. verify.” looks at the most common IPv4 problems and how to find the root causes of those problems when troubleshooting. ■ Chapter 23.” reviews IPv6 routing as discussed in the ICND1 book. verify.” discusses several network management topics that Cisco did not choose to put into ICND1. and troubleshoot IPv6 ACLs. This chapter explains the basic concepts and then generally discusses the impact that cloud computing has on a typical enterprise network. Always check online for the latest PDF version of this appendix. It then shows how to configure. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing. and SPAN. 9781587205798_BOOK. ■ Appendix B. “IPv6 Routing Operation and Troubleshooting.” takes the EIGRP concepts discussed for IPv4 in Chapter 9 and shows how those same concepts apply to EIGRP for IPv6. “Final Review.” is a place for the author to add book content mid-edition. including a binary-to-decimal conversion table and a list of powers of 2. “Implementing EIGRP for IPv6. and troubleshooting topics.” explores OSPFv3 and its use as an IPv6 routing protocol. Part VII: Miscellaneous ■ Chapter 26. Part VIII: Final Prep ■ Chapter 29.” suggests a plan for final preparation once you have finished the core parts of the book. and troubleshoot EIGRP for IPv6. the appendix lists download instructions. IP SLA. ■ Chapter 24.” is the other chapter that moves away from traditional CCNA R&S topics to discuss many concepts and terms related to how Software Defined Networking (SDN) and network programmability are impacting typical enterprise networks.” examines the similarities and differences between IPv4 ACLs and IPv6 ACLs. “Cloud Computing. “CCNA ICND2 200-105 Exam Updates.” is one of two chapters about topics that strays from traditional CCNA R&S topics as one of the Cisco emerging technology topics. ■ Chapter 28. showing traditional configuration.Introduction xlv ■ Chapter 21.” lists several tables of numeric information. namely: SNMP.

These chapters include some topics that are listed in the exam topics of both exams: ■ Chapter 1.” explains how to build a Frame Relay WAN between routers. (This appendix is a copy of ICND1’s Chapter 23. “Study Planner.” focuses on how to use two key troubleshooting tools to find routing problems: the ping and traceroute commands. verify.” takes the concepts discussed in Appendix H and shows how to configure. ICND1 Chapters in this Book For this current edition of the ICND1 and ICND2 Cert Guides. the concepts are still of interest to someone with the CCENT or CCNA certification.” provides some tables to help you find where each exam objective is covered in the book. (This chapter is a chapter that covers old exam topics from the previous edition of the book. “Topics from Previous Editions. and is included with the ICND2 book for convenience. ■ Appendix G. “Practice for Chapter 16: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists. ■ Chapter 16. “Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists” (Chapter 25 in the ICND1 100-101 book). focusing on the protocols and concepts rather than the configuration. I designed several chapters to be used in both books. ■ Appendix L. (This appendix is a copy of ICND1’s Chapter 19. ■ Appendix D.” explains how routers work together to find all the best routes to each subnet using a routing protocol.” is a copy of the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide’s Appendix I.) ■ Appendix H.” includes the explanations to all the questions from Chapters 1 through 28. “Answers to the ‘Do I Know This Already?’ Quizzes. While you most likely will not encounter exam questions on these topics. “IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools. “Understanding Frame Relay Concepts. and troubleshoot those same features. included here for those who might be interested.indb xlvi 6/1/16 12:01 PM . where you can track your progress through your study. “Mind Map Solutions. “Exam Topic Cross Reference.” shows an image of sample answers for all the partending mind map exercises. (This chapter is a chapter that covers old exam topics from the previous edition of the book.” is a spreadsheet with major study milestones. and is included with the ICND2 book for convenience. “Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs” (Chapter 11 in the ICND1 100-101 book).) ■ Appendix I. “Implementing Frame Relay. This chapter also shows how to configure the RIPv2 routing protocol for use with IPv4. ■ Appendix F.) ■ Appendix J. 9781587205798_BOOK.xlvi CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Part X: DVD Appendixes The following appendixes are available in digital format on the DVD that accompanies this book: ■ Appendix C. ■ Appendix E. included here for those who might be interested. “Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2.) ■ Appendix K.” is a collection of information about topics that have appeared on previous versions of the CCNA exams.

or for those who want to read more broadly just for the sake of learning. This material might be helpful to some instructors during the transition time for their courses.indb xlvii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . and Appendix K is a compilation of small topics I removed from the prior edition of this book when creating this current edition. “Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists” (Chapter 26 in the ICND1 100-101 book). ■ Chapter 21. Appendixes G (about RIP) and J (about ping and traceroute) are copies of two chapters in the ICND1 100-105 book. along with rights to use some exam questions related to this book. In particular. make sure to note the final page of this introduction. namely G. as well as for the occasional reader who is mostly interested in the technology instead of the certification. This short section explains why. you can move more quickly through the above four chapters in this book. but feel free to use them if you are interested. I included Appendixes G and J to aid that transition for those who buy the ICND2 200-105 Cert Guide but not the ICND1 100-105 Cert Guide. You may read these when you first use the book. I. includes the rights to use the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) software. including the option to answer questions 9781587205798_BOOK. and this current pair of exams is no exception. I. then you have all the material you need right here in this book. Reference Information This short section contains a few topics available for reference elsewhere in the book. Appendixes H and I are copies of complete chapters about Frame Relay from the prior edition of this book. Install the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions This book. contain extra content outside the ICND2 200-105 exam topics. H. Three other appendixes are included for instructors who use these books for classes. So. two appendixes are here to aid the transition when Cisco announced the exams. like many other Cisco Press books. Cisco has traditionally had some topics that overlap between the two exams that make up the two-exam path to CCNA R&S. and are part of the exam topics for the ICND1 100-105 exam. If you did not read the ICND1 100101 book. These two chapters might be particularly useful for anyone who was far along in their studies on the date when Cisco announced the ICND1 100-105 and ICND2 200-105 exams in 2016. Appendixes H. You do not need to use these extra appendixes (G through K) to prepare for the ICND2 200-105 exam or the CCNA R&S 200-125 exam. I designed these four chapters for use in both books to be a help to those reading both books while avoiding any problems for those who might be reading only this ICND2 Cert Guide. including how to get in touch with Cisco Press. and K contain content that is no longer mentioned by the exam topics for the current exams. which lists several contact details. but you may also skip these topics and refer back to them later. for those of you who have already read the ICND1 100-101 book. PCPT has many options. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing” (Chapter 24 in the ICND1 100-101 book).Introduction xlvii ■ Chapter 17. First. J. and K. Extra Content Found in DVD Appendixes Note that several appendixes on the DVD.

xlviii

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide
in study mode, so you can see the answers and explanations for each question as you go
along; the option to take a simulated exam that mimics real exam conditions; and the option
to view questions in flash card mode, where all the answers are stripped out, challenging
you to answer questions from memory.
You should install PCPT so it is ready to use even for the earliest chapters. This book’s Part
Review sections ask you specifically to use PCPT, and you can even take the DIKTA chapter quizzes using PCPT.
NOTE The right to use the exams associated with this book is based on an activation code.
For those with a paper book, the code is in the DVD sleeve at the back of the book. (Flip
over the paper with the exam activation code to find a one-time-use coupon code for 70
percent off the purchase of the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official
Cert Guide, Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test.) For those who purchase the
Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test directly from the Cisco Press website, the activation code will be populated on your account page after purchase. For those who purchase
a Kindle edition, the access code will be supplied directly from Amazon. Note that if you
purchase an eBook version from any other source, the practice test is not included, as other
vendors are not able to vend the required unique access code. Do not lose the activation
code.

PCPT Exam Databases with This Book
This book includes an activation code that allows you to load a set of practice questions.
The questions come in different exams or exam databases. When you install the PCPT software and type in the activation code, the PCPT software downloads the latest version of all
these exam databases. And with the ICND2 book alone, you get six different “exams,” or
six different sets of questions, as listed in Figure I-4.
DIKTA (“Book”)

ICND2 Exam #1

CCNA Exam #1

Part Review

ICND2 Exam #2

CCNA Exam #2

Figure I-4

PCPT Exams/Exam Databases and When to Use Them

You can choose to use any of these exam databases at any time, both in study mode and
practice exam mode. However, many people find it best to save some of the exams until
exam review time, after you have finished reading the entire book. Figure I-4 begins to suggest a plan, spelled out here:

During Part Review, use PCPT to review the DIKTA questions for that part, using study
mode.

During Part Review, use the questions built specifically for Part Review (the Part Review
questions) for that part of the book, using study mode.

Save the remaining exams to use with the “Final Review” chapter at the end of the book;
if preparing for the ICND2 exam, use those practice exams, but if preparing for the
CCNA exam, use those exams.

9781587205798_BOOK.indb xlviii

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Introduction xlix
The two modes inside PCPT give you better options for study versus practicing a timed
exam event. In study mode, you can see the answers immediately, so you can study the
topics more easily. Also, you can choose a subset of the questions in an exam database; for
instance, you can view questions from only the chapters in one part of the book.
PCPT practice mode lets you practice an exam event somewhat like the actual exam. It
gives you a preset number of questions, from all chapters, with a timed event. Practice exam
mode also gives you a score for that timed event.

How to View Only DIKTA Questions by Chapter or Part
Most chapters begin with a DIKTA quiz. You can take the quiz to start a chapter, take it
again during Chapter Review for more practice, and, as suggested in the “Part Review” sections, repeat the questions for all chapters in the same part.
You can use the DIKTA quiz as printed in the book, or use the PCPT software. The book
lists the questions, with the letter answers on the page following the quiz. Appendix C, on
the DVD, lists the answers along with an explanation; you might want to keep that PDF
handy.
Using PCPT for these questions has some advantages. It gives you a little more practice in
how to read questions from testing software. Also, the explanations to the questions are
conveniently located in the PCPT software.
To view these DIKTA questions inside the PCPT software, you need to select Book
Questions, which is the way PCPT references questions found inside the printed book.
Then you have to deselect all chapters (with a single click), and then select one or more
chapters, as follows:
Step 1.

Start the PCPT software.

Step 2.

From the main (home) menu, select the item for this product, with a name like
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide, and click
Open Exam.

Step 3.

The top of the next window that appears should list some exams; check the
ICND2 Book Questions box, and uncheck the other boxes. This selects the
“book” questions (that is, the DIKTA questions from the beginning of each
chapter).

Step 4.

On this same window, click at the bottom of the screen to deselect all objectives (chapters). Then select the box beside each chapter in the part of the
book you are reviewing.

Step 5.

Select any other options on the right side of the window.

Step 6.

Click Start to start reviewing the questions.

How to View Part Review Questions
The exam databases you get with this book include a database of questions created solely
for study during the Part Review process. DIKTA questions focus more on facts, to help

9781587205798_BOOK.indb xlix

6/1/16 12:01 PM

l

CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide
you determine whether you know the facts contained within the chapter. The Part Review
questions instead focus more on application of those facts to typical real scenarios, and
look more like real exam questions.
To view these questions, follow the same process as you did with DIKTA/book questions,
but select the Part Review database rather than the book database. PCPT has a clear name
for this database: Part Review Questions.

About Mind Maps
Mind maps are a type of visual organization tool that you can use for many purposes. For
instance, you can use mind maps as an alternative way to take notes.
You can also use mind maps to improve how your brain organizes concepts. Mind maps
improve your brain’s connections and relationships between ideas. When you spend time
thinking about an area of study, and organize your ideas into a mind map, you strengthen
existing mental connections and create new connections, all into your own frame of reference.
In short, mind maps help you internalize what you learn.
Each mind map begins with a blank piece of paper or blank window in a mind mapping
application. You then add a large central idea, with branches that move out in any direction.
The branches contain smaller concepts, ideas, commands, pictures…whatever idea needs to
be represented. Any concepts that can be grouped should be put near each other. As need
be, you can create deeper and deeper branches, although for this book’s purposes, most
mind maps will not go beyond a couple of levels.
NOTE Many books have been written about mind maps, but Tony Buzan often gets credit
for formalizing and popularizing mind maps. You can learn more about mind maps at his
website, http://www.tonybuzan.com.
For example, Figure I-5 shows a sample mind map that begins to output some of the IPv6
content from Part VIII of the ICND1 book. You might create this kind of mind map when
reviewing IPv6 addressing concepts, starting with the big topic of “IPv6 addressing,” and
then writing down random terms and ideas. As you start to organize them mentally, you
draw lines connecting the ideas, reorganize them, and eventually reach the point where you
believe the organization of ideas makes sense to you.

Figure I-5

9781587205798_BOOK.indb l

Sample Mind Map

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and OS X. which has free versions for Windows.com) and click from there.Introduction li Mind maps may be the least popular but most effective study tool suggested in this book. navigate to Hands On > Config Lab Both blogs are geared toward helping you pass the exams. The Config Labs feature. you can just draw them on a blank piece of paper. This section walks through the options included in the book. Part of the skill you need to acquire is the ability to remember which configuration commands work together. I hope you will make the effort to try these tools and see if they work well for you too. and we build the sample mind maps with XMIND. Finally. You have to choose which commands to use. and which ones are optional. Linux.certskills. or find and download a mind map application. About Building Hands-On Skills You need skills in using Cisco routers and switches. navigate to Hands On > Config Lab blog.certskills. you need to know a lot of commands. And getting good at that kind of task requires practice. with a brief description of lab options outside the book. I personally find a huge improvement in learning new areas of study when I mind map.com/ccna/ Wendell’s CCNA (ICND2): In the menus. Config Lab Exercises Some router and switch features require multiple configuration commands. Note that the Config Lab posts should show an image like this in the summary: 9781587205798_BOOK. helps provide that practice. for mind mapping tools. the challenge level goes beyond just picking the right parameters on one command. To answer sim and simlet questions on the exams. So.certskills. introduced as a new feature in this edition of the book. and you need to be able to navigate to the right place in the CLI to use those commands. in which combination. To reach my blog sites for ICND1 content or for ICND2 content (two different blogs) and access the Config Labs feature. The answer then shows a sample configuration. blog. I have used Mind Node Pro on a Mac.com/ccent/ Wendell’s CCENT (ICND1): In the menus. typically on multiple devices. Each lab presents a sample lab topology. and then check your answer versus the supplied answer. so feel free to look around. which ones are required. Also for the first time. you type a command. and the device (a router or switch) displays messages in response.indb li 6/1/16 12:01 PM . with some requirements. and you have to decide what to configure on each device. you can start at my blog launch site (blog. You job is to create the configuration. The Cisco CLI is a text-based command-and-response user interface. this edition places the content not only outside the book but also on the author’s blog site. specifically the Cisco CLI.

■ Designed for idle moments: Each lab is designed as a 5. so you can easily use these at both Chapter Review and Part Review. Just install NetSim Lite from the DVD in the back of this book. If you bought both books. Note that the blog organizes these Config Lab posts by book chapter. This book comes with a lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson. See the “Your Study Plan” element that follows the Introduction for more details about those review sections. No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. make sure and use NetSim Lite to learn the basics of the CLI to get a good start. which provides you with a means. Either way. A Quick Start with Pearson Network Simulator Lite The decision of how to get hands-on skills can be a little scary at first. The good news is that you have a free and simple first step to experience the CLI: Install and use the Pearson NetSim Lite that comes with this book. make sure you install both Sim Lite products. and easy comments by you. and with confidence. ■ Two outcomes. even if you do not use the full product. you should be able to do all the Config Labs. 9781587205798_BOOK. So. ■ Self-assessment: As part of final review.indb lii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . you have discovered a topic that you can now go back and reread to complete your knowledge. from your phone or tablet. NOTE The ICND1 and ICND2 books each contain a different version of the Sim Lite product. you are a step closer to being ready for the exam! ■ Blog format: Allows easy adds and changes by me.to 10-minute exercise if all you are doing is typing in a text editor or writing your answer on paper. from any web browser. The latest version of NetSim Lite includes labs associated with Part II of this book. one reason that NetSim Lite comes on the DVD is that the publisher hopes you will buy the full product. untethered from the book or DVD. right now. including the following: ■ Untethered and responsive: Do them from anywhere. Part I includes concepts only. each with labs that match the book content. Of course. both good: Practice getting better and faster with basic configuration. without help. or if you get lost. to experience the Cisco CLI. However. you can still learn from the labs that come with NetSim Lite while deciding about what options to pursue.lii CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Figure I-6 Config Lab Logo in the Author’s Blogs These Config Labs have several benefits. with Part II being the first part with commands.

find that PDF at http:// www. it focuses on learning for the exam by providing a large number of useful lab exercises. you could even do the Config Lab exercises from my blog on that gear. This tool. More Lab Options If you decide against using the full Pearson Network Simulator. Just look for the “Sort by Chapter” tab in the Simulator’s user interface. You can buy them. the Simulator organizes the labs to match the book. However.indb liii 6/1/16 12:01 PM . However. you need to make a decision for yourself. But more importantly. Both have the same base code and same user interface. and the same types of labs. and they both come with the book. Reader surveys tell us that those people who use the Simulator along with the book love the learning process. On a practical note.com/title/9781587205798. when you want to do labs while reading a chapter or doing Part Review. you still need hands-on experience. you will need to refer back to a PDF that lists those labs versus this book’s organization. If you have the right mix of gear. lets you create a lab topology. Of course. the version of the Simulator available for purchase will be the Simulator created for the previous versions of the exams (ICND1 100-101. You should plan to use some lab environment to practice as much CLI interaction as possible. The single best option for lab work to do along with this book is the paid version of the Pearson Network Simulator. in an offering called Cisco Learning Labs. you can get a great idea of how the full Simulator product works by using the Pearson Network Simulator Lite product included with the book. and CCNA 200-120). the Simulator is still very useful. First. plus others for the ICND2 parts of the content). This simulator product simulates Cisco routers and switches so that you can learn for the CCENT and CCNA R&S certifications. new or used. during the months in 2016 for which the available Simulator is the older edition listing the older exams in the title. and connect to real router and switch OS images. start the topology. Note that the Simulator and the books work on a different release schedule.Introduction liii The Pearson Network Simulator The Config Labs and the Pearson Network Simulator Lite both fill specific needs. and check out the full product. you can use real Cisco routers and switches. Cisco offers a virtualization product that lets you run router and switch operating system (OS) images in a virtual environment. Thankfully. Try the Lite version. There is a full product for CCENT only. and another for CCNA R&S (which includes all the labs in the CCENT product. For a time in 2016. and consider all the options. or try and re-create examples from the book.com for more information. So during that time.ciscopress. you need more than those two tools. or borrow them at work. You can rent them for a fee. You can even rent virtual Cisco router and switch lab pods from Cisco. the Virtual Internet Routing Lab (VIRL). 9781587205798_BOOK. Check out http://virl. and rave about how the book and Simulator work well together. ICND2 200-101. That product includes approximately 80 percent of the CLI topics in the ICND1 100-105 and ICND2 200-105 books.cisco.

The CCNA ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide helps you attain CCNA Routing and Switching certification. select Contact Us. Cisco also makes a simulator that works very well as a learning tool: Cisco Packet Tracer. if you are part of a Cisco Academy. However. submit them via http://www.cisco.ciscopress.com/go/ccent for the latest details.liv CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide All these previously mentioned options cost some money. For More Information If you have any comments about the book. but you should plan on getting some handson practice somehow. Just go to the website.com/go/ccna and http://www. GNS3 is not a Cisco product. You should always check http://www. We at Cisco Press believe that this book certainly can help you achieve CCNA certification. So. and cannot provide you with the IOS images for legal reasons.com. The important thing to know is that most people need to practice using the Cisco CLI to be ready to pass these exams. Cisco intends Packet Tracer for use by people currently enrolled in Cisco Networking Academy courses. First. but with a different catch for each. However. This book does not tell you what option to use.indb liv 6/1/16 12:01 PM . creating a virtual environment running real Cisco IOS. but the real work is up to you! I trust that your time will be well spent. and type your message.cisco. GNS3 works somewhat like VIRL. and not for the general public. Cisco might make changes that affect the CCNA certification from time to time. but the next two are generally free to the user. definitely use Packet Tracer. 9781587205798_BOOK. This is the CCNA and ICND2 certification book from the only Cisco-authorized publisher.

indb lv 6/1/16 12:01 PM .9781587205798_BOOK.

This chapter breaks the material down into three major sections. This chapter briefly repeats the leased line concepts from the ICND1 book. Router serial interface without internal CSU/DSU b. Switch serial interface 6/1/16 12:02 PM . or use the PCPT software) if you want to use the score to help you decide how much time to spend on this chapter.0 WAN Technologies 3. CSU/DSU c.indb 328 In the cabling for a leased line. and troubleshooting steps for leased lines that use the familiar High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) data-link protocol and the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). More important. That simplicity allows the Cisco exams to discuss leased lines briefly for the ICND1 exam. Table 13-1 “Do I Know This Already?” Foundation Topics Section-to-Question Mapping Foundation Topics Section Questions Leased-Line WANs with HDLC 1–2 Leased-Line WANs with PPP 3–6 Troubleshooting Serial Links 7 1. The second major section discusses PPP. while using leased lines as part of larger discussions of IP routing.1 Configure and verify PPP and MLPPP on WAN interfaces using local authentication Leased-line WANs—also known as serial links—require much less thought than many other topics. The answers are at the bottom of the page following the quiz. to lay a foundation to discuss other concepts. verification. The first looks at leasedline WANS that use HDLC. at least to the depth required for the CCENT and CCNA R&S exams. which of the following usually connects to a four-wire line provided by a telco? a. 9781587205798_BOOK. by reviewing and adding details about the physical links themselves. The final major section then discusses typical root causes of serial link problems and how to find those problems. This chapter finally takes the discussion of leased-line WANs deeper than has been discussed so far. Router serial interface with internal transceiver d. with a focus on concepts and configuration.CHAPTER 13 Implementing Point-to-Point WANs This chapter covers the following exam topics: 3. and the explanations are in DVD Appendix C and in the PCPT software. this chapter looks at the configuration. along with HDLC (and related) configuration. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Take the quiz (either here. an alternate data-link protocol that you can use instead of HDLC.

The interface is using HDLC.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes. The network engineer wants to migrate to use the Cisco-proprietary HDLC that includes a protocol type field. 3. PAP c. clock rate d. c. 4.) a. b. The engineer wants to create a working PPP link by configuring both routers. assuming that the physical back-to-back link physically works? (Choose two answers. IPCP. DES Two routers have no initial configuration whatsoever. encapsulation ppp b. encapsulation hdlc b.2. Which of the following commands can be used to migrate to HDLC successfully? (Choose two answers. The link is currently working using PPP. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP.) a. line protocol is up Hardware is GT96K Serial Internet address is 192.2. d.168. Two routers connect with a serial link. no encapsulation hdlc c.indb 329 a. The interface is using PPP.) 9781587205798_BOOK. They are connected in a lab using a DTE cable connected to R1 and a DCE cable connected to R2. 5. The interface currently cannot pass IPv4 traffic. LCP Open Open: CDPCP. loopback not set Which of the following are true about this router’s S0/0/1 interface? (Choose two answers. CHAP d. DLY 20000 usec. with the DTE and DCE cables then connected to each other. reliability 255/255. encapsulation cisco-hdlc c. no encapsulation ppp d. 6/1/16 12:02 PM . ip address Consider the following excerpt from the output of a show command: Serial0/0/1 is up. txload 1/255. each using its S0/0/0 interface. MD5 b. Which of the following commands are required in the R1 configuration for the link to reach a state in which R1 can ping R2’s serial IP address. The link should be able to pass PPP frames at the present time. encapsulation-type auto Which of the following PPP authentication protocols authenticates a device on the other end of a link without sending any password information in clear text? a. BW 1544 Kbit.

The IP address on the router at the other end of the link is not in subnet 192. ppp authentication chap while in multilink interface configuration mode d. The CSU/DSU connected to the other router is not powered on.) a. CHAP authentication failed.330 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide 6. encapsulation ppp while in multilink interface configuration mode b. ppp multilink while in serial interface configuration mode Consider the following excerpt from the output of a show interfaces command on an interface configured to use PPP: Serial0/0/1 is up. The speed is also symmetric. each router can send at any time (full duplex). IPv4. connect to each other using three serial links. Which of the following are reasons for the failure. but with no distance limitations. Which of the following answers list a configuration command along with the correct configuration mode for that command? (Choose two answers. c. d.) a. assuming that the problem listed in the answer is the only problem with the link? (Choose two answers.2. R1 and R2. ip address address mask while in serial interface configuration mode c. As shown in Figure 13-1. The router on the other end of the link has been configured to use HDLC. Both Directions. and OSPFv2 using interface configuration. b.168.168. meaning that both routers send bits at the same speed. Always On 6/1/16 12:02 PM . line protocol is down Hardware is GT96K Serial Internet address is 192. e. Foundation Topics Leased-Line WANs with HDLC A physical leased-line WAN works a lot like in an Ethernet crossover cable connecting two routers. The network engineer configures these links to be part of the same multilink PPP group. 7. X bits/second R1 R2 X bits/second All the Time Figure 13-1 9781587205798_BOOK.2.indb 330 Leased Line: Same Speed.1/24 A ping of the IP address on the other end of the link fails. ip ospf 1 area 0 while in serial interface configuration mode e. Two routers. None of the above.0/24. along with configuring CHAP configuration.

the networking world has used a large number of different terms. 13 Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” quiz: 1 B 2 A. LAN1 HDLC LAN2 PC1 PC2 R1 1 802. The words line and circuit are often used as synonyms in telco terminology.544 Mbps). Table 13-2 lists some of those names so that you can understand the different terms you will encounter in a real networking job.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 331 Although the leased line provides a physical layer bit transmission facility. D 5 B. E 7 C. and two link. As a result of their long history in the market. However. D 9781587205798_BOOK. as shown at Step 2 of Figure 13-2. and then the router de-encapsulates the network layer packet. First. Layer 1 Leased Lines Leased lines have been around a long time. However. This first major section of this chapter begins by discussing these links again.indb 331 6/1/16 12:02 PM . Before forwarding the packet. followed by the Layer 2 details. circuit circuit makes reference to the electrical circuit between the two endpoints.3 Figure 13-2 IP Packet 802. Serial in this case refers to the fact that the bits flow serially and that routers use serial interfaces. serial line The words link and line are also often used as synonyms. routers also need to use a data link protocol on the WAN link to send bits over the link. but instead pays a monthly lease fee to use it. roughly 20 years longer than LANs. C 3 C 4 A. point-to. including Internet services. Often. This section ends with an explanation of HDLC configuration details.3 IP Packet 802.) point line T1 A specific type of leased line that transmits data at 1.3 Routers and Their Use of HDLC to Encapsulate Packets These first two figures review some of the Layer 1 and Layer 2 details. you lease the service from a telephone company.points only. The story should be familiar by now: routers receive frames in LAN interfaces. Table 13-2 Name Different Names for a Leased Line Meaning or Reference Leased circuit. Serial link. many people today use the generic term service provider to refer to a company that provides any form of WAN connectivity. D 6 A.544 megabits per second (1. Point-to-point Refers to the fact that the topology stretches between two points. they still exist today as a WAN service. first with the Layer 1 details.3 R2 2 HDLC IP Packet HDLC 3 802. the router encapsulates the packet inside a WAN data link protocol like High-level Data Link Control (HDLC). WAN link. or telco. with no reference to any specific technology. (Some older leased lines allowed more than two devices. link Both these terms are very general. the term leased line refers to the fact that the company using the leased line does not own the line. respectively. of leased-line WANs.

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The Physical Components of a Leased Line
To create a leased line, the telco must create some physical transmission path between the
two routers on the ends of the link. The physical cabling must leave the buildings where
each router sits. Then the telco must create the equivalent of a two-pair circuit from end
to end, with one circuit to send data in each direction (full duplex). Figure 13-3 shows one
such example, in which the telco uses a couple of traditional central office (CO) switches to
create a short leased line between two routers.
Customer Site1

Telco CO1

Telco CO2

Switch-1

R1

Customer Site2

Switch-2

R2

Underground

Figure 13-3

Possible Cabling Inside a Telco for a Short Leased Line

The details in the center of Figure 13-3 probably show more than you ever need to know
about leased-line WANs, at least from the enterprise customer perspective. More commonly, most network engineers think more about a leased line from the perspective of Figure
13-4, which shows a few key components and terms for the equipment on the ends of a
leased line, as follows:
Customer premises equipment (CPE): This telco term refers to the gear that sits at their
customers’ sites on the ends on the link.
Channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU): This device provides a function
called clocking, in which it physically controls the speed and timing at which the router
serial interface sends and receives each bit over the serial cable.
Serial cable: This is a short cable that connects the CSU and the router serial interface.
Short Cables (Usually Less Than 50 Feet)
Long Cables (Can Be Several Miles Long)

TELCO
CSU

R1

CSU

CPE

Figure 13-4

R2

CPE

Point-to-Point Leased Line: Components and Terminology

The CPE includes several separately orderable parts. When using an external CSU/DSU,
a serial cable must be used to connect the CSU to the router serial interface. These serial
interfaces usually exist as part of a removable card on the router, called either WAN interface cards (WIC), High-speed WICs (HWIC), or Network Interface Modules (NIM). Most

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Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 333
of the serial interfaces use one style (size/shape) of physical connector called a smart serial
connector, whereas the CSU has one of several other types of connectors. So, when installing the leased line, the engineer must choose the correct cable type, with connectors to
match the WIC on one end and the CSU/DSU on the other. Figure 13-5 shows a drawing of
one type of serial cable, with the smart serial connector on the left, and the popular V.35
connector on the right. The figure shows a side view of the entire cable, plus direct views
into the connector on the ends of the cable.

Direct
View

Side
View

Side
View

Smart
Serial

Figure 13-5

Direct
View

V.35

Serial Cables Used Between a CSU and a Router

Today, many leased lines make use of Cisco WICs with an integrated CSU/DSU. That is, the
WIC hardware includes the same functions as a CSU/DSU, so an external CSU/DSU is not
needed. Compared to Figure 13-4, the external CSU/DSU and serial cable on each end are
not needed, with the cable from the telco connecting directly to the WIC.
Figure 13-6 shows a photo of a router with two NIM slots. Each slot currently shows a
faceplate with no NIM cards installed. The foreground of the figure shows a NIM with two
serial ports, with smart serial interfaces. The cable end on the left of the drawing in Figure
13-5 would attach to one of these smart serial ports on the NIM in Figure 13-6.
Aux
Gi0/1

2 NIM Slots

USB RS-45
Console
Gi0/0
(RJ-45 or SFP)

2-Port Serial NIM

Figure 13-6

13

Photo of Router with Serial NIM on the Right

Telcos offer a wide variety of speeds for leased lines. However, a telco customer cannot
pick just any speed. Instead, the speeds follow the standards of an age-old technology
called the T-carrier system.

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CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide
Back in the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S.-based Bell companies developed and deployed digital
voice and the T-carrier system. As part of that work, they standardized different transmission speeds, including 64 Kbps, 1.544 Mbps, and 44.736 Mbps.
Those same Bell companies developed time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology that let
them combine multiples of these base speeds onto a single line. For instance, one popular
standard, a Digital Signal level 1 (DS1), or T1, combines 24 DS0s (at 64 Kbps) plus 8 Kbps
of overhead into one physical line that runs at 1.544 Mbps. However, to allow flexibility of
speeds offered to customers, the telco could install a T1 line to many sites, but run some
at slower speeds and some at faster speeds—as long as those speeds were multiples of 64
Kbps.
Now back to the idea of the speed of a leased line. What can you actually buy? Basically, at
slower speeds, you get any multiple of 64 Kbps, up to T1 speed. At faster speeds, you can
get multiples of T1 speed, up to T3 speed. Table 13-3 summarizes the speeds typically seen
in the United States, with a few from Europe.
Table 13-3

WAN Speed Summary

Names of Line

Bit Rate

DS0

64 Kbps

Fractional T1

Multiples of 64 Kbps, up to 24X

DS1 (T1)

1.544 Mbps (24 DS0s, for 1.536 Mbps, plus 8 Kbps overhead)

E1 (Europe)

2.048 Mbps (32 DS0s)

Fractional T3

Multiples of 1.536 Mbps, up to 28X

DS3 (T3)

44.736 Mbps (28 DS1s, plus management overhead)

E3 (Europe)

Approx. 34 Mbps (16 E1s, plus management overhead)

The Role of the CSU/DSU
For our last bit of discussion about WAN links in a working enterprise internetwork, next
consider the role of the CSU/DSU (called CSU for short). For the sake of discussion, the
next few paragraphs, leading up to Figure 13-7, assume a leased line with external
CSU/DSUs, like earlier in Figure 13-4.
The CSU sits between the telco leased line and the router; it understands both worlds and
their conventions at Layer 1. On the telco side, that means the CSU connects to the line
from the telco, so it must understand all these details about the T-carrier system, TDM,
and the speed used by the telco. On the router side of the equation, the CSU connects to
the router, with roles called the DCE and DTE, respectively. The CSU, acting as DCE (data
circuit-terminating equipment), controls the speed of the router serial interface. The router,
acting as DTE (data terminal equipment), is controlled by the clocking signals from the CSU
(DCE). That is, the CSU tells the router when to send and receive bits; the router attempts
to send and receive bits only when the DCE creates the correct electrical impulses (called
clocking) on the cable. Figure 13-7 shows a diagram of those main concepts of the role of
the CSU/DSU.

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with no CSUs and with no leased line from the telco. The DCE cable has a female connector. 13 NOTE Many vendors. sell a single cable that combines the two cables shown in Figure 13-8 into a single cable. the serial cables in earlier Figure 13-4 are DTE cables. In particular. you might choose to buy some used router and switch hardware for hands-on practice. you can create the equivalent of a leased line.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 335 – Send When Clocked – Receive When Clocked – Use Clocking to Control Router – Use Configured Speed Clock Signals CSU/ DSU Serial Cable DTE Figure 13-7 DCE DCE and DTE Roles for a CSU/DSU and a Router Serial Interface Building a WAN Link in a Lab On a practical note. with the wiring details at the bottom. providing a path for the data. whereas the DCE cable does swap the pairs. note that the DTE serial cable acts as a straight-through cable and does not swap the transmit and receive pair. If you do. as shown in Figure 13-8. without a real leased line from a telco. just using a cabling trick. which allows the two cables to be attached directly. That completes the physical connection. The DCE cable also does the equivalent of an Ethernet crossover cable by swapping the transmit and receive wire pairs. You can create an equivalent WAN link just by connecting two routers’ serial interfaces using one DTE cable and a slightly different DCE cable. when building a real WAN link with a real telco facility between sites. First. This short discussion tells you enough information to create a WAN link in your home lab. at the bottom of the figure. 9781587205798_BOOK. clock rate Command Goes Here DTE DCE Serial Cable Serial Cable Router 1 Router 2 Tx Rx Tx Tx Tx Rx Rx Rx DTE Cable Figure 13-8 DCE Cable Serial Cabling Uses a DTE Cable and a DCE Cable The figure shows the cable details at the top. to prepare for the CCENT and CCNA R&S exams. for convenience. That is. Search online for “Cisco serial crossover” to find examples. and without CSU/DSUs. the serial cables normally used between a router and an external CSU/DSU are called DTE cables. and the DTE cable has a male connector.indb 335 6/1/16 12:02 PM .

indb 336 IP Packet 802. Routers use HDLC just like any other data link protocol used by routers: to move packets to the next router. like all the other data link protocols. the HDLC Address and Control fields have little work to do.336 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Finally. HDLC provides one option for a data link protocol for a leased line. so that the link will work. with the role of HDLC sitting at Step 2. Plus. but it can do so only if a DCE cable is connected to the interface and by the configuration of the clock rate command. the leased line itself does not define a data link layer protocol to be used on the leased line. For example. Proprietary Cisco HDLC (Adds Type Field) Bytes 1 1 1 2 2 FC S a at D pe Ty l tro on C ss e dr Ad ag Fl Figure 13-9 Variable Cisco HDLC Framing Today. Figure 13-10 shows three familiar routing steps. as shown in Figure 13-9. the HDLC trailer has a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field that the receiving router can use to decide whether the frame had errors in transit. HDLC has only a few big functions to perform with the simple point-to-point topology of a point-to-point leased line. LAN1 HDLC LAN2 PC1 PC2 R1 1 802. However. Layer 2 Leased Lines with HDLC A leased line provides a Layer 1 service. an HDLC link between two Cisco routers can forward both IPv4 and IPv6 packets because the Type field can identify which type of packet is encapsulated inside each HDLC frame. Newer IOS versions will sense the presence of a DCE cable and automatically set a clock rate. the router with the DCE cable installed must provide clocking. but old IOS versions require that you configure the clock rate command. Cisco adds another function to the ISO standard HDLC protocol by adding an extra field (a Type field) to the HDLC header. The Type field allows Cisco routers to support multiple types of network layer packets to cross the HDLC link. First. discard the frame. For instance. to make the link work.3 Figure 13-10 Packets 9781587205798_BOOK. Both the Address and Control fields had important purposes in years past. creating a Cisco-specific version of HDLC.3 IP Packet 802.3 R2 2 HDLC IP Packet HDLC 3 802. but today they are unimportant.3 General Concept of Routers De-encapsulating and Re-encapsulating IP 6/1/16 12:02 PM . the frame header lets the receiving router know that a new frame is coming. A router serial interface can provide clocking. it is clear that the frame is sent to the only other router on the link. It promises to deliver bits between the devices connected to the leased line. and if so. with only two routers on a link. when a router sends a frame.

router serial interfaces usually only need an ip address command. serial interfaces on Cisco routers need no specific Layer 1 or 2 configuration commands. and possibly the no shutdown command. Router Ethernet interfaces require no configuration related to Layers 1 and 2 for the interface to be up and working. the cabling needs to be completed. Router R1 de-encapsulates (removes) the IP packet. use the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode to enable the interface. and forwards the HDLC frame to router R2. for a non-HDLC protocol. listing the conditions for which some commands are needed. 6/1/16 12:02 PM . The leased line itself provides the physical means to transmit the bits.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 337 Here is a walkthrough of the steps in the figure: 1. IOS defaults to use HDLC on serial interfaces. encapsulates the packet into an Ethernet frame. encapsulates the packet into an HDLC frame using an HDLC header and trailer. 2. 9781587205798_BOOK. The HDLC frames provide the means to encapsulate the network layer packet correctly so it crosses the link between routers. and possibly enable the interface with the no shutdown command if the interface is in an “administratively down” state. Step 2. Similarly. forwarding IP traffic. To send the IP packet to router R1.indb 337 If an encapsulation protocol interface subcommand already exists. For Layer 2. The router only needs to configure an IP address on the interface. In summary. B. The following tasks are required only when the specifically listed conditions are true: A. The Layer 1 details occur by default once the cabling has been installed correctly. in both directions. Router Ethernet interfaces. PC1 encapsulates the IP packet in an Ethernet frame. Configuring HDLC Think back to router Ethernet interfaces for a moment. use Ethernet as the data link protocol by default. For Layer 1. and forwards the Ethernet frame to PC2. a leased line with HDLC creates a WAN link between two routers so that they can forward packets for the devices on the attached LANs. Use the ip address address mask command in interface configuration mode to configure the interface IP address. use the encapsulation hdlc command in interface configuration mode to enable HDLC. Router R2 de-encapsulates (removes) the IP packet. assuming both routers’ interfaces otherwise have default settings. many optional commands exist for serial links. Alternatively. of course. 3. 13 If the interface line status is administratively down. of course. plus commands that are purely optional: Step 1. Config Checklist However. use the no encapsulation protocol command in interface configuration mode to use the default setting of HDLC as the data link protocol. As on Ethernet interfaces. The following list outlines some configuration steps. but the router attempts to use the serial interface once the no shutdown command is configured.

0/24 192. use the description text command in interface configuration mode to configure a description of the purpose of the interface.1. B. Use the bandwidth speed-in-kbps command in interface configuration mode to configure the link’s documented speed so that it matches the actual clock rate of the link. the serial link was created with a back-to-back serial link in a lab. It also shows optional Step 3B (description).1.1 S0/0/0 R1 192.255.168.168.2 G0/1 DCE Figure 13-11 Typical Serial Link Between Two Routers Example 13-1 HDLC Configuration R1# show running-config ! Note . In this case.255.168. Use this command only on the one router with the DCE cable (per the show controllers serial number command).338 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide If the serial link is a back-to-back serial link in a lab (or a simulator).2 S0/0/1 192.168.1. the ip address and no shutdown commands are likely the only configuration commands you would need.168. and Example 13-1 shows the matching HDLC configuration.1 255.168.2. For documentation purposes. 192. requiring Steps 1 (ip address) and 2C (clock rate) from the preceding list.1 G0/0 192.168.indb 338 6/1/16 12:02 PM .only the related lines are shown interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip address 192.0/24 192.0 ! interface Serial0/0/0 ip address 192.168. C. use the clock rate speed command in interface configuration mode to configure the clocking rate.0 9781587205798_BOOK.0 description link to R2 clock rate 2000000 ! router eigrp 1 network 192.4. The following steps are always optional and have no impact on whether the link works and passes IP traffic: A.0 network 192. when you configure a Cisco router with no preexisting interface configuration and install a normal production serial link with CSU/DSUs. In practice.1 255.0/24 R2 192.2.1.168. Step 3.168.2.255. Figure 13-11 shows a sample internetwork.168.2.4.2.255.

prefix-style mask (/24). output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 0 frame. 0 ignored.35. reliability 255/255. 0 underruns 0 output errors. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation HDLC. The clock rate command would not be needed on R2 because R1 has the DCE cable. it lists the output from the show controllers command for S0/0/0. txload 1/255.544 Mbps). 0 no buffer Received 96 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts) 0 runts. The matching configuration on R2’s S0/0/1 interface simply needs an ip address command plus the default settings of encapsulation hdlc and no shutdown. BW 1544 Kbit/sec.indb 339 DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up 6/1/16 12:02 PM . meaning 1544 Kbps or 1. so R2 must be connected to a DTE cable. output 00:00:00. as configured in Example 13-1. 0 output buffers swapped out 13 7 carrier transitions DCD=up 9781587205798_BOOK. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. and description. It also lists the IP address. line protocol is up Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial Description: link to R2 Internet address is 192.2. including the default encapsulation value (HDLC) and default bandwidth setting on a serial interface (1544. First. 5 interface resets 0 unknown protocol drops 0 output buffer failures. 0 overrun. which confirms that R1 indeed has a DCE cable installed and that the clock rate has been set to 2000000 bps. 19885 bytes. 0 abort 284 packets output. 0 packets/sec 276 packets input. DLY 20000 usec. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00:00:01. 0 CRC. clock rate 2000000 ! lines omitted for brevity R1# show interfaces s0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up. 19290 bytes. Example 13-2 lists two commands that confirm the configuration on R1 and some other default settings. 0 collisions. 0 giants.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 throttles 0 input errors. Example 13-2 Verifying the Configuration Settings on R1 R1# show controllers serial 0/0/0 Interface Serial0/0/0 Hardware is SCC DCE V. The show interfaces S0/0/0 command lists the various configuration settings near the top.168. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 339 The configuration on R1 is relatively simple.

allowing multiple Layer 3 protocols to pass over the same link ■ Built-in authentication tools: Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) 9781587205798_BOOK. For a quicker look at the interface status. In contrast. the router uses the serial interface only if it reaches an up/up interface status.1 YES manual up up GigabitEthernet0/1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down Serial0/0/0 192. including one example of a more advanced PPP feature (authentication).1 YES manual up Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down Serial0/1/0 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down Serial0/1/1 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down up R1# show interfaces description Interface Status Protocol Description Gi0/0 up up Gi0/1 admin down down Se0/0/0 up up Se0/0/1 admin down down Se0/1/0 admin down down Se0/1/1 admin down down LAN at Site 1 link to R2 Leased-Line WANs with PPP Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) plays the same role as HDLC: a data link protocol for use on serial links.168. This second major section of this chapter first discusses PPP concepts.indb 340 6/1/16 12:02 PM . This section ends with some configuration examples using PPP. instead use either the show ip interface brief or show interfaces description commands. defined in the 1990s. the first status word refers to Layer 1 status. TCP/IP.168. as listed in Example 13-3. and the second refers to Layer 2 status.1.340 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Finally. PPP Concepts PPP provides several basic but important functions that are useful on a leased line that connects two devices: ■ Definition of a header and trailer that allows delivery of a data frame over the link ■ Support for both synchronous and asynchronous links ■ A protocol Type field in the header. and other network layer protocols in mind. PPP. as shown in the first line of the output of the show interfaces S0/0/0 command in Example 13-2. Generally speaking. Example 13-3 Brief Lists of Interfaces and Interface Status R1# show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol GigabitEthernet0/0 192. However. was designed with routers. with many more advanced features. HDLC was created for a world without routers.2.

Following the table. When PPP was created. PPP Framing Unlike the standard version of HDLC. The PPP LCP implements the control functions that work the same regardless of the Layer 3 protocol. and Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). and describes the features briefly. one per network layer protocol. PPP authentication. authentication. PPP defines the frame format in Figure 13-12. The protocol field identifies the type of packet inside the frame. each focused on the data link itself. plus it defines other protocols to help manage and control the serial link. Today. Figure 13-12 shows the PPP framing. 13 Table 13-4 summarizes the functions of LCP. and the control protocols.indb 341 6/1/16 12:02 PM . usually supporting packets for the two different versions of IP (IPv4 and IPv6). in more detail.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 341 ■ Control protocols for each higher-layer protocol that rides over PPP. the link uses one instance of LCP plus IPCP (for IPv4). which happens to mirror the Cisco-proprietary HDLC framing that includes a protocol Type field (as shown earlier in Figure 13-9). PPP uses one instance of LCP per link and one NCP for each Layer 3 protocol defined on the link. For example. and CDPCP (for CDP). Ethernet has headers and trailers to deliver frames. usually Layer 3 protocols. IPv6. the text explains one of the features. Likewise. the PPP standard defines a protocol field. allowing easier integration and support of those protocols The next several pages take a closer look at the protocol field. IPv6CP (for IPv6). PPP defines a set of Layer 2 control protocols that perform various link control functions. ignoring the Layer 3 protocol sent across the link. Each protocol performs functions specific to its related Layer 3 protocol. The idea of these extra protocols works a little like how Ethernet includes additional protocols like Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). such as IP Control Protocol (IPCP). plus it defines overhead protocols like STP to help make the frame forwarding process work better. gives the LCP feature names. PPP separates these control protocols into two main categories: ■ Link Control Protocol (LCP): This one protocol has several different individual functions. the section “Implementing Multilink PPP” discusses the Multilink PPP (MLPPP) feature. 9781587205798_BOOK. PPP Bytes 1 1 1 2 2 S FC a at D pe Ty l tro on C ss e dr Ad ag Fl Figure 13-12 Variable PPP Framing PPP Control Protocols In addition to HDLC-like framing. For features related to any higher-layer protocols. the protocol Type field still provides the same function. this field allowed packets from the many different Layer 3 protocols to pass over a single link. PPP uses a series of PPP control protocols (CP). Later. on a PPP link using IPv4. ■ Network Control Protocols (NCP): This is a category of protocols.

confirming that it is the correct password. PPP defines two authentication protocols: PAP and CHAP. who wants to authenticate Barney—that is. checks that configuration. the process works with the to-be-authenticated device starting the messages. uses different messages. claiming to be legitimate by listing a secret password in clear text. With PAP. For instance. Wait on Other Router Here is My Text Password I Am Barney 1 Password = Betty Fred (Authenticating) Figure 13-13 2 Ack. and sends back an acknowledgment that Barney has passed the authentication process. authentication gives one device a way to confirm that another device is truly the correct and approved device with which communications should occur. if R1 and R2 are supposed to be communicating over a serial link. Both protocols require the exchange of messages between devices. and disables the interface. allowing rerouting over a working route Error detection Link-quality Disables an interface that exceeds an error percentage monitoring (LQM) threshold. At Step 1. but with different details. Barney sends the shared password in clear text. with PPP. With CHAP. WAN authentication is most often needed when dial lines are used. CHAP.indb 342 6/1/16 12:02 PM . In other words. authentication confirms that the other party is the authentic other party.342 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Table 13-4 PPP LCP Features Function LCP Feature Description Looped link detection Magic number Detects whether the link is looped. Barney (Being Authenticated) PAP Authentication Process In the figure. R1 might want R2 to somehow prove that the device claiming to be R2 really is R2. confirm that Barney is the real Barney—sees the password. R1 wants to authenticate R2. which asks the other device to reply. In that scenario. and not some imposter. when the link comes up. with the authentication process providing a way for R2 to prove its identity. and it hides the password. authentication takes two steps. the device doing the authentication (Fred) begins with a message called a challenge. as shown in Figure 13-13. the configuration of the authentication features remains the same whether a leased line or dial line is used. However. The big difference is that the second message 9781587205798_BOOK. Fred. Fred. configured with Barney’s name and password. allowing rerouting over better routes Multilink support Multilink PPP Load balances traffic over multiple parallel links Authentication PAP and CHAP Exchanges names and passwords so that each device can verify the identity of the device on the other end of the link PPP Authentication In networking. a much more secure option.

called message digest 5 (MD5). the same internetwork used for the HDLC example. as compared to HDLC. 13 Example 13-4 shows a simple configuration using the two routers shown in Figure 13-11. And of course.indb 343 6/1/16 12:02 PM .Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 343 in the flow (as shown in Figure 13-14) hides the authentication password by instead sending a hashed version of the password. These can be read easily if someone places a tracing tool in the circuit. The CHAP process also uses a hash value only one time so that an attacker cannot just make a copy of the hashed value and send it at a later date. Router Fred has been preconfigured with Barney’s name and password in such a way that Fred can confirm that the hashed password sent by Barney is indeed the same password that Fred lists in his configuration for Barney. and a description of the interface. PPP leaves the interface in an up/down state. When it fails (for instance. the CHAP challenge (the first CHAP message) states a random number. To make that work. Implementing PPP Configuring PPP. The example includes the IP address configuration. the next time the authentication process work occurs. if the passwords do not match). the passwords must match. a different final message flows. PAP and CHAP are a few examples of the work done by PPP’s LCP. Fred sends back a third message to confirm the successful authentication of Barney. requires only one change: using the encapsulation ppp command on both ends of the link. and the router cannot forward and receive frames on the interface. other items can be optionally configured. As with HDLC. and sends the results back to the router that sent the challenge. if the authentication fails. such as the interface bandwidth. The next topic looks at how to configure and verify PPP. the interface must be enabled (no shutdown). The router that sent the challenge runs the same algorithm using the random number (sent across the link) and the password (as stored locally). with input to the algorithm being a password that never crosses the link plus a shared random number. Ask Other Router React to Challenge 1 Challenge! I Am #$%#$@ Fred (Authenticating) Figure 13-14 3 Accepted 2 Barney (Being Authenticated) CHAP Authentication Process Both Figures 13-13 and 13-14 show authentication flows when authentication works. CHAP instead uses a one-way hash algorithm. If the password is indeed the correct password. if the results match. The challenged router runs the hash algorithm using the just-learned random number and the secret password as input. Also. Later. the authenticating router generates and uses a different random number. 9781587205798_BOOK. PAP flows are much less secure than CHAP because PAP sends the hostname and password in clear text in the message. But the configuration to migrate from HDLC to PPP just requires the encapsulation ppp command on both routers’ serial interfaces. but the IP addresses do not have to be configured for PPP to work.

255. Define the usernames and passwords used by the two routers: A. 9781587205798_BOOK. LCP Open Open: IPCP.2. txload 1/255.) To configure PPP along with CHAP on an interface that has all default configuration on the serial interfaces of both routers. follow these steps: Config Checklist Step 1.168. the configuration on router R2 interface Serial0/0/1 ip address 192.2.0 encapsulation ppp clockrate 2000000 ! Next. Use the encapsulation ppp command in interface configuration mode.255. BW 1544 Kbit/sec.168. with an example from R1 listed in Example 13-5. DLY 20000 usec.0 encapsulation ppp The one show command that lists PPP details is the show interfaces command.168. CDPCP and IPCP. LCP. and accounting [AAA] server outside the router. reliability 255/255. to enable PPP on the interfaces. the password could be configured on an external authentication. The output looks just like it does for HDLC up until the first highlighted line in the example.1 255.255. as noted with the “LCP Open” phrase.255. Example 13-5 Finding PPP. 6/1/16 12:02 PM . the output lists the fact that two CPs. Step 2. The configuration uses a password configured on each router.indb 344 Use the hostname name command in global configuration mode on each router. line protocol is up Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial Description: link to R2 Internet address is 192. CDPCP. Finally.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP.344 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Basic PPP Configuration Example 13-4 ! The example starts with router R1 interface Serial0/0/0 ip address 192. The two highlighted lines confirm the configuration (“Encapsulation PPP”).2 255. have also successfully been enabled—all good indications that PPP is working properly. and NCP Status with show interfaces R1# show interfaces serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up.2. authorization. (As an alternative. on the serial interfaces on both routers. loopback not set ! Lines omitted for brevity Implementing PPP CHAP The simplest version of CHAP configuration requires only a few commands. to set the local router’s name to use when authenticating. These lines also confirm that LCP has completed its work successfully.

255. Additionally. Figure 13-15 shows the configuration on both R1 and R2 to both enable PPP and add CHAP to the link.2.255. Example 13-6 Confirming CHAP Authentication with show interfaces R1# show interfaces serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up. if CHAP is enabled but CHAP authentication fails.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) ! Lines omitted for brevity 9781587205798_BOOK. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP. if CHAP authentication is enabled but CHAP authentication fails. the show interfaces command does not list “LCP Open” as shown in this example. First.255. To check that status. line protocol is up Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial Description: link to R2 Internet address is 192.2. with CHAP working. reliability 255/255. with CHAP enabled per Figure 13-15. and the matching password (case-sensitive). Use the username name password password command in global configuration mode on each router.2 255.indb 345 6/1/16 12:02 PM . However. Step 3. The figure shows how the name in the hostname command on one router must match the username command on the other router.168. CDPCP. Example 13-6 lists the output of the show interfaces serial0/0/0 command from R1.168. (The name in the username command should match the name in the neighboring router’s hostname command. txload 1/255. note that this command does not tell us whether authentication has been configured or not.168.) Use the ppp authentication chap command in interface configuration mode on each router to enable CHAP on each interface.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 345 B.0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication chap Router R1 Figure 13-15 interface serial 0/0/1 ip address 192. BW 1544 Kbit/sec. DLY 20000 usec. the protocol status of the interface falls to a down state.2. It also shows that the password defined in each username command must be the same (mypass in this case).0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication chap Router R2 CHAP Configuration You can confirm that CHAP authentication has succeeded in a couple of ways. LCP Open 13 Open: IPCP. use the usual show interfaces [type number] command or show interfaces status command. to define the name (case-sensitive) used by the neighboring router. hostname R1 hostname R2 username R2 password mypass username R1 password mypass interface serial 0/0/0 ip address 192.255.1 255.

0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication pap ppp pap sent-username R1 password pass1 username R2 password pass2 R1 Global Commands Figure 13-16 R2 Global Commands username R1 password pass1 interface serial 0/0/1 ip address 192. The highlighted parts of this command in the example confirm that Serial0/0/0 uses PPP. In particular.168.2. A router defines the username/password pair it will send using the ppp pap sent-username command.346 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide R1# show ppp all Interface/ID OPEN+ Nego* Fail- Stage Peer Address Peer Name -----------.255. with CHAP authentication.2.-------. Implementing PPP PAP PAP configuration differs from CHAP configuration in a couple of ways.168.--------------.255. Then. 9781587205798_BOOK. with a plus sign (+) meaning that the listed protocol is OPEN. note that the show interfaces command tells us nothing more and nothing less as compared to using CHAP authentication. and compares those values with its various username password global commands.2 255.) As with CHAP.255. again assuming authentication is configured. and a minus sign (–) meaning that the protocol has failed.168. The highlighted header in the example is the column where this command lists various PPP protocols and their status.255. This command lists a single line per PPP connection in the router. as shown at the end of Example 13-6. (However.1 255.-------------------Se0/0/0 LCP+ CHAP+ IPCP+ CDP> LocalT 192. and that CHAP authentication worked (as proved by the OPEN status of the CHAP protocol). configured as an interface subcommand. the LCP status of Open also confirms that authentication worked. PAP uses the similar authentication ppp pap command instead of the authentication ppp chap command. nothing in the show interfaces command output tells us whether or not CHAP or PAP has been configured. PAP configures the sent username/password pair much differently than CHAP.indb 346 6/1/16 12:02 PM .0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication pap ppp pap sent-username R2 password pass2 R2 Interface Commands PAP Configuration Example 13-7 now shows two commands used to verify PAP operation. the other router receives that username/password pair. worked.--------------------. if configured. The line protocol status being up confirms that authentication. Figure 13-16 shows a completed configuration for two routers (R1 and R2). Once sent. with emphasis on matching the ppp pap sent-username command on one router with the username password commands on the other router. First. R1 Interface Commands interface serial 0/0/0 ip address 192.2 R2 The more obvious way to confirm that CHAP works is to use the show ppp all command.2.

1. meaning that authentication worked. note that you can configure the interface to try using the PAP process first. a T3 line. with multiple serial links between two routers.168.0/24 192.168. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) ! Lines omitted for brevity R1# show ppp all Interface/ID OPEN+ Nego* Fail- Stage Peer Address Peer Name -----------. CDPCP.2. DLY 20000 usec.168. but if the other side does not support PAP.168. Configuring and Verifying PAP Authentication Example 13-7 R1# show interfaces serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up.1 S0/0/0 192. Whatever the reasons.1 Figure 13-17 9781587205798_BOOK. or when using no authentication at all.--------------------.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 347 However. line protocol is up Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial Description: link to R2 Internet address is 192. You can configure to try PAP first or CHAP first.3. BW 1544 Kbit/sec. which identifies PAP as configured on interface Serial0/0/0.2.2. Just configure the commands to support both.168. at least the others are working.indb 347 S0/1/0 192.-------. or the ppp authentication chap pap command to try CHAP first.2 ciscouser2 Finally. and in this case the protocol is OPEN.2. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP. reliability 255/255.-------------------Se0/0/0 LCP+ PAP+ IPCP+ CDPC> LocalT 192.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes. rather than a single serial link.168.168. so if one link fails. 192.2 S0/0/1 13 R1 R2 S0/1/1 192.2 Multiple Parallel Serial Links Between Routers 6/1/16 12:02 PM . using a fractional T3 service.168. The motivation may be simple economics—it may be cheaper to install two or three parallel T1 lines (at about 1. if it is configured. you end up with a design that looks like the design in Figure 13-17.--------------. The better confirmation comes from the show ppp all command at the bottom of the example. That motivation may be to improve availability. which authentication protocol is used. Implementing Multilink PPP Network designers sometimes use multiple parallel serial links between two routers. it then tries CHAP.0/24 192. this command does not confirm whether authentication has been configured or. LCP Open Open: IPCP. and add the ppp authentication pap chap command to try PAP first. txload 1/255.9.5 Mbps each) rather than move up to the next faster type of line. just as is the case when using CHAP.3.

168. Only Route to 192. and one over the bottom link.9. IOS can be configured to balance on a packet-by-packet basis.0/24 . R1 would have two EIGRP neighbor relationships with R2. If using EIGRP. However. By default.1 might flow over the top link. 192. with routing protocol neighbor relationships formed over each link.168.2 Figure 13-18 Two IP Routes for One Network. Figure 13-18 shows the concept of having multiple equal-metric routes.348 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide If the network engineer configures the parallel serial links as discussed so far in this chapter. It provides two important features.9.168. One Per Parallel Serial Link The Layer 3 routing logic in Cisco IOS will then balance packets across the multiple links using the routes as shown in the figure.168.168. each router would learn multiple routes to every remote destination subnet—one such route for each parallel link. As a result.168. each link has IP addresses and can be used to forward IP packets. PPP offers a feature that simplifies the Layer 3 operations in topologies that use multiple parallel PPP links. and one route per destination subnet.0/24 . with multiple routing protocol neighbor relationships.9. R1 has one route for network 192. To make that happen.0/24 192.9. Multilink PPP Concepts Multilink PPP (MLPPP) is a PPP feature useful when using multiple parallel serial links between two devices.indb 348 192.9.9.168. and multiple equal-metric routes learned for each remote subnet.0/24 192. in Figure 13-18. Instead of multiple subnets between routers. IOS balances on a destination-bydestination address basis—for instance. one over each link.1.168.9.168. with two links.1 Multilink 1 R1 Figure 13-19 9781587205798_BOOK. with all packets going to destination address 192.1 Route to 192. which has multiple physical links.168.0/24 1 Two EIGRP Neighbor Relationships R1 R2 2 Route to 192. Figure 13-19 shows these main ideas for the same physical topology shown in Figure 13-18. It shows the same design as Figure 13-17.0/24 over the top link.168.5. all packets to 192. the interior routing protocol would run over each of the parallel links. and works well in many cases. Using the Layer 3 features discussed in the last page or so works. one for each of the parallel serial links.5.0/24 192. it reduces the Layer 3 complexity by making the multiple serial interfaces on each router look like a single interface from a Layer 3 perspective. with a feature called Multilink PPP (MLPPP). routers would have one subnet between routers. one routing protocol neighbor relationship.9.2 being routed over the lower link. First.2 Multilink 1 EIGRP Neighbors R2 Layer 3 Concept Created by Multilink Interface 6/1/16 12:02 PM .

Configure the serial interfaces with all Layer 1 and 2 commands. The receiving router reassembles the fragments back into the original packet (Step 4). encapsulating the packet into a new data link frame. with a PPP header/ trailer around each. In addition to simplifying Layer 3 details as just described.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 349 MLPPP makes the multiple physical links work like a single link by using a virtual interface called a multilink interface. The Layer 3 configuration (like IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and routing protocol interface subcommands) is added to the multilink interface. as shown with the process in Figure 13-20. a router’s Layer 3 forwarding logic forwards each packet out the multilink interface. and the router making the usual routing decision at Step 2. MLPPP balances the frames sent at Layer 2 over the multiple links. With MLPPP. MLPPP load-balancing logic takes over. with a few extra header bytes to manage the fragmentation process. So first. to both enable MLPPP and associate the multilink interface with the serial interfaces. connecting the Layer 2 logic that works with the multiple serial links with the Layer 3 logic that works on the single multilink interface. Configure some PPP commands on both the multilink and serial interfaces. to set the context a bit. the router forwards about one-third of the byte volume of traffic. Cisco routers will balance the bytes sent equally across the active links in the multilink bundle. and routing protocol) under the multilink interfaces (and not on the serial interfaces). MLPPP fragments the packet into pieces (called fragments). However. Step 3. think about these main three configuration requirements for MLPPP: Step 1.indb 349 13 6/1/16 12:02 PM . one per active link. 2 3 PPP IP 4 1 5 IP IP R1 R2 3 Figure 13-20 PPP IP Layer 2 Fragmentation to Balance Traffic over Multiple Links MLPPP’s load-balancing process allows for some small variations in the sizes of the fragments. and load balancing the frame. with an encapsulated IP packet arriving at Step 1. like clock rate (Layer 1) and ppp authentication (Layer 2). Configuring MLPPP Implementing MLPPP requires a longer configuration than most features discussed in this book. Then the configuration associates the physical serial interfaces with the multilink interface. 9781587205798_BOOK. with normal IP routing shown at Step 5. but for the most part. For instance. Configure matching multilink interfaces on the two routers. Step 2. with the packet exiting a multilink interface. When IOS internally routes a packet out a multilink interface. IPv6. Steps 1 and 2 show normal routing. if three links are active. MLPPP load balances the data link frame by fragmenting the frame into multiple smaller frames. configuring the interface subcommands for all Layer 3 features (IPv4. Interestingly.

the routing and routing protocol logic will work with the multilink interface. and ppp multilink (which adds multilink support). The interface multilink 1 command on each router creates the multilink interface on that router. NOTE Figure 13-21 shows only one serial interface. The example is based on the design in Figures 13-19 and 13-20.indb 350 6/1/16 12:02 PM .255.0 ppp multilink group 1 interface Serial0/0/0 encapsulation ppp ppp multilink no ip address ppp multilink group 1 ! Authentication goes here interface Serial0/0/1 encapsulation ppp ppp multilink no ip address ppp multilink group 1 ! Authentication goes here R1 Layer 2 Interfaces R2 Layer 2 Interfaces Must Be Same Number Figure 13-21 MLPPP Configuration Now look at the ip address commands. but the number must match with the commands highlighted in the figure. but the number must be the same on both routers. the multilink interfaces and the physical serial interfaces must all have both a ppp multilink group 1 command. and they must all again refer to that same number (1 in this example). R1 Multilink (Layer 3) Interface R2 Multilink (Layer 3) Interface interface multilink 1 encapsulation ppp ppp multilink ip address 192. First. or the link will not work. Figure 13-21 shows the configuration for only one of the two serial interfaces. the multilink interface has the Layer 3 configuration. Note that the configuration shows IPv4 addresses configured on the multilink interfaces. In short. Any number in range could be used. but each serial interface in the multilink group would need the same configuration.168.255. 9781587205798_BOOK. The network engineer chooses the interface number. focus on the six configuration commands noted with white highlight boxes in Figure 13-21 as pointed to with arrows.255.255. but all serial interfaces would have the same subcommands when used for MLPPP. Additionally.5. Finally.5. Note that for space. but no IPv4 address at all on the serial interface.1 255.0 ppp multilink group 1 interface multilink 1 encapsulation ppp ppp multilink ip address 192.350 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Figure 13-21 shows all the specific MLPPP commands in a working example.168. As a result.2 255. note that both the multilink and serial interfaces have two additional commands: encapsulation ppp (which enables PPP). and the serial interfaces do not.

5.168.168. Multilink1 C 192.168.0/24 is directly connected. For Layer 3. You can also just ping the IP address on the other end of the multilink to test the link. IPv6.168.168.0/24 [90/1343488] via 192. Multilink1 D 192.168.168.0/24 is directly connected.5.2/32 is directly connected. 2 subnets.5.5.0/24 is variably subnetted.indb 351 13 6/1/16 12:02 PM . because they do not have IP addresses and the router’s routing logic works with the multilink interface instead.0/24 is variably subnetted. and routing protocol commands will now list the multilink interface rather than the physical serial interfaces. 2 masks C 192.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 351 Verifying MLPPP To verify that an MLPPP interface is working. 3 subnets.168.1/32 is directly connected.1 YES manual up up GigabitEthernet0/1 unassigned YES manual up up Serial0/0/0 unassigned YES manual up up Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down Serial0/1/0 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down Serial0/1/1 unassigned YES NVRAM up up Multilink1 192. Multilink1 R1# show ip eigrp interfaces EIGRP-IPv4 Interfaces for AS(1) Xmit Queue PeerQ Mean Pacing Time Multicast Pending Peers Un/Reliable Un/Reliable SRTT Un/Reliable Flow Timer Routes Mu1 1 0/0 0/0 1 0/8 50 0 Gi0/0 1 0/0 0/0 1 0/0 50 0 Interface R1# show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol Embedded-Service-Engine0/0 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down GigabitEthernet0/0 192.5.168.1 YES manual up up Working from the top of the example to the bottom. GigabitEthernet0/0 192. 2 masks C 192. the two serial interfaces are not listed at all. GigabitEthernet0/0 L 192.168. Similarly.1. note that the IPv4 routing table lists interface multilink 1 as the outgoing interface in a variety of routes.1. Multilink1 L 192.5.1. Example 13-8 Verifying Layer 3 Operations with an MLPPP Multilink Interface R1# show ip route ! Legend omitted for brevity 192.1/32 is directly connected. Example 13-8 shows a few commands to confirm the current working state of the MLPPP link.9. the show ip eigrp interfaces 9781587205798_BOOK. 16:02:07. all the usual IPv4. However.1.2. it helps to think about the Layer 3 features separately from Layer 1 and Layer 2 details.168. taken from the working configuration in Figure 13-21.

168. that working state implies that at least one of the physical links in the MLPPP group is also working— that is. BW 3088 Kbit/sec. notice that the show interfaces multilink 1 command lists many familiar details and some mentions about multilink. Example 13-9 Verifying Operational Details of an MLPPP Group R1# show interfaces multilink 1 Multilink1 is up. note that the show ip interface brief command does list both the serial interfaces and the multilink interface. the output shows the traditional line and 9781587205798_BOOK. 0 lost received 0x654D7 received sequence.352 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide command lists interfaces on which EIGRP is enabled. 96 reordered 0/0 discarded fragments/bytes. DLY 20000 usec. some of the physical links can fail. Additionally. LCP Open. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) ! lines omitted for brevity R1# show ppp multilink Multilink1 Bundle name: R2 Remote Username: R2 Remote Endpoint Discriminator: [1] R2 Local Username: R1 Local Endpoint Discriminator: [1] R1 Bundle up for 16:50:33. By default. since 16:23:16 No inactive multilink interfaces First.indb 352 6/1/16 12:02 PM . listing Mu1 (Multilink 1). but the output confirms that no IP address has been configured on the serial interfaces. and not listing either of the two serial interfaces in the MLPPP bundle. line protocol is up Hardware is multilink group interface Internet address is 192. 0 inactive (max 255. In particular. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP. min not set) Se0/1/1. You can always directly verify the serial interfaces in the multilink group with the same commands discussed earlier in the chapter (show controllers. show interfaces). 0x654D5 sent sequence Member links: 2 active.5. and if that status is up/up. IOS believes the multilink interface is working. as noted with the “unassigned” text under the IP-Address column. since 16:50:33 Se0/0/0. Each multilink interface has a line and protocol status like any other interface. and the multilink stays up. multilink Open Open: IPCP. the two commands in Example 13-9 give some insight into the specifics of MLPPP operation. frag timeout 1000 ms 0/0 fragments/bytes in reassembly list 0 lost fragments. CDPCP. total bandwidth 3088. reliability 255/255. txload 1/255.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes. load 1/255 Receive buffer limit 24000 bytes. Finally.

On the sixth line. a working ping 192. and show interfaces description commands. show ip interface brief. or 3. 9781587205798_BOOK. the output mentioned a working multilink state of “Open” in the section about PPP control protocols.2 command on R1 in Figure 13-11. as discussed in Chapter 11. ping the other router’s serial IP address. Also. If the ping does not work. The timer to the side shows that both have been active a little over 16 hours. A simple ping command can determine whether a serial link can or cannot forward IP packets. In this case. 2. also verify that any routing protocols are exchanging routes over the link.” 13 NOTE The interface status codes can be found using the show interfaces. which prevents the routers from routing packets over the serial link. From one router. examine the interface status on both routers and investigate problems related to the likely problem areas listed in Table 13-5. If the ping fails. A ping of the other router’s serial IP address—for example. Troubleshooting Serial Links This final major section discusses how to isolate and find the root cause of problems related to topics covered earlier in this chapter.168. the output of the show ppp multilink command identifies the links configured in each multilink bundle. meaning that the interface is working.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 353 protocol status. Finally. but that the MLPPP configuration includes both of these links in multilink group 1. Seeing these two interfaces in the list confirms not only that the physical interfaces are working. the problem could be related to functions at Layer 1. Table 13-5 Interface Status Codes and Typical Meanings When a Ping Does Not Work Line Status Protocol Status Likely General Reason/Layer Administratively down Down Interface shutdown Down Down Layer 1 Up Down Layer 2 Up Up Layer 3 The serial link verification and troubleshooting process should begin with a simple threestep process: Step 1. but it does point out some of the possible symptoms on a serial link when a Layer 3 subnet mismatch occurs on opposite ends of a serial link. the figure used for both the HDLC and PPP configuration examples—proves that the link either works or does not. confirming that MLPPP is in effect. interfaces S0/0/0 and S0/1/1 are active. Step 2. this section does not attempt to repeat the IP troubleshooting coverage in Part II of this book. Step 3. on R1. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols. both in an up state.2. as highlighted at the bottom of the example. The best way to isolate which layer is the most likely cause is to examine the interface status codes described in Table 13-5. If the ping works.indb 353 6/1/16 12:02 PM . as well as which ones are active.

Figure 13-22 summarizes the most common causes of this state. the center and left side of the figure show common root causes that then result in R2’s serial interface being in a down/down state. up on the other Keepalive disabled on the end in an up state when using HDLC Up Down on both ends PAP/CHAP authentication failure Mismatched encapsulation commands 1 In this case. or interface state. both ends in a down/down state—usually points to some Layer 1 problem. Bad Cable. so it is important to examine the status on both ends of the link to help determine the problem.354 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide The rest of this section explores the specific items to be examined when the ping fails. the status on both ends of the link may differ. based on the combinations of interface status codes listed in Table 13-5. In fact. line protocol status down). When one router shuts down its serial interface. while the router keeps trying to make the encapsulation work. to up/down. A serial interface with a down line status on both ends of the serial link—that is. play a key role in isolating the root cause of problems on serial links. Unplugged Cable Interface Shutdown Misconfigured or Broken CSU TELCO Facilities Problem R1 S0/0/0 CSU CSU S0/0/1 R2 Line: Down Protocol: Down Figure 13-22 Problems That Result in a Down/Down State on Router R2 Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems Data link layer problems on serial links usually result in at least one of the routers having a serial interface status of up/down. R2’s serial interface has no problems at all. the state may flap from up/up. In other words. assuming the second router’s interface is not also shut down. Table 13-6 Likely Reasons for Data Link Problems on Serial Links Line Status Protocol Status ends1 Likely Reason Up Down on both Up Down on one end. the line status (the first status code) is up. In the figure. and so on. For example. the other router sits in a down/down state (line status down. Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems The interface status codes. to up/up. a serial link fails when just one of the two routers has administratively disabled its serial interface with the shutdown interface subcommand. Table 13-6 lists some of these types of problems. The solution is to just configure a no shutdown interface configuration command on the interface. while the second status (the line protocol status) is down.indb 354 6/1/16 12:02 PM . 9781587205798_BOOK.

indb 355 13 6/1/16 12:02 PM .168. The solution is simple: Reconfigure one of the two routers to match the other router’s encapsulation command. R1 would list the text “Keepalive not set” in this case. You can verify the keepalive setting by looking at the configuration or by using the show interfaces command. allowing the routing protocol to converge to use other routes it they exist. ■ R2 still expects to receive keepalive messages. The other two root causes require a little more discussion to understand the issue and determine if they are the real root cause. The show interfaces command lists the encapsulation type on about the seventh line of the output.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 355 The first of these problems—a mismatch between the configured data link protocols—is easy to identify and fix. The keepalive process happens in both directions as well—R1 sends keepalives with R2 expecting to receive them.2.1 S0/0/0 Line: Up Protocol: Up Figure 13-23 192. and should not be used. interface serial 0/0/1 encapsulation hdlc interface serial 0/0/0 encapsulation hdlc no keepalive R1 192. R1 sends a keepalive message every 10 seconds. plus remembering that HDLC is the default serial encapsulation. and R2 changes the link to an up/down state.2 S0/0/1 R2 Line: Up Protocol: Down Results when Using HDLC with a Keepalive Mismatch Note that the router interface that disables keepalives remains in an up/up state. R2’s interface fails because ■ R1 does not send keepalive messages. on a serial link between R1 and R2. and R2 sends keepalives with R1 expecting to receive them. A keepalive mismatch occurs when one router has keepalives enabled and one router does not.168. Once a router believes the link no longer works. the PPP keepalive feature prevents the problem.” meaning that keepalives are enabled with a 10-second interval. The examples in this chapter list several examples of the show interfaces command that happen to list the text “Keepalive set (10 second). so using this command on both routers can quickly identify the problem. Note that this keepalive mismatch mistake only breaks HDLC links. can confirm whether the encapsulations are mismatched. If R2 fails to receive the keepalive messages for a set number of consecutive keepalive intervals (usually three or five intervals). The keepalive function on an interface causes routers to send keepalive messages to each other every keepalive interval. That combination is a mistake. because keepalives are disabled. defaulting to 10 seconds. because keepalives are enabled. a quick look at the configuration. and R2 expects to receive those keepalive messages every 10 seconds. The next two sections take a closer look at each. Keepalive Failure The router keepalive feature helps a router notice when a link is no longer functioning. In the scenario shown in Figure 13-23. R2 believes R1 has failed. the router can bring down the interface. 9781587205798_BOOK. Alternatively. Figure 13-23 shows one such example with HDLC and with R1 mistakenly disabling keepalives. For instance.2.

820: Se0/0/0 CHAP: O CHALLENGE id 1 len 23 from "R1" *Nov 18 23:45:48. it does not always point to the specific command that is misconfigured. The network connects R1’s S0/0/0 to router R2. 9781587205798_BOOK. you will see debug messages that match that three-way exchange. with a set of messages flowing for authentication in each direction by default. and bring it back up. Example 13-10 shows the three related debug messages when a link comes up. so you would have to look for these. you see a failure message at the point at which the process fails. In this case. Example 13-10 Debug Messages on Router R1 Confirming the Failure of CHAP R1# debug ppp authentication PPP authentication debugging is on ! Lines omitted for brevity *Nov 18 23:45:48. meaning that this local router. Note that this example was built by changing the username command to have an incorrect password. By doing so. The example extracts the three related debug messages from what would be a few dozen debug messages. and that they have enabled CHAP. The “O FAILURE” refers to R1 sending out a Failure message. The “O” refers to output. a failure in the PAP/CHAP authentication process results in both router interfaces failing to an up and down state. Note the “from R1” at the end of the debug message. has input (received) a Response message. However. If you enable the debug. 3.356 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide PAP and CHAP Authentication Failure As mentioned earlier. As shown in Examples 13-6 and 13-7. stating who the message is from. you can use the show interfaces and show ppp all commands to look further into the status of the PPP authentication process. The “I” refers to input. R1. meaning that this local router. telling R2 that the authentication process failed. If authentication fails. has output (sent) a Challenge message. the output highlights the important parts of the process as seen back in Figure 13-14. you can isolate and discover the root cause of why the interface is in an up/down state. 2. as shown back in Figure 13-14. shut down the link.820: Se0/0/0 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 1 len 23 from "R2" *Nov 18 23:45:48.indb 356 6/1/16 12:02 PM . the fact that both routers send at least one CHAP message implies that both router interfaces can send frames. so that the CHAP process worked but the authentication was rejected. as follows: 1. Another deeper method to troubleshoot PPP authentication problems uses the debug ppp authentication command. Note the “from R2” at the end of the line. CHAP uses a three-message exchange.820: Se0/0/0 CHAP: O FAILURE id 1 len 25 msg is "Authentication failed" While using a debug command may tell us something about the problem. which may help you decide what specifically needs to be fixed. R1. It looks more like R1 has rejected the hashed password supplied by R2. ruling out or ruling in PPP authentication as the root cause.

Serial0/0/0 13 R1# ping 192. 1 subnets C 192. In this case. PPP makes the ping work with the mismatched subnet by adding a host route.2 is directly connected.168. GigabitEthernet0/0 192. You can find the problem by doing the usual first step of pinging the IP address on the other end of the link and failing. 2 subnets. First. consider an example with a working HDLC link with the IP addresses shown earlier in Figure 13-23.168. NOTE A route with a /32 prefix. They would not have a route matching the opposite router’s serial IP address. Example 13-11 PPP Allowing a Ping over a Serial Link.168. which differ slightly depending on whether HDLC or PPP is used and the root cause. Example 13-11 shows the working PPP link with addresses in different subnets. the ping to the other router’s IP address actually works. if R1’s serial IP address remained 192.2.0/24 is directly connected.0/24 is variably subnetted.1.2. the serial link can be in an up and up state but the ping can still fail because of Layer 3 misconfiguration. the problem is likely this mismatched IP subnet.2. However. Finding and fixing a mismatched subnet problem with HDLC links is relatively simple. consider an HDLC link on which the physical and data link details are working fine.2.3. so it is still a good idea to follow the rules and put both serial interface IP addresses in the same subnet. This short section examines the symptoms. Interestingly. if the IP addresses configured on the serial interfaces on the two routers are in different subnets.0/24 is directly connected.2 (instead of 192.168. In some cases.1. and R2’s was changed to 192. Even with Mismatched Subnets R1# show ip route ! Legend omitted for brevity 192. Then.2).168. the IP subnet mismatch still prevents EIGRP and OSPF neighbor relationships from forming. a ping to the IP address on the other end of the link will fail because the routers do not have a matching route.168. with a /32 prefix length. the IP address on the serial link.168.3. 2 masks C L 192.1/32 is directly connected. However.2.168. GigabitEthernet0/0 192. still with a mask of /24.168.2 9781587205798_BOOK. For example. representing a single host.indb 357 6/1/16 12:02 PM . is called a host route. both routers’ interfaces are in an up and up state. If both interfaces have a status of up/up. the ping may work but the routing protocols might not be able to exchange routes. the two routers would have connected routes to different subnets.168.0/32 is subnetted.1/32 is directly connected.168. Serial0/0/0 192. for the IP address of the other router.3. 2 subnets.1.0/24 is variably subnetted. Serial0/0/0 192. For PPP links with the same IP address/mask misconfiguration.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 357 Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems This chapter suggests that the best starting place to troubleshoot serial links is to ping the IP address of the router on the other end of the link—specifically.1.3.168. 2 masks C L 192.

DVD/website Review command tables Book 9781587205798_BOOK. both routers have a route to allow them to forward packets to the IP address on the other end of the link. DVD/website Review config checklists Book. or interactive tools for the same material found on the book’s companion website. Refer to the “Your Study Plan” element for more details. Table 13-8 Chapter Review Tracking Review Element Review Date(s) Resource Used Review key topics Book.) So.3.0/24. Table 13-7 Summary of Symptoms for Mismatched Subnets on Serial Links Symptoms When IP Addresses on a Serial Link Are in Different Subnets HDLC PPP Does a ping of the other router’s serial IP address work? No Yes Can routing protocols exchange routes over the link? No No Chapter Review One key to doing well on the exams is to perform repetitive spaced review sessions. The second highlighted line shows the host route created by PPP.2. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192. specifically for R2’s new serial IP address (192.168. for network 192.3. To better track your study progress.168. This extra host route allows the ping to the other side of the serial link to work in spite of the addresses on each end being in different subnets. Table 13-8 outlines the key review elements and where you can find them. Review this chapter’s material using either the tools in the book. DVD/website Repeat DIKTA questions Book.168.2.1/32. DVD. Table 13-7 summarizes the behavior on HDLC and PPP links when the IP addresses on each end do not reside in the same subnet but no other problems exist. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). R1’s serial IP address. PCPT Do labs Blog Review memory tables Book. DVD/website Review key terms Book.2). even though the other router’s address is in a different subnet.indb 358 6/1/16 12:02 PM .2.2. (R2 will have a similar route for 192.358 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5.168. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms The first highlighted line in the example shows the normal connected route on the serial link. R1 thinks this subnet is the subnet connected to S0/0/0 because of R1’s configured IP address (192.1/24).168. record when you completed these activities in the second column.

DS0. Link Control Protocol. Multilink PPP Command References Tables 13-10 and 13-11 list configuration and verification commands used in this chapter. Then repeat the exercise. keepalive. serial link. but has no effect on the actual speed description text Interface subcommand that can set a text description of the interface ppp authentication {pap | chap} Interface subcommand that enables only PAP or only CHAP authentication username name password secret Global command that sets the password that this router expects to use when authenticating the router with the listed hostname ppp pap sent-username name password secret Interface subcommand that defines the username/password pair sent over this link when using PAP authentication 9781587205798_BOOK.indb 359 13 6/1/16 12:02 PM . serial cable. DS1. read the right column. DCE. sets the clock speed in bps bandwidth speed-kbps Interface subcommand that sets the router’s opinion of the link speed. and try to recall what the command does. when used on an interface with a DCE cable. covering the right column. Table 13-10 Chapter 13 Configuration Command Reference Command Description encapsulation {hdlc | ppp} Interface subcommand that defines the serial data-link protocol [no] shutdown Administratively disables (shutdown) or enables (no shutdown) the interface in whose mode the command is issued clock rate speed Serial interface subcommand that. HDLC. IP Control Protocol. CSU/DSU. T1. telco. cover the left column in a table. DTE. in kilobits per second. and try to recall the command without looking. WAN link. As an easy review exercise. T3. customer premises equipment. CHAP.Chapter 13: Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 359 Review All the Key Topics Table 13-9 Key Topics for Chapter 13 Key Topic Element Description Page Number Table 13-3 Speeds for WAN links per the T-carrier system 334 Figure 13-7 Role of the CSU/DSU and the router as DCE and DTE 335 List PPP features 340 List Comparison of PPP LCP and NCP 341 Figure 13-13 Example of messages sent by PAP 342 Figure 13-14 Example of messages sent by CHAP 343 Figure 13-16 Sample PAP configuration 346 List MLPPP major configuration concepts 349 Figure 13-21 Sample MLPPP configuration 350 Key Terms You Should Know leased line. PAP. PPP.

360 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Command Description interface multilink number Creates a multilink interface and moves the user to interface configuration mode on that interface ppp multilink Interface subcommand that enables MLPPP features ppp multilink group number Interface subcommand that associates the interface with a particular multilink interface and multilink group Table 13-11 Chapter 13 EXEC Command Reference Command Description show interfaces [type number] Lists statistics and details of interface configuration. whether it is a DTE or DCE cable show ppp multilink Lists detailed status information about each of the PPP multilink groups configured on the router show ppp all Lists one line of status information per PPP link on the router.indb 360 6/1/16 12:02 PM . just one line of output total) that lists the interface status and description show ip interface brief Lists one line of output per interface. with IP address and interface status show controllers serial number Lists whether a cable is connected to the interface. and if so. including the encapsulation type show interfaces [type number] description Lists a single line per interface (or if the interface is included. including the status for each control protocol debug ppp authentication Generates messages for each step in the PAP or CHAP authentication process debug ppp negotiation Generates debug messages for the LCP and NCP negotiation messages sent between the devices 9781587205798_BOOK.

625 interface OSPF areas. 393 802. See ROAS 802. 210-211 OSPFv2 multiarea configuration. 60 port states. 149 9781587205798_BOOK.11 headers. 389 cable Internet. 628 3G wireless.1D STP. verifying. 389 wireless WANs. 58 port roles. 393 4G wireless. 148 configuring for 802. 393 WANs. 149 AAA servers authentication configuration. 146 switches as 802.1Q. 62 802. 390-391 fiber. 391 DSLs (digital subscriber lines). 150 login process. 186. 747 securing with IEEE 802. 145 username/password combinations. 20-21 headers.Index Symbols 2-way state (neighbor relationships). 145 defining. 144-146 AAA servers.indb 852 enabling. 149 aaa new-model command. verifying. 742 ABR (Area Border Router). 745-746 private WANs. 486 6/1/16 12:04 PM . configuring.1x. 58. 685 public cloud services Internet. 149 username/passwords. 145 authentication process. 392-393 IPv6 restrictions. 145 access-class command. 190. 501 A aaa authentication login default command.1w RSTP defined. verifying.1x authenticators. 147 TACACS+/RADIUS protocols. 746-749 VPNs. 209-210 OSPFv3 multiarea configuration. 145 EAP.1x. 625 access Internet. 145 aaS (as a Service). 148-150 login authentication rules. 62 802. 500-501 trunking.

See ACLs Access Control Server (ACS). 670 standard. 773-774 ACLs (access control lists). 467 extended numbered ACL configuration commands.access control lists. 440 QoS tools. 454-456 ACI (Application Centric Infrastructure). 476-477 IPv4. 496 SNMP security. 666-667 IPv6. 448-449 tcp keyword. 612 router originated packets. 586 ACL Analysis tool. compared. 670 problems. 486 building ACLs with. 685 blocking.indb 853 implementation considerations. 671-674 testing. blocking. 670 management control. 448 deny. 441-442 named ACLs configuration. and destination IP. source IP. 472 editing. 777-778 classification. 462 GRE tunnel issues. 440-441 matching packets. 409-410 HSRP packets. 563 9781587205798_BOOK. 463-466. 452 permit. 147 access interfaces. 497 comparison of ACL types. 454 examples and logic explanations. 464 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 669 extended. 113-114 access layer switches. 475-476 overview. 666-667 limitations. 679-683 filtering policies. 464-467 overview. 683 capabilities. 670 location and direction. 442-443 extended numbered ACLs configuration. 678-679 access restrictions. 467 keywords any. 473-475 overview. 445. 685 prefix lengths. 24. 674-678 filtering ICMPv6 NDP messages. configuring. 464 upd keyword. 457. 467-470 matching protocol. 668 ICMPv6 message filtering. 677 tunneled traffic matching. 365 MPLS. 448-449 log. 664-666 access-list commands. compared. 445. 471-472 numbered ACLs. building. 683-684 IPv4 ACL. 378 access-list command. 668-669 implicit filtering ICMPv6 NDP messages. 669-670 logging. 156-157 access links MetroE. 463-464 matching TCP and UDP port numbers. 698 6/1/16 12:04 PM .

452-453 verification. 595-597 connectivity. 49 ADSL (asymmetric DSL). 60-61. 448-452 list logic. matching. 502-503 agents (SNMP). 303-304 eBPG enterprise public prefixes. 600-603 9781587205798_BOOK. 697 NMS polling. 406 unique local unicast. 696 MIB. 599 unicast. 175 SPF (Shortest Path First). 742 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 448 alternate ports. 147 active HSRP routers. 483-485 commands. 446-447 overview. 197 IPv6 assigning to hosts. 177-178 administratively shutdown interfaces. 558 address blocks. 593 adjacent neighbors. 452-453 wildcard masks. 480-481 ACL Analysis tool. 443 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 619 global unicast. 318 AF (Assured Forwarding). 49 public cloud assignment services. 593 IPv4. 682 router configuration. 444-445 matching any/all addresses. 477-479 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 756-757 source/destination. 696-697 algorithms Dijkstra SPF. 646 IGP routing protocol algorithm. 180. See prefixes addresses families. 481 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. 311-312 link-local. 595 MAC. 448 matching exact IP address. 180 DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm). 48 all IP addresses. 696 notifications. verifying.indb 854 multicast. 242-243. 186. 391 advertising BGP routes. 477 ACL behavior in network. 445 configuration examples. 593-595 link. 695 Get/Set messages. 454-456 troubleshooting. 777-778 ACS (Access Control Server). 446-448 troubleshooting.854 ACLs (access control lists) standard numbered ACLs access-list command. 598-599 static route configuration. 445-446 matching subset of address. 307-308 subnets to ISPs. 479-480 common syntax mistakes. 91-92 Amazon Web Services (AWS). 186-188 STA (spanning-tree algorithm). 633 administrative distance. 481-482 reversed source/destination IP address. 454 command syntax.

765 architectures (SDN). 776 Open SDN. 190 three-area. 502-503 asymmetric DSL (ADSL). 189-190 backbone areas. 188. 777 controller. See ABR area design (OSPF). 649 neighbors. 742 ASAv (virtual ASA firewall). 777 Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). 190. 774 application signatures. 772 OpenDaylight (ODL).asymmetric DSL (ADSL) 855 American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN). 777 labs website. 248 for IPv6. 448 any/all IP addresses. 625 super. 768-769 APIC (Application Policy Infrastructure Controller). 771 Area Border Router. 790-792 anti-replay (Internet VPNs). 391 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 773-774 Application Policy Infrastructure Controller (APIC). 281 single-area. 290-291 MPLS VPNs. 719 answering exam questions. 288 Assured Forwarding (AF). 394 any keyword. matching. 771-772 OpenFlow. 190 mismatches. 174 analyzers (network). 235. 174. 210-211 areas. 777 labs website. 498 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). 777 Path Trace ACL Analysis tool. 189-190 ABR. 188 SPF workload. 304 EIGRP. 189 ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers). 189 problems. 777 Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). 190 multiarea on ABR configuration. finding. 304 as a Service (-aaS). 774 APIC EM (APIC Enterprise Module). 191 interarea routes. 174 AS (autonomous system). 770 APIC Enterprise Module (APIC-EM). 771 9781587205798_BOOK. reducing. 765 ASNs (AS numbers). 190 intra-area routes. 190 internal routers. 777-778 Path Trace app. 190 benefits. 448 APIs (application programming interfaces). 773-774 comparisons. 777-778 Path Trace app. 174 BGP. 381-382 network size. 774-776 controller. 381 backbone routers. 774-776 ACL Analysis tool.indb 855 Open SDN Controller (OSC). 754 ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). 778 Path Trace ACL Analysis tool.

237 managing.indb 856 B backbone areas (OSPF). 699. 145 AAA servers configuration examples. 270 EIGRP. 185. 346 authenticators. 145 auto-cost reference-bandwidth command. 266-267 discontiguous classful networks. 643 autonomous system (AS). 304 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 247 EIGRP for IPv4. 62-63 backup ports. 211-212 Bellman-Ford protocols. 91-92 bandwidth EIGRP for IPv6 routes. 304 ASNs. 303 AS. 235. 305-306 BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). 247. 707 authentication 802. 742 9781587205798_BOOK. 304 auto-summary command. 222. 267 defined. 237-239. 265 OSPFv3 interface. 174. 216-217 least-bandwidth. 356 SNMPv3. 270 EIGRP. 625 super. 650-651 metrics. 373-374 reference. 174. 359 defined. 286 Internet VPNs. 150 auth keyword (snmp-server group command). 217 OSPF costs based on.856 attacks attacks DHCP-based. 190 backup DRs (BDRs). 381 backbone routers. 266 classful network boundaries. 265 routes. tuning. switches as. 216. 662 metrics. 259 interfaces defaults. 493 BDRs (backup DRs). 216-217 bandwidth command. 150 login process. 648 autosummarization. 300. 216 higher. 237. 190 multiarea on ABR configuration. 393 PPP. 152 types.1x. See DV protocols best path selection (BGP). 60. 147 TACACS+/RADIUS protocols. 647 for IPv6. 707-708 authentication ppp pap command. 643 batch traffic. 185. 211-212 backup port role (RSTP). 148 EIGRP neighbors. 356 PPP PAP. 222. 148-150 login authentication rules. 342-343 PPP CHAP. 267-268 AWS (Amazon Web Services). 491 MetroE.

319-320 update messages. 342 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 366 Catalyst switches RSTP modes. 303 table entries. 505 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. 377 centralized control planes. 314 advertising subnets to ISPs. See BGP BPDUs (bridge protocol data units). 47-49 RSTP ports. 314 states. 507 carrier Ethernet. 749-752 email services traffic flow. learning. 335 leased-line WANs. See eBGP IGPs. 796 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 Official Cert Guide website. 83 global settings. 305-306 configuring. 303 reachability. 447 blocking state interfaces. 751 private WAN connections. 92 Border Gateway Protocol. See switches broadcast storms. 49 BPDU Guard. 88-90 Catalyst switches STP modes. 88-89 CBWFQ (Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing). 50-52 verification. 790 CE (customer edge). 303-310 bgp commands. injecting. 750-751 Internet connections. compared. 320-321 neighbors. 156 CAC (Call Admission Control) tools. 49 root switch election. 332-333 stacking cables. 49 C cable Internet. 751 bridge IDs. 766 CFN (Cisco Feature Navigator). 77 system ID extensions. displaying. 315-318 static discard routes. 45-47 burned-in MAC addresses. 81 enabling/disabling. 302 internal (iBGP). 777 CCNA R&S practice exam. See BIDs bridges. 391 cabling DTE cables. 808 binary wildcard masks. 83 verifying. 792 CCNA ICND2 Config Labs website. 318 classful network routes. 272 CCNA ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test. 311 BIDs (bridge IDs) STP. 66 configuring.challenge messages 857 best path selection. 313 prefixes. 302 route advertising. 303 disabling. 82-83 9781587205798_BOOK. 73-74 binary-to-hexadecimal conversion. 531 challenge messages. 303-304 routing table analysis reports website. 304 ISP default routes. 310 external.indb 857 branch offices public cloud example.

496 routers. 756-757 cloud services catalogs. 356 configuring. 777 Feature Navigator (CFN). 541 channel service unit (CSU)/data service unit (DSU). 147 Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). troubleshooting. 757 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). 345-346 chassis aggregation. 743-744 private.indb 858 Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ). 223 clear-text passwords. 315-318 classful routing protocols. 396-397 clock rate commands. 497 with marking. 495 ACLs. 159 benefits. 373. 106-108 Layer 3. 505 Class of Service (CoS) fields (802. improving. 747 DHCP services. 344-345 verifying. 698 CLI skills. 749 nondisclosure agreement (NDA). 88-89 DevNet. 342. 773-774 BPDU Guard. 794-796 client VPNs. 788 Open SDN Controller (OSC). 496-497 NBAR. 249 classification (QoS). 695 server hardware. troubleshooting. 88-90 Catalyst switches STP modes. 35 virtual ASA firewall (ASAv). 332-334 CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) authentication. injecting. 500-501 Class Selector (CS). 332 cloud computing address assignment services. 267-268 routes. 754 9781587205798_BOOK. 732-733 Unified Communication Manager (CUCM). 177. 772 Prime management products website.858 channel-group command (EtherChannels) channel-group command (EtherChannels). 204. 266 classic mode (EIGRP configuration). 543 incorrect options. 531 Intercloud Fabric. 497 matching. 742 NTP. 159-160 switch stacking. 498 router queuing. 160 distribution/core switches high availability. 503 classful networks autosummarization at boundaries. 739-741 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 509 Cisco Access Control Server (ACS). 159-161 CIR (committed information rate). 266-267 discontiguous. 349. 84. 161 design. 95.1Q header). 359 clocking. 740 Cloud Services Routers (CSRs). 497 classless routing protocols. 177 clear ip ospf process command. 66 Catalyst switches RSTP modes. 757-758 Platform as a Service (PaaS).

286 debug eigrp fsm. 643 9781587205798_BOOK. 746-749 branch offices example. 648 bandwidth. 486 any keyword. 750-751 intercloud exchanges. 359 command. 467 extended numbered ACL configuration commands. 748-749 Internet connections. 448-449 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 149 aaa new-model. 747 accessing with private WANs. 84. 752-754 services. 486 access-list. 743 Cloud Services Routers (CSRs). 749-752 DNS services. 360 debug spanning-tree events. 643 bgp. 289 debug ip ospf events. 493 commands aaa authentication login default. 106-108 Layer 3. 467 log keyword. 360 debug ppp negotiation. 448-449 examples and logic explanations. 237. 541 clear ip ospf process. 346 auto-cost reference-bandwidth. 751 private WAN connections. 293 OSPF neighbors. 298 Hello/dead timer mismatches. 79. 457. troubleshooting. 751 VNFs. 222. 271 debug eigrp packets. 463-466. 445. 222. 543 incorrect options.indb 859 auto-summary. 267. 359 EIGRP. 223 clock rate. 747 codecs. 298 debug ipv6 ospf adj. 445. 452 permit keyword. 464 authentication ppp pap. 754-756 email services traffic flow. troubleshooting.commands 859 public. 95. 204. 741 accessing with Internet. 454 deny keyword. 298 debug ip ospf hello. 222 configure terminal. 286. troubleshooting. 454-456 tcp keyword. 298 debug ip ospf adj. 298 mismatched OSPF areas. 448 building ACLs with. 647 EIGRP for IPv6. 289 debug ip ospf packet. 356. 290 OSPF neighbors. 216. 745-746 accessing with private VPNs. 28 debug. 739 Software as a Service (SaaS). 247. 270 EIGRP. 349. 464 upd keyword. 247 EIGRP for IPv4. 632 debug ppp authentication. 149 access-class. 662 EIGRP metrics. 96 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 265 OSPFv3 interface. 311 channel-group (EtherChannels). 270. troubleshooting.

628 default-information originate always. 525 ip address negotiated. 321. 297. 571 eigrp router-id. 296. 25. 615 ipv6 access-list building. 572 ip hello-interval eigrp. 196. 647 EIGRP for IPv6. 432 interface vlan. 350 interface port-channel. 728 history lives-kept 1. 584-585 IP addresses on loopback interfaces. 432 interface loopback. 214 delay. 614 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 237. 687 ipv6 access-list deny. 359 dialer pool. 196 MLPPP. 432 erase startup-config. 222 interface multilink. 270. 637 ip name-server. 543 interface range.860 commands default-information originate. 350. 717 history enhanced interval. 543 ip sla. 572 ip ospf. 672 deny icmp any any. 432 dns-server. 400. 297 ip ospf hello-interval. 222 ip ospf dead-interval. 359. 568. 222 ip ospf cost. 728 history filter all. 525 encapsulation dot1q. 350 subinterfaces. 543 encapsulation ppp. 247. 598. 675 IPv6 ACLs. 344. 683 description. 247. 568. 728 history buckets-kept 6. 432 ip domain-lookup. 37. 135 frequency. 486 ip access-list. 297 ip route. 345 icmp-echo. 728 ip sla schedule. 467. 662 encapsulation. 728 ifconfig. 297 ip mtu. 450. 568. 246. 457. 417. 678-679 IPv6 ACLs. 360 interface multilink1. 472-474 EIGRP. 573-574 ip hold-time eigrp. 252 EIGRP. 270. 247. 223. 270. 728 ip sla restart. 728 history enhanced. 615 ip access-group. 600. 678 ipv6 access-list permit. 647 EIGRP for IPv6. 473 ip address. 27 9781587205798_BOOK. 486 ip access-list extended. 715 ipconfig. 728 hostname. 265 extended IPv6 ACLs.indb 860 interface tunnel. 662 EIGRP metrics. 543 ip -6 neighbor show. 417. 678 ipv6 address. 323 ip routing. 600. 418. 543 interface dialer. 648 ip helper-address. 472. 615 interface. 477.

614. 476 no ip address. 543 routed ports. 539 no ip domain-lookup. injecting. 662 ipv6 hold-time eigrp. 222. 662 EIGRP load balancing. 223. 268 no ip access-group. 205 defined. 637 ipv6 ospf. 647 EIGRP for IPv6. 539 Layer 3 switches. 721. 650 Layer 1 leased-line WAN problems. 647. 662 ipv6 mtu. 218 OSPFv2 multiarea configuration. 648. 624. 247. 432 maximum-paths. 614 ipv6 eigrp. 643 ipv6 traffic-filter. 624. 647 9781587205798_BOOK. 651. 222. 715 no neighbor shutdown. 40. 263 OSPFv3. 25. 95 no switchport Layer 3 EtherChannels. 648 EIGRP for IPv6 compatibility. 270 no shutdown. 322 neighbor shutdown. 248. 323 BGP table entries. 218 defined. 314 netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors. configuring. enabling. 135 ndp -an. 246 EIGRP for IPv4. 615 neighbor. 297 EIGRP. 196 OSPFv3. 535 passive-interface. 643 monitor session.commands 861 ipv6 dhcp relay destination. 643 ipv6 ospf cost. 354 OSPF processes. 314 no passive-interface. 270 EIGRP. 527 no spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default. 598 mac-address. 728 mtu. 614 ipv6 unicast-routing. 662 ipv6 hello-interval eigrp. 687 ipv6 unicast routing.indb 861 OSPF single-area configuration. 673. 314-320 EIGRP. 294 ROAS subinterfaces. 643 ipv6 router eigrp. 270 EIGRP support. 270 EIGRP. 662 EIGRP for IPv6 routing. 251 OSPF interfaces as passive. 432 name. 205. 662 ipv6 router ospf. 198-200 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 615 network BGP. 95 no spanning-tree portfast default. 359 EIGRP for IPv6. 270 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 40. 572 no ip sla schedule 1. 209 no auto-summary. 624 passive-interface default. 627. 614.

353 self-ping. 532 sdm prefer lanbase-routing. 684 permit icmp any any routersolicitation. testing. 359 ppp authentication chap. 643 RIDs. 472. verifying. 346 routed ports. testing. 86 show etherchannel summary. 487 router bgp. 417. 345 ppp chap hostname. 479. 432 remark. 350. 246. 615 IPv6 ACLs. 473 show access-lists. 487 extended IPv6 ACLs. 289 OSPFv3 interface bandwidth. 350 ppp pap sent-username. 222. 600 IPv6 routes. 360 ppp multilink group 1. 360. 543 show etherchannel 1 summary. 198 sdm prefer. 37. 417. 674 IPv6 connectivity. 543 show IPv6 ACLs. 345 PPP PAP. 450. troubleshooting. 571-574. 410 IPv6 ACLs. 543. 360 ppp multilink group. 96. 673 routing protocol-enabled interfaces. 360 show etherchannel. 298. 432 permit icmp any any routeradvertisement. 107. 483. 349. 114-116. 614 leased-line WANs.indb 862 router ospf 1.862 commands permit. testing. 270. 672 permit gre. 41. 196. 614. 298. 196 router ospf. 471-474. troubleshooting. 352 show controllers serial. defining. 569 EIGRP neighbor requirements. 344 show interfaces status Layer 3 EtherChannels. 536 show interfaces switchport. 135 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 487. verifying. 675 GRE tunnel ACLs. 536 show interfaces description. 283 OSPF neighbors. 615 IPv6 host connectivity. 539 routed ports. 311 router eigrp. 275 STP status. 433 show interfaces PPP status. 286 MLPPP. 432 ppp multilink. 346. 687 show arp. 222 9781587205798_BOOK. 576 show interfaces dialer. 359 pppoe-client dial-pool-number. 483-485 ping6. 624 OSPFv3. 432 ppp chap password. 687 ping. 647 router-id. 540 show interfaces. 421. 352 OSPF interfaces. 684 permit ipv6. 457. 31-34. 602. 432 pppoe enable. 640 PPP CHAP status. 572 show controllers. 601 ppp authentication. 68 show access-list.

troubleshooting. 404 multilink interfaces. 271. 291 OSPF neighbors. 202 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 295 show ip ospf neighbor interface brief. 253 neighbor verification checks. 116-117 show interfaces tunnel. 479. 297 EIGRP enabled interfaces. 223. 281 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 487 show ip bgp. 38. listing. 286 EIGRP neighbor status. 285 show ip eigrp topology. displaying. 251-252. 293 OSPF areas for ABR interfaces. 223 show ip ospf interface. 298 duplicate OSPF RIDs. verifying. displaying. 297 EIGRP-enabled interfaces. 41. 433 show interfaces virtual-access. 323 show ip bgp summary. 405. 474-476 show ip access-lists. 297 neighbor status. 223. troubleshooting. 260 show ip interface. 352 OSPF interfaces. verifying. 220 passive interface. 271. 286 show ip ospf. 450. 352 show ip eigrp interfaces detail. 423 show interfaces vlan. displaying. troubleshooting. 283 show ip interfaces. 211 neighbors. 289 OSPF status on interfaces. 253 IPv4 routing protocols. 271. 543 show ip access-list. 289 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 259. 210 OSPF neighbors. 223. 313. 271 metrics. 323 show ip eigrp interfaces. 479 show ip interface brief. 206 show ip ospf interface brief. 271 show ip eigrp neighbors. 289 9781587205798_BOOK. 457. displaying. 288 OSPF processes shutdown. 275 EIGRP neighbor requirements. troubleshooting. 298 OSPF areas for ABR interfaces. 205. 275 EIGRP neighbor requirements. 286 multilink interfaces. 457. 179. 221 show ip ospf neighbor. 250. 250-251.indb 863 show ip ospf database. 256 show ip eigrp topology all-links. 360 GRE tunnels. 298 DRs/BDRs details. 32-34. 450. 295 show ip protocols. 258 topology table. identifying. 210 OSPF-enabled interfaces. 262 successor routes.commands 863 show interfaces trunk. 223. 298 DRs/BDRs details. 275 OSPF neighbors. 211 Hello/dead timer mismatches. 223. 182. 201. 433 show interfaces virtual-access configuration.

114 show mac address-table dynamic. 729 show ip sla history. 135. 643 EIGRP for IPv6. 717. 223. 577-578 show ip route static. 360 show ppp multilink. 663 show ipv6 route ospf. 219 show ip route. 614. 687 show ipv6 eigrp interfaces. 635. 346-347. 681 show mac address-table. 81 show spanning-tree summary. 663 show ipv6 eigrp topology. 729 show ipv6 access-list. 643 EIGRP for IPv6. 424. 643 9781587205798_BOOK. 223. 111 show monitor detail. 603 show ipv6 ospf. 663 show ipv6 interface. 577-580 administrative distance. 729 show snmp location. 282-283 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 729 show ip sla statistics. 271. 729 show monitor session all. 630 show ipv6 route. 728 show snmp contact. 614. 640. 433 show running-config. 353. 449. 360 show pppoe session. 729 show monitor session. 543 show ip route eigrp. 663 show ipv6 routers. 724. 271. 709. 636. 654. 473-475 show snmp. 729 show snmp community. 630. 681 IPv6 IPv4 replacement. 643 show ipv6 ospf database. 298. displaying.indb 864 show ipv6 ospf neighbor. 214 show ip sla enhanced-history distribution-statistics. 643 show ipv6 route | section. 702.864 commands OSPF configuration errors. 643 show ipv6 ospf interface brief. 96 show spanning-tree vlan. 83. 254. 729 show spanning-tree. 662 show ipv6 eigrp neighbors. 724. 81 show spanning-tree interface. 729 show ip sla summary. 638. 96 show spanning-tree interface detail. 630-631. 77. 662 show ipv6 eigrp interfaces detail. 663 IPv6 router connectivity. 729 show snmp host. 96 show spanning-tree vlan 10. 640. 654 OSPFv3 interfaces. 663 show ipv6 eigrp topology | section. 603 show ipv6 route eigrp. displaying. 723 show ppp all. 643 show ipv6 protocols. 75-77 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 728 show snmp group. 96 show spanning-tree bridge. 677. 254 IPv4 routes added by OSPF. 82 show spanning-tree root. 178 dialer interface Layer 3 orientation. 728 show snmp user. 201 routing tables. 703. 614. 643 show ipv6 ospf interface. 662 EIGRP for IPv6 interfaces. 425 EIGRP-learned routes. 687 show ipv6 neighbors. 614 IPv6 ACL ICMPv6 NDP message filtering. 702. 614. 297 show ip route ospf. 323. 708.

559 standby version 1 | 2. 354 OSPF processes. 95 spanning-tree portfast default. 560.commands 865 show spanning-tree vlan 10 bridge. 95 spanning-tree mode mst. 72 spanning-tree mode pvst. 727 snmp-server location. 114. 92 show standby. 81. 527 shutdown vlan. 40. 131. 727 snmp-server user. 574 GRE tunnels. 313 show tcp summary. 134. 564 standby 1 preempt. 28-29. 103 speed. 600 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 524 switchport nonegotiate. 701. 83. 40. 727 snmp-server group. 72 9781587205798_BOOK. 565 show standby brief. 543 show vtp password. 95 spanning-tree portfast bpduguard. 323 show vlan. 118 switchport voice vlan. 662 EIGRP for IPv6 routing. 28. 25. 40. 139 switchport mode dynamic auto. 90 spanning-tree pathcost method long. 707 spanning-tree. 558 standby version. 95 spanning-tree bpduguard disable. 556. 88. 75. 139 switchport trunk allowed vlan. 555. 135 traceroute. 113. 27.indb 865 spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst. 40 switchport trunk native vlan. 55 spanning-tree portfast. 705 snmp-server host. 576 standby. 543 routed ports. 95 spanning-tree bpduguard enable. 36-38. 95 spanning-tree portfast disable. 727 snmp-server contact. 140 snmp-server. testing. 41. 41. 359 EIGRP for IPv6. 72. 554. 75. 135 switchport mode. 564 switchport Layer 3 switches. 565 show tcp brief. 77 show spanning-tree vlan 10 interface gigabitethernet0/2 state. 74 spanning-tree vlan 10 port-priority 112. 95 spanning-tree vlan. 37-38. 95 spanning-tree mode. 114 show vlan status. 117 switchport trunk encapsulation. 141 show vlan brief. 41. 37-38. 700 snmp-server community. 83. 135. 41. 710. 26-29. 30. 116. 34. 535 switchport access vlan. 40 switchport mode access. 116. 40. 406 IPv6 host connectivity. 141 shutdown. 727 snmp-server enable traps. 135 show vlans. 134. 527. 650 Layer 1 leased-line WAN problems. 81. 30. 32 switchport mode trunk. 294 ROAS subinterfaces. 116 switchport mode dynamic desirable. 25. 141 show vtp status. 30. 29. 114 show vlan id.

651-652 route metrics. 345. injecting. 602. 615 tracert. 311-312 ISP default routes. 652 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 406-407. 472 numbered. See verifying. 40. 249 sample internetwork. 246 ASNs. 310 BPDU Guard. 310 update messages. 28 9781587205798_BOOK. 310 disabling eBGP neighbors. 373. 270 EIGRP. 698 confidentiality (Internet VPNs). 140 committed information rate (CIR). 140 vtp mode.indb 866 configuring AAA servers. 29. 432 tunnel mode gre multipoint. 698-699 Community-based SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2c). 404 tunnel source. 467-470 named. testing. 651. 140 vtp pruning. 248 checklist. 148-150 AAA servers for 802. 509 communities (SNMP). 647 commands. 647 example. 314-320 transporting messages with TCP. 246 classful network numbers. 432 undebug all. 134. 647 EIGRP for IPv6. 75 vlan. 135 vlan 10. troubleshooting. 137 vtp. 81-83 DHCP snooping. 40. 432 tunnel mode gre ip. 320-321 table entries. 29. 140 vtp version. 263. 122 vlan 200. 135 vtp mode transparent. 248 classic versus named mode. 145 ACLs (access control lists) extended numbered. 406-408. 298 username. 614 traceroute6. 448-452 BGP.866 commands IPv6 network router problems. 140 vtp mode off. learning. 135 vtp password. 248-249 EIGRP for IPv6. 615 tunnel destination. 37. 650-651 timers. 699 community strings (SNMP). 796 configure terminal command. 25. 134. 648-649 load balancing. 134. 314 eBGP neighbor verification.1x. 404. 312-313 eBGP neighbors using link addresses. 611 IPv6 router connectivity. 393 Config Checklist app. 134 vtp domain. 247 verification. 359 variance. 134. 153-154 EIGRP. 662 verification. 247. EIGRP configuration wildcard masks. 475-476 standard numbered.

714-715 IGPs. 207-208 subnets. 203-204 verifying. 599 ISL. 207-208 network command. 525-526 subinterface numbers. 621 default routes. 627-628 load balancing. 625 9781587205798_BOOK. 595-597 routing. 627 multiarea example. 199 SNMPv2 Get/Set messages. 206 verifying. 528-529 verifying. 81-83 PPP. 205 IPv6 addressing on routers. 535-537 switching with SVIs. 206-210 network commands. 420-425 RIDs (OSPF). setting. 346-347 PPPoE.configuring 867 EtherChannels. 198 organization. 197 matching with network command. 537-539 switch routed ports. 310 interfaces as passive. 337-340 HSRP. 524-525 troubleshooting. 218-221 OSPFv3. 560-561 ICMP-Echo operations. 721-724 MLPPP. 209 single-area configurations. 623-624 overlapping VLSM subnets. creating. 674-676 hosts. 210-212 OSPFv2 interfaces. 418-419 verification.indb 867 route selection metrics. 419 Layer 1. 554. 419 Layer 3 EtherChannels. 200-202 wildcard masks. 204-206 RIDs. 598-599 extended ACLs. 343-344 CHAP. 402-404 HDLC. 196-197 passive interfaces. 197-198 IPv4 addresses. 344-345 PAP. 598 standard ACLs. 198-200 multiarea configurations. 349-350 multiarea OSPFv2. 529-531 local SPAN. 584-585 PortFast. 622 multiarea on ABR. 671-674 static routes. 525 subinterfaces. 626 single-area. 416-417 Layer 2. 86-87 manual. 701-702 verifying. 702-704 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 84 dynamic. 526-527 single-area OSPFv2. 84-86 GRE tunnels. 699-701 Trap/Inform messages. 417-418 summary. 415-416 ISP router configuration example. 203-204 ROAS. 525 ISP routers. 524 native VLANs.

777 centralized control. 239 DUAL process. 130 planning. 134-135 transparent mode. 763-764 control protocols (CP). 129 storing configuration. 135 9781587205798_BOOK. 512 TCP windowing. 771 Southbound Interfaces (SBIs). 260-261 successors. 78-79 PVST+. 24-25 data and voice VLANs. influencing. 766 APIC-EM. 241-242 routing protocols. 30-34 VTP common rejections. 504 prioritization. 267 control planes centralized. 708-709 STP. 72 options. 504 Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). 75 VLANs (virtual LANs). 767-768 convergence EIGRP. 129 example. 105-106 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 25-28 shorter VLAN configuration example. 766 distributed. 72-73 root election influence. 513-514 congestion management. 707 verifying. 48. 505 strategy. 74-75 per-VLAN port costs. 704 summary. 73-74 topology changes. 130-131 new VTP configuration settings. troubleshooting. 129 steps. 768-770 OpenDaylight SDN controller. 704 authentication. 341 controllers. 745-746 private WANs. 766 networking devices. 747 contiguous networks.868 configuring SNMPv3. 707-708 encryption. 751 Internet. 710-711 requirements. 55 verification commands. 507 connections (public cloud access) branch offices. 707-708 groups. 766-767 Northbound Interfaces (NBIs). 505 round robin scheduling. 28-29 trunking. 711-712 users. 512-513 tools. 242-243 feasible successor routes. 705-707 notifications. 173 STP. 137 default VTP settings.indb 868 congestion avoidance. 746-749 VPNs. 71 modes. 36-38 full VLAN configuration example. 80-81 system ID extensions. 74 port costs. 505-507 multiple queues. 504 output queuing.

286. 697 variables.indb 869 data plane EtherChannel impact on MAC tables. 341 CPE (customer premises equipment). 332-334 CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager). 735 workflow. charging for. 334 9781587205798_BOOK.1Q header). 188 VLAN. controlling. 736 vendors. 492-493 EIGRP for IPv6 topology. 298 mismatched OSPF areas. 503 CS DSCP values. monitoring. 131-133 DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). 201 exchanging between neighbors. 180 contents. 332 CS (Class Selector). 503 CSRs (Cloud Services Routers). 289 debug ip ospf events command. displaying. 293-294 debug command. 808 decimal to binary. 715-716 CP (control protocols). 271 debug eigrp packets command. 183-186 LSAs relationship. finding. 184 dead timers. 159-160 CoS (Class of Service) fields (802. 298 debug ip ospf adj command. marking. 111-112 networking devices. 737-738 data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). 747 CSU/DSU (channel service unit/data service unit). 110 VLAN of incoming frames. See metrics counters. 762-763 STP impact on MAC tables. 393 usage (MetroE). 705 topology. 286 debug eigrp fsm command. 500-501 costs. 334 Dead Interval timer. 805-807 hexadecimal to binary. 374-375 data centers (virtual) networking. 290 OSPF neighbors. 373-374 overages. troubleshooting. 190 best routes. 179 OSPFv3. 112-113 data terminal equipment (DTE). 735 physical networks. 636 MIB. 695-697 OIDs. 334-335 databases LSDB. 657-658 integrity. 808 core switches. 35 customer edge (CE). 373 bandwidth used. 298 6/1/16 12:04 PM .debug ip ospf events command 869 converting binary to hexadecimal. 377 D data application traffic. 696 views. 697 variable numbering/names. 179 area design.

370 E-LAN service. 377 MPLS VPNs Layer 3. 379-382 OSPF area. networking. 210-211 areas.indb 870 description command. 189 problems. 188 SPF workload. 190 MPLS VPNs. 632 debug messages. 270 EIGRP. 406 destination IP. 96 decimal-to-binary conversion. 261 debug ppp authentication command. 214 default-information originate command. 189-190 backbone areas. 360 debug spanning-tree events command. 298 debug ipv6 ospf adj command. 360 debug ppp negotiation command. 722 9781587205798_BOOK. 188. 265 managing. 191 interarea routes. 190 benefits. 370-371 E-Tree service. 672 deny icmp any any command. 190 backbone routers. 237. 675 IPv6 ACLs. 448-449 dependencies (SPAN). 321 OSPF default routes.870 debug ip ospf hello command debug ip ospf hello command. 805-807 decimal wildcard masks. 298 Hello/dead timer mismatches. 247. 237. 359 design improving with chassis aggregation. 365-366 MPLS Layer 3. troubleshooting. See DPs designated routers. 627-628 default VLANs. 356. 628 default routes. 306 MetroE Layer 3. 662 EIGRP metrics. 463-464 destination ports (SPAN). reducing. 293 OSPF neighbors. 647 EIGRP for IPv6. matching. 400 deny command. 763-764 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 766-767 control plane. 446-447 default-information originate always command. 442. 472-474. 719 devices. 372 MetroE physical. 381-382 network size. 189 ABR. 289 debug ip ospf packet command. 281 single-area. 190 internal routers. See DRs destination addresses. 491 delivery headers. 762 control. 265 delays EIGRP IPv6 routes. 683 deny keyword. 371-372 E-Line service. 214 OSPFv3. 160 Internet edge. 79. 189 OSPFv3 multiarea. 190. 223. 25 delay command. 622 designated ports. 487 extended IPv6 ACLs. 190 three-area. centralizing. 650-651 metrics. 190 intra-area routes.

114-115 VLAN trunking. 206 PortFast global settings. 153 DHCP-based attacks. 319 discarding state interfaces. 153 rate limiting. 275 passive interfaces. 139 discard routes. 334 digital subscriber lines (DSLs). 765-766 DevNet. 646 Digital Signal level 0 (DS0). 83 TCP connections. 425 PPPoE configuration. 596 dialer interfaces Layer 3 orientation. 116 EIGRP for IPv6 routing. 650 PortFast. 267 discovery (EIGRP neighbors). 440-441 disabling BGP neighbors. 573 public cloud services. See DV protocols distributed control planes. 266-268 discontiguous networks. 314 BPDU Guard. 180 direction (ACLs). chassis aggregation. 762-763 management plane. 154 rules summary. 61 discontiguous classful networks. 211 EIGRP enabled interfaces. 334 Digital Signal level 1 (DS1). 60 VLANs. 152 DHCP Binding Table. chassis aggregation 871 data plane. 83 ports. 275 IPv4 routing table.indb 871 Dijkstra SPF algorithm. 417. 255-257 LSDB contents. 421-422 dialer pool command. 777 DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) Binding Table. 83 DTP. 242-243. 432 Differentiated Services Code Point. 153 features. 153 DHCP Relay. 253 topology table.distribution switches. 764 switch internal processing. 152 DHCPv6. 159-160 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 390-391 9781587205798_BOOK. 253-254 neighbor status. 757 snooping configuration settings. 83 DRs/BDRs details. 234 displaying BPDU Guard global settings. 47-49 RSTP. 766 distribution switches. 201 OSPF-enabled interfaces. 573-574 DHCP-based attacks. configuring. 151 ports as trusted. See DSCP Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). 151-154 stateful. 153 trusted/untrusted ports. 416-417 verifying. 313 distance vector protocols. 334 Digital Signal level 3 (DS3). 608-609 troubleshooting.

228 distance/vector information learned. 211-212 Ethernet links. See DHCP Dynamic Multipoint VPN. 411 NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol). 185 discovering. 242-243. 306 enterprise public prefixes. 116 E E1. 607-608 public cloud services. learning. 334-335 DTP (Dynamic Trunking Protocol). 230-231 update messages. 54. 309 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 646 dual Internet edge design. 334 DS3 (Digital Signal level 3). 304 Internet edge. 186 DS0 (Digital Signal level 0). 185-186 DROthers routers. 116 9781587205798_BOOK. 307-308 ISP default routes.872 DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN) DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN). 232-233 route poisoning. 390-391 DSLAMs (DSL access multiplexers). See DMVPN Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP). 334 E3. 620 strategies. 412-413 DNS (Domain Name System) IPv6 network troubleshooting. LAN segments. 334 EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol). 619 OSPFv3 address families. 146 earplugs (exam). 229-230 dynamic EtherChannels configuration. 502-503 CS. 306 design. 175. 501 marking values AF. 354 DP (designated port). 146 EAPoL (EAP over LAN). 411 multipoint GRE tunnels.indb 872 DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm). troubleshooting. 571-572 dns-server command. 185 backup (BDRs). 334 DS1 (Digital Signal level 1). 105 DR (designated router). 786 eBGP (External BGP). 60 choosing. 231-232 split horizon. 503 EF. advertising. 49. 104-105 problems. 334 DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point). 502 DSL (digital subscriber line). 571 down status (interfaces). 390 DTE (data terminal equipment). 497 fields (QoS marking). 306 dual stack OSPFv2/OSPFv3. 228 EIGRP as. 86-87 Dynamic Host Control Protocol. 598 DV (distance vector) protocols. 754-756 troubleshooting.

275 OSPF interfaces. 238-239 MPLS VPN challenges. 236-237 components. 236 bandwidth. 302 interfaces configuration problems. 266 classful network boundaries. 247 wildcard masks. 233. 266-267 discontiguous classful networks. 502 EGP (exterior gateway protocol). compared. 286-288 verifying. configuring. 264 serial link bandwidth. 235. 265 calculation. configuring. exchanging. 227 9781587205798_BOOK. 302 EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). 241-242 disadvantages. 501 EF DSCP value marking. 644-646. 311 verifying. 63 EF (Expedited Forwarding). 242 RIDs. 262 delay settings. 242-243 feasible successor routes. 653 feasible successor routes convergence. 278-281 identifying. 234-235 discovery. 248 classic versus named mode. 267-268 benefits. 253 topology information. 175 EIGRP for IPv4 as advanced DV protocol. 281 troubleshooting. 262 example. 314 using link addresses. 312-313 Eclipse IDE. 240-241 route load balancing. 227 configuration. 312 disabling. 235-236 troubleshooting example. 286 autosummarization. compared. 286 metrics.indb 873 873 EIGRP for IPv6. 239 DUAL process. 275-281 K-values. 176 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 260-261 identifying. 246 classful network numbers. compared. 232-233 authentication. 252 RIP metrics. 237-238 FD (feasible distance). compared. 234 requirements. 260-261 successors. 265 EIGRP topology database. 248 checklist. 744 edge ports. 249 sample internetwork. 502 EF RFC (RFC 3246). 285-286 OSPF. 258-260 goals. 240-241 RD (reported distance). 382 neighbors. 224 query/reply messages. 284-286 status. 248-249 convergence.EIGRP for IPv4 neighbors configuring. 173. 246 ASNs.

234 load balancing. 648-649 load balancing. 653 FS. compared. 250-252 IPv4 routing table. 368-372 E-Line (Ethernet Line) service. 773 enhanced history. measuring. 598 OSPF configuration mode. 417. 713 endpoints. 234 table. 350. 650 FS. See also EIGRP for IPv4. 646 EIGRP for IPv4. 657-658 eigrp router-id command. identifying. 255-257 variance. 647 commands. 83 EIGRP. 246. 367-371 email. 652 DUAL. 650 IPv6 routing. 659-660 topology data. 149 BPDU Guard. 262 exchange. Second Edition (Cisco Press). compared. 649 enabling/disabling. 432 encryption IPsec. 646 successors. 644-646. 253 EIGRP for IPv6 configuration. 263-264 verification. 198 PortFast. 233 routes choosing. 246 EIGRP for IPv6 routing. 646 9781587205798_BOOK. 647 example. 417 VLANs. displaying. 699.874 EIGRP for IPv4 RIPv2/OSPFv2. 257-258 topology database metrics. displaying. 83 PPPoE. 253-254 neighbor status. 175. 344. 654-655 neighbors. 650-651 timers. 662 E-LAN (Ethernet LAN) service. 249 EIGRP enabled interfaces. finding. 646 interfaces. 395-396 keys. 647. 263-264 tuning with bandwidth changes. 651-652 route metrics.indb 874 troubleshooting. 721 encapsulation command. 525 encapsulation dot1q command. 494 end-user traffic. 359. 395 End-to-End QoS Network Design. 115 Encapsulated RSPAN (ERSPAN). 252. 543 encapsulation ppp command. 660 verifying. 259 variance. EIGRP for IPv6 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 656-657 routes ASNs. 263-264 successor routes. displaying. 395 SNMPv3. 717 Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). 750-751 enabling AAA servers. 707-708 tunnel VPNs.

785 time-check method. 185-186 WANs. 106-108 Ethernet 802. predicting. 64-65 configuring. 24-29 default VLANs. 796-797 study tasks. 786-787 preparing for failure. 21-24 tagging. 790-791 CCNA R&S. 500-501 802. 798 studying after failing to pass.indb 875 875 native VLANs. 445-446 exam CLI skills. 754 EUI-64 rules. 496-497 eq 21 parameters. 539-540 MAC tables impact. 786 tutorial. 366 links.1Q headers. 797-798 time budget versus number of questions. 541 verifying. finding. 790 ICND2. 792 taking. 784 ready to pass assessment. 465 erase startup-config command. 18-20 trunking. 789-790 pre-exam suggestions.exam Enterprise QoS Solution Reference Network Design Guide. 784-785 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 366 IEEE standards. 108-109 incorrect options. 721 EtherChannels.11 headers. 369. 575-576 VLANs (virtual LANs) configuration. 84 dynamic. 747 Ethernet LANs service. 537-539 troubleshooting. 18-21. 25 IDs. 794-796 earplugs. 792-793 practice exams answering questions. 501 access links. 20 overview. 367-371 E-Tree (Ethernet Tree) service. 111-112 troubleshooting. classification matching. 494 enterprises. 135 ERSPAN (Encapsulated RSPAN). 790 other. 16-18 routing between. 86-87 manual. 372 ETSI (European Telco standards body). 367 exact IP address matching. 786 exam-day suggestions. 365 carrier. 790 checklist. 597-599 EVC (Ethernet Virtual Connection). 34-39 9781587205798_BOOK. 18 IP telephony. 29-34 Ethernet Line (E-Line) service. 787 knowledge gaps. 788 question types. 797 scores. 106 configuration checks before adding interfaces. 368-372 troubleshooting. 84-86 Layer 3 configuring.

550 9781587205798_BOOK. 550-551 fiber Internet. 552 group numbers. 501 extended IPv6 ACLs configuring. 290-291 routers best routes. 754 First Hop Redundancy Protocol. 448 firewalls. 257-258 mismatched Hello/dead timers. 555 load balancing. 180 wildcard masks. 258-260 successor routes. 553 no preemption. 463-464 matching TCP and UDP port numbers. 462 configuration. 173. 293 OSPF area mismatches. 797-798 failures CHAP authentication. 551 active/standby routers. first-out). and destination IP. See eBGP F Facebook (Wendell Odom). 559-560 need for. 49 failing the exam. 799 failed interfaces. See FHRP 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 558 troubleshooting. source IP. 604 finding EIGRP enabled interfaces. 557 with preemption. 256 feasibility conditions. 668 issues. 557 configuring. 551 active/passive model. 467-470 matching protocol. 258-260 FHRP (First Hop Redundancy Protocol). 250-252 feasible successor routes. 554 failover. 552 keepalive. 393 FIFO (first-in. 260-261 identifying. 555 active/standby rules. 646 feasible successor routes. 679-683 IPv6 ACL policies. 302 external BGP. 146 exterior gateway protocol (EGP). 356 HSRP.indb 876 HSRP.876 Expedited Forwarding (EF) Expedited Forwarding (EF). choosing. 560-563 verifying. 674-676 examples. 355 PAP authentication. 668-669. 240-241. 336 FD (feasible distance). 260 feasible successor (FS). 676-678 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs. 241-242 convergence. 242. 356 FCS (Frame Check Sequence). 544 features. 504 filtering ICMPv6 messages. 555-556 versions. 549 options. 464-467 Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). 788.

411 multipoint with DMVPN. 334 Fractional T3. 44 multiple frame transmissions. displaying. 406 ACLs. 56 forwarding data. 744 GRE (generic routing encapsulation). 493 public cloud traffic. 402-404 details. 750-751 Forward delay timer (STP). 25-28 fully adjacent neighbors. 399 routes. 398 GRE tunnels. 47 PPP. 406 tunnel destination. 544 global unicast addresses. 696 RO/RW communities.group numbers (HSRP) first-in. 408 tunnel interfaces. 229. 409-410 interface state. 699-701 GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol). 399 configuring. 407 Layer 3 issues. 400-401 verifying. 112-113 looping. 158 FlexStack-Plus. 405 troubleshooting. 728 FS (feasible successor). 555 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 514 full mesh topology (MetroE). 336 Frame Relay. See data plane Fractional T1. 368 full neighbor state. 398 between routers.indb 877 877 G generic routing encapsulation (GRE). preventing. 404-406 group numbers (HSRP). 646 full drops. 628 full updates. 777-778 forwarding plane. 334 Frame Check Sequence (FCS). 45-47 defined. 179 flow networking. See routing interface state. 404 functionality. 504 FlexStack. 398 unsecured networks. 336 incoming. 495 HDLC. testing. 699 SNMPv2 support. 47-49 paths. 186. 186. 411 point-to-point. 633 9781587205798_BOOK. 409 source/destination addresses. 341 switching. 113 frequency command. 362 frames broadcast storms. 158 flooding. 398 “Get IEEE 802” program. 59 Get messages agent information. 235 full VLAN configuration example. 406 large scale environments. first-out (FIFO). 593 Google App Engine PaaS.

159-160 High-level Data Link Control (HDLC). 557 configuring. 551 active/standby routers. 717 OSPF. 501 Hello BPDU. 555 active/standby rules. 569-571 HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol). 331. 619 SNMP. 608-610 name resolution problems. 554 failover. 808 high availability. 56 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion. 398 headers 802. 572 DNS problems. 595 connectivity. 345 hosts IPv6. 400 IP. 600-601 issues. 293-294 STP. 49 Hello Interval. 571-572 ensuring IPv4 settings match. 695 history buckets-kept 6 command. 705 write views. 501 delivery. choosing. troubleshooting. 233 hostname command. 705 security levels. 184. 728 history enhanced command. 181-182 Hello timer dead timer mismatches. 544. 597 routes. verifying. 773 SNMPv3. 717 9781587205798_BOOK. 233 Hello messages (OSPF). 551 active/passive model. 734 troubleshooting IPv4 settings default router IP address setting.1Q.indb 878 history enhanced interval command. 728 Hold Interval.11. 398 High-speed WICs (HWICs). 605-606 stateful DHCPv6. 706 H HDLC (High-level Data Link Control). 705-707 MIB views. 728 history lives-kept 1 command. 596 stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC). 336-340. 499-501 MPLS Label. 552 group numbers. 716 history IP SLA data. 555 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 336-340. 332 historical success/failure counters (IP SLAs). 728 history filter all command. 606-607 pings only working in some cases. 500-501 802. 568-569 mismatched masks. 357 server virtualization.878 groups groups endpoint. 331. 607-608 pings fail from default router. 604 missing settings.

173. 112-113 inferior Hello.1w amendment. 713 icmp keyword. 304 icmp-echo command. 175 subnets. 557 with preemption.1x access. filtering. assigning. 696-697 SNMPv2. 561 routers configuring different VIPs. 332 hypervisors. 559 hub and spoke topology (MetroE). 669 IPv6 multicast address space registry website. 562 verifying. 559-560 HSRPv2 (HSRP version 2). 302 classless/classful. 175-176 routing protocol algorithm. 315-318 static discard routes. compared. 675 9781587205798_BOOK. 558 troubleshooting. 174 iBGP (Internal BGP).1D Spanning-Tree states. 50 infinity. 710-711 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Geoff website. securing. 319-320 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 174 ICMPv6 parameters. 59 ifconfig command. 668-684 packets. 58 802. 682 website. matching.injecting BGP table entries 879 load balancing. 318 classful network routes. 145-146 default port costs. 310 goals. 58 802. 568. 742 injecting BGP table entries. 560 ACL blocks HSRP packets. 728 ICMP-Echo operations. 563 configuration. 302 metrics. 145 LAN access.1D standard. 615 IGP (interior gateway protocol). 303 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). 742 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). 714-715 ICMP Echo probe. 683-684 incoming frames. 58 802. 303 HWICs (High-speed WICs). 55 Ethernet standards.indb 879 ICND2 practice exam. 563 version mismatches. 314 advertising subnets to ISPs. 560-561 group number mismatches. 177 configuring. 734 I IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). 369 Huston. 553 no preemption. 600. 674 messages. 175 implicit filtering. 231 Inform messages. 174 ASNs. 563 misconfiguration symptoms. 366 “Get IEEE 802” program. See practice exams IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802. 144-145 authenticators. 481 ICMPv6 Echo Request messages. 555-556 versions. 226 BGPs. securing. 701-702 SNMPv3.

finding. adding. 543 interface range command. 624 per-VLAN STP costs. tuning. 421-422 9781587205798_BOOK. 742 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 626 troubleshooting. 216 costs. setting. 281-283 OSPFv2 configuration. 196. 265 dialer Layer 3 orientation. 638-640 passive EIGRP. verifying. 27 interface tunnel command. 49 application programming (APIs). 216 EIGRP metric calculations. 543 interface dialer command. See IEEE Integrated Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS). 219-221 OSPFv3. 49 forwarding state. 58 loopback. 212. 400. setting. 432 interface loopback command. 251 OSPF. 113-114 administratively shutdown. 265 EIGRP routes. 216-217 blocking state. 425 PPPoE. 175 interactive data application traffic. 631-632 verifying. compared. 543 interfaces ABR OSPF areas. 217 OSPF costs based on. 354 EIGRP configuration problems.indb 880 down status. 250-252. 196 troubleshooting. 74 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 216-217 EIGRP interfaces. 281 identifying. 222 interface multilink command.880 instantiating VMs instantiating VMs. compared. 275-281 EIGRP for IPv6. 630 influence route selections. 259 higher reference. 768-769 bandwidth defaults. 203 multilink. 630-631. 432 interface vlan command. 218 example. 748-749 Intercloud Fabric. 350 interface port-channel command. 108-109 failed. 360 interface multilink 1 command. 275 OSPF interfaces. 349 Northbound (NBIs). 768-770 OSPF bandwidth. 190. 654-655 EtherChannels. 210-211 access. 281 troubleshooting. 275 passive. 278-281 enabled. 218 verifying. 204-206 OSFPv3. 58 listening state. 47 delays. 640 intercloud exchanges. 37. 416-417. 47 LAN speeds. 25. 490 learning state. 494 interarea routes. 492 interactive voice traffic. 749 interface command.

584-585 IP addresses on loopback interfaces. 190. 233 internal BGP (iBGP). 490 working. 389 wireless WANs. 306 design. 307-308 ISP default routes. See SVIs WANs. 306 enterprise public prefixes. 400 destinations. 20-21. 486 ip access-list extended command. 350 subinterfaces. 309 public cloud accessing. 48-49 status codes. 568. 394 clients. 623-624 Internet access. 751 VPNs. 450. 396-397 security. 409-410 creating. 49 interior gateway protocol. 615 ip access-group command. 472. eBGP and. 765-766 internal routers. 391 DSLs (digital subscriber lines). 745-746 computing branch office connections. 392-393 9781587205798_BOOK. 418.indb 881 edge. 398 state. 423 VLAN.ip_address parameter (network command) 881 routed. 409 replacing serial links. 393 WANs. 457. 390-391 fiber. 408 Layer 3 issues. 198 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 535-537 routing protocol-enabled. 389 benefits. 524-527 switched virtual. 57-58 forwarding or blocking criteria. 190 ip -6 neighbor show command. 175 interior IP routing protocols. 389 wireless. verifying. 304 internal processing (switches). 389 cable Internet. 525 intra-area routes. 395-396 as WAN service. 486 ip access-list command. See SVIs tunnel ACLs. See IGP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). 407 virtual-access. 274 Southbound (SBIs). 393 site-to-site. 767-768 states changing with STP. 525 ip address negotiated command. advertising. 467. 432 ip_address parameter (network command). See ISPs Inter-Switch Link (ISL). 393 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. See IANA Internet service providers. 477. 353 subinterfaces. 473 IP ACLs (access control lists). See ACLs ip address command. learning. 196 MLPPP.

222 ip ospf cost command. 619 EIGRP configuration. 270. 499-501 ip hello-interval eigrp command. 600. 249 EIGRP enabled interfaces. 713 responders. 568. displaying. 715 IP telephony (VLANs). 253-254 neighbor status. 648 ip helper-address command. 756-757 DHCP services. 572 IP headers. 34-36 data and voice VLAN configuration and verification. 36-38 summary. 715-716 history data. 270. 666-667 addresses. 529-531 troubleshooting. 248-249 load balancing. 808 decimal-to-binary. displaying. 297. 713 ip sla schedule command. 808 public clouds address assignment services. 717 UDP Jitter probes. 297 IP IGP metrics. 175-176 ip mtu command. 728 ip sla restart command. 250-252 IPv4 routing table. 263-264 verifying. 534-537 Layer 3 switching with SVIs configuring. 615 IPP (IP Precedence) fields (QoS marking). 543 ip sla command. 34 data and voice VLAN concepts. 716 history data. 539-540 Layer 3 switch routed ports. 197. 728 IP SLAs (IP Service Level Agreements). 297 ip ospf hello-interval command. 395-396 IPv4 routing ACLs. 713 sources.882 IP addressing IP addressing conversions binary-to-hexadecimal. 713 9781587205798_BOOK. finding. 717 ICMP-Echo. 637 ip name-server command. 38-39 ipconfig command. 501-503 IPsec. 532-534 verifying. 222 ip ospf dead-interval command. 757 ip domain-lookup command. 572 ip ospf command. 541 verifying. 323 ip routing command. 531 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 297 ip route command. 713-715 operations. 712 historical success/failure counters. 247. 537-539 troubleshooting. 253 Layer 3 EtherChannels configuring. 573-574 ip hold-time eigrp command. 296. 253-254 EIGRP verification. troubleshooting with.indb 882 troubleshooting with counters. 805-807 hexadecimal-to-binary. 247.

598. 664-666 access-list commands. 600-601 routers. 573-574 DNS problems. compared. 678 ipv6 access-list permit command. 674-678 filtering ICMPv6 NDP messages. 683 capabilities. 643 IPv6 routing access restrictions with IPv6 ACLs. 668 ICMPv6 message filtering. 687 ipv6 access-list deny command. verifying. 670 standard. 669 extended. 273-274 subnet masks mismatched masks. 647. 572 DHCP issues. 624. 666-667 limitations. 499 routing protocols displaying. 678-679 IPv6 ACLs.indb 883 883 ipv6 hold-time eigrp command. 678-679 access restrictions. 448 exact IP address. 668-669 implicit filtering ICMPv6 NDP messages. 614 ipv6 eigrp command. 568-569 mismatched masks. 201 QoS marking. 585 ipv6 access-list commands building. 677 tunneled traffic matching. 601-603 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 648. 679-683 filtering policies. 670 management control. 637 ipv6 ospf command. 586 router WAN interface status. 581 troubleshooting. 643 ipv6 ospf cost command. 446-447 OSPF added. 577-580 LAN issues. 662 ipv6 mtu command. 600-601 hosts. 614. 581-585 IP forwarding issues. 662 ipv6 router ospf command. 572 default router IP address setting. 614 ipv6 dhcp relay destination command. 598-599 connectivity. 678 ipv6 address command. 569-571 packet filtering with access lists. 662 9781587205798_BOOK. 569-571 VLSM (variable length subnet masking). 670 problems. 445-446 subset of address. building. 685 ACLs. 202 troubleshooting.IPv6 routing matching addresses any/all addresses. 669-670 logging. 671-674 testing. 670 addressing on routers configuration. 575-576 mismatched IPv4 settings. 662 ipv6 hello-interval eigrp command. 614. 685 blocking. 643 ipv6 router eigrp command. 683-684 IPv4 ACL. 624. 571-572 incorrect addressing plans. 612 router originated packets. configuring. 685 prefix lengths.

632-633 protocols. 626. 636 multiarea on ABR configuration. 636 LSDBs. 595 stateful DHCPv6. 593-595 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 596 stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC). 638-640 interfaces. 626 single-area configuration. 654-655 load balancing. 646 interfaces. 599 subnetting. 624 route selection metrics. 640-641 subnetting. 682 OSPF. 653 FS. 598 routes EIGRP for IPv6 metrics. 631-632 troubleshooting neighbors. compared. 624 RIDs. 640-641 load balancing. 650-651 OSPFv3 metrics. 612 filtering issues. 627 LSAs. 638-640 troubleshooting. 627-628 interface cost metrics. 611-612 unicast addresses. 621-622 default routes. 605-606 missing IPv6 settings in host. 633-635 verifying interfaces. 597 link-local addresses. 650-651. 621. 646 timers. 647-649 DUAL. 636-638 IPv6 routes. 625 neighbors. 656-657 routes. 604 host issues. 593 static route configuration. 593 host configuration. 619 QoS marking. 595 multicast addresses. 659-660 successors. 623-624 troubleshooting interfaces. 630-631 verifying neighbors. 604 host pings fail from default router. 593 unique local unicast addresses. 632 9781587205798_BOOK. 607-608 router issues. enabling. 628-629 passive interfaces. 604 ACLs. 608-610 name resolution problems. 651-652 neighbors. 604 routing.indb 884 OSPFv2. troubleshooting. 646 EIGRP for IPv4. 619-620 OSPFv3 configuration. 630 IPv6 MTU mismatches. 606-607 host pings only working in some cases. 644-646. 593-594 troubleshooting.884 IPv6 routing EIGRP ASNs. compared. 500 routers. 657-658 global unicast addresses. 649 configuration. 652 topology data.

333-334 troubleshooting. or mouse). 452. 744 jitter. 670 permit. 20-21. advertising. 448-449 icmp. 349 PPPoE configuration. 427-428 Layer 2 leased-line WANs. 122 Layer 1 leased-line WANs CSU/DSUs. 42 security IEEE 802. 336 MLPPP. 491 K keepalive failures. 575-576 VLAN support. 334 physical components. 16 DPs. 389 default routes. 792-793 K-values (EIGRP). 65-66 troubleshooting. 320-321 dial connections with PPP. 687 ipv6 unicast routing command. 45-46 STP. 86 LANs. managing. 464 udp. 175 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 733 keys (encryption).Layer 2 ipv6 traffic-filter command. 54. 448 deny. 442.indb 885 885 L labs. or mouse (KVM). 21 troubleshooting. 104-105 interfaces. 354 leased-line WANs with HDLC. completing. adding. 416-417 switches. 355 keyboard.1x. 309 router configuration example. 144-146 STP security exposures. 795-796 LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol). 335-336 PPPoE configuration. video display. 598. 614 IS-IS (Integrated Intermediate System to Intermediate System). 490 redundancy problems caused without STP. 481 log. 286 KVM (keyboard. 523 defined. finding. 354-356 leased-lines with HDLC. 673. 442. 395 keywords. 318 J Jenkins continuous integration and automation tool. 417 troubleshooting. video display. learning. 448-449 tcp. 733 9781587205798_BOOK. 525 ISPs (Internet service providers). 419 subnets. 414 Internet edge. 464 knowledge gaps. learning. See also commands any. 332-333 speeds. 428-429 6/1/16 12:04 PM .

725 Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). 341 framing. 353-354 Layer 1 problems. 358 least-bandwidth. 341-342 link-local addresses. 336 framing. 398 list logic (IP ACLs). 382 OSPF area design. See LSAs link-state database. 335-336 CSU/DSU.886 Layer 3 Layer 3 GRE tunnel issues. 595 link-state advertisements. 370 E-LAN service. troubleshooting. See also OSPF Link-State Update (LSU) packets. 377 MPLS VPNs. 537-541 routed ports. 534-537 with SVIs. 348-349 MPLS. 337-340 de-encapsulating/ re-encapsulating IP packets. 409 leased-line WANs. 238-239 replacing with IP tunnels. 58 LLQ (Low Latency Queuing). 237 limiting SPAN sources. 444-445 listening state (interfaces). 336 physical components. 378 addresses. 183 links access MetroE. 185-186 RSTP types. 341-342 learning state (interfaces). 344-346 configuring PPP PAP. 346-347 control protocols. 175. 330-331 building. 343-344 9781587205798_BOOK. 365 MPLS. 425 troubleshooting. verifying. 357-358 MetroE design. 417-418 status. 336 configuring HDLC. 21 EtherChannels. 371-372 E-Line service. 398 routing IP packets over. 381-382 PPPoE configuration. 342-343 configuring PPP. 354 Layer 2 problems. 58 leased-line WANs. 340 speeds. 86 Link Control Protocol (LCP). See LSDB link-state protocols. 334 with HDLC. 354-356 Layer 3 problems. 429 switches. 311-312 Ethernet. 505-507 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 333-334 troubleshooting. 379-380 EIGRP challenges. 372 MLPPP. 341 multilink. See MLPPP PPP functions.indb 886 configuring PPP CHAP. 529-534 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 63 serial bandwidth. 23-24 LCP (Link Control Protocol). 370-371 E-Tree service. 357-358 mismatched subnets. 332-333 with PPP authentication.

217 OSPFv3. 491 loss. 283 logging IPv6 ACLs. 452. configuring. 110 maintenance EIGRP neighbors. 440-441 log keyword.marking 887 load balancing EIGRP. 183 exchanging with OSPF neighbors. 553 MLPPP. 502 6/1/16 12:04 PM . preventing. predicting. 627 local SPAN. unsolicited. 183-184 maintaining neighbors. 185-186 fully exchanging LSAs. 179 LSDB relationship. 491 SNMP. 180 contents. 185-186 maintenance. 636 LSDB (link-state database). 184-185 flooding. 432 MAC addresses burned-in. 201 exchanging between neighbors DRs on Ethernet links. 150 Long-Term Evolution (LTE). 184-185 LSAs relationship. See MIB management plane (networking devices). finding. 503 EF. displaying. 183-184 DRs on Ethernet links. 190 best routes. 179 OSPFv3. 84-86 marking. predicting. 111 learning. 179 OSPFv3. managing. 49 forwarding. 502-503 CS.indb 887 LSU (Link-State Update) packets. 203 looping frames. 179 area design. 497 DiffServ DSCP values AF. 764 managing bandwidth. 183 LTE (Long-Term Evolution). 47 STP impact. 366 Management Information Base. 670 log messages. 111 tables EtherChannel impact. 157-158 logins (AAA). 393 loopback interfaces. 393 M mac-address command. 670 logical switches. 491 Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). 491 delay. 147. 491 IPv6 ACLs. 233 OSPF neighbors. 636 9781587205798_BOOK. 44 loss. 695 manual EtherChannels configuration. 111-112 instability. 505-507 LSAs (link-state advertisements). 263-264. 349 OSPF. 184-185 Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF). 636 router. 685 jitter. 497-499 with classification. 651-652 HSRP. 721-724 location (ACLs).

11 headers. 446-448 MaxAge timer (STP). 499-501 MPLS Label headers. 662 load balancing. See MTU measuring cloud computing services. 683 NS (neighbor solicitation). 696-697 SNMPv2.1Q headers. 448 command syntax. 229-230 EIGRP. 627. 699-701 writing variables on agents. 683 OSPF Hello. 699-701 ICMPv6 Echo request. 500-501 Ethernet 802. 699 SNMPv2 support. 222. 283 update BGP. 668-669 NDP. 684 RSTP. 446-447 wildcard masks. filtering. 610. 310 DV routing protocols. 161 MEF (Managed Extensibility Framework). 701-702 SNMPv3. 710-711 NA (neighbor advertisement). 647 for IPv6. 501 trust boundaries. 463-464 TCP and UDP port numbers. 696-697 SNMPv2. 445-446 subset of address. 263 OSPFv3. 464-467 standard numbered ACLs any/all addresses.indb 888 EIGRP. 445 exact IP address. 696 RO/RW communities. 766 messages challenge. 643 maximum transmission unit. 261 9781587205798_BOOK.888 marking Ethernet 802. 366 memory (TCAM). 696 STP Hello BPDU. 696 SNMP variables. 242 Get agent information. source IP. 181-182 partial update. 62 Set RO/RW communities. 684 RS (router solicitation). 710-711 unsolicited log. 713 MEC (Multichassis EtherChannel). 501 IP headers. 218. 303. monitoring. 235-236 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 342 debug. 739 end-user traffic. 501-502 matching packets. 610. and destination IP. 674 filtering. 441-442 matching parameters extended numbered ACLs protocol. 679-684 Inform. 701-702 SNMPv3. 56 maximum-paths command. 270 EIGRP for IPv4. 699 SNMPv2 support. 232 RA (router advertisement). 49 Trap. 247. 651.

373-374 overages. 231 IPv6 routes EIGRP for IPv6. 369 Point-to-Point. troubleshooting. 362-364 access links. 380 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 216-217 higher reference bandwidth. 53 MetroE (Metro Ethernet). 697 views. 366 physical design. 265 EIGRP topology database. troubleshooting. 265 calculation. 351-353 monitor session command. 74 port. 236 bandwidth. 370 E-LAN service. 721. 695-697 OIDs. 238-239 IGP. 373 bandwidth used. 569-571 mismatched subnets. 349 verifying. 368 hub and spoke. 369 partial mesh. 374-375 IEEE Ethernet standards. reviewing. 262 delay settings. 366 E-LAN. 696 MPBGP (Multiprotocol BGP). 305-306 EIGRP. 368-372 E-Line. 367-368 MIB (Management Information Base). 370-371 E-Tree service. 240-241 RD (reported distance). 696 numbering/names. 371-372 E-Line service. 286 MLPPP (multilink PPP).MPBGP (Multiprotocol BGP) metrics BGP best path selection. 728 monitoring MIB variables. 215 based on interface bandwidth. 366 9781587205798_BOOK. 349 Layer 3. 175-176 infinity. 650-651 OSPFv3 interface costs. 372 MEF. 795 mismatched IPv4 settings. 78-79 root. 568-569 mismatched masks. 626 OSPF. 638-640 per-VLAN STP. 262 example. 697 variables monitoring. 240-241 route load balancing. 365-366 services. 367-371 E-Tree. 369-372 topologies full mesh. controlling. 705 mind maps.indb 889 889 Layer 3 design. 236-237 components. 48 STP port. 217 OSPFv3. 365 data usage. 348-349 load balancing. charging for. 237-238 FD (feasible distance). 348 configuring. 349-350 Layer 2 fragmentation balance. 264 serial link bandwidth. 217 setting.

504 9781587205798_BOOK. 135 named ACLs configuration. switches multilink interfaces. 683-684 SLAAC. See MPLS multithreading. 734 N NA (neighbor advertisement) messages. 296 mtu command. 378 Label headers. 788 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 206-210 network commands. 683 name command. 47 multiple queues (queuing systems). 768-770 NCP (Network Control Protocols).890 MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching). 380 Multiprotocol Label Switching. 20 mismatched on trunks. 375-377 access links. 739 native VLANs. 597 ndp –an command. 471-472 named mode (EIGRP configuration). See MPLS VPNs MPLS VPNs (MPLS Virtual Private Networks). 432 multiarea on ABR OSPFv3 configuration. 625 multiarea OSPFv2 configuration. 747 QoS. See Layer 3. 72 MTU (maximum transmission unit). 382 Layer 3. 306 multilayer switches. 381-382 MST (Multiple Spanning Tree). 498 NBIs (Northbound Interfaces). 72 Multiprotocol BGP (MPBGP). 206 verifying. 377 public cloud connections. 118 router configuration. 349 multiple frame transmissions. 376 EIGRP challenges. 209 single-area configurations. 210-212 multiarea OSPFv3 configuration. 472 editing. 679-683 implicit filtering messages through IPv6 ACLs. 697 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 379-382 OSPF area design. 362. 236 IPv6 mismatches. 622 multicast addresses. 161 multihomed Internet edge design. 636-638 OSPF mismatched settings. 473-475 overview. 40. 593 filtering messages through IPv6 ACLs. 501 Layer 3 design. 347 Multiple Spanning Tree (MST). 378-379 virtual private networks. 249 names (MIB variables). 341 NDA (nondisclosure agreement). 207-208 subnets. 682 Multichassis EtherChannel (MEC). 615 6/1/16 12:04 PM .indb 890 multiple serial links between routers. 525-526 NBAR (Network Based Application Recognition). 25.

312 disabling. 656-657 requirements. 253 topology information. 318 classful network routes. 274 solicitation (NS) messages.indb 891 OSPFv3. 218 multiarea configuration. 656-657 OSPF area mismatches. confirming. 285-286 EIGRP for IPv6. 222. 246 for IPv4. 183-186 meeting. exchanging. 313 eBGP configuring. finding. 284 neighbor requirements. 332 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 735 Network Interface Modules (NIMs). 314 states. 341 network functions virtualization (NFV). troubleshooting. 683 states. 293-294 Hello messages. 209 Network Control Protocols (NCP). 248 OSPF single-area configuration. 315-318 static discard routes. 628 netsh interface ipv6show neighbors command. 235-236 troubleshooting. 319-320 EIGRP. 286-290 verifying. 312-313 EIGRP for IPv4. 648 for IPv6 compatibility. injecting. 311 verifying. 314 advertising subnets to ISPs. 234 requirements. 615 Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR). 181-182 LSDB exchange. 186. 234-235 discovery. 286 status. 288 troubleshooting. 235. 290-291 duplicate RIDs. 656 troubleshooting. 718. 683 BGP. 270 enabling. 633-634 troubleshooting. 285 routing protocol relationships. 632 requirements. 289 RIDs. 284 pinging routers. configuring.Network Interface Modules (NIMs) 891 neighbor commands. 322 neighbor shutdown command. 288-294 9781587205798_BOOK. 198-200 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 181 requirements. 498 network command. learning. 314 neighbors advertisement (NA) messages. 323 BGP table entries. 181 states. 314 using link addresses. 633-635 verifying. 291-293 Hello/dead timer mismatches. 182-183. 303 disabling. 754 network interface cards (NICs). 647 wildcard masks. 632-633 relationships.

754-756 NTP. 776 9781587205798_BOOK. 757-758 networks analyzers. 756-757 DHCP services. 736 programmability. 719 broad access. 766-767 defined. 752-754 redundancy needs. 774-776 Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). 766-767 control plane. 315-318 contiguous. 491 delay. 413 NICs (network interface cards).indb 892 public cloud address assignment services. 766 Northbound Interfaces (NBIs). enabling. See NMS Network Time Protocol (NTP). 695 notification community strings. 267 controllers centralized control. 412 spoke-to-spoke communication. 493 physical data center. 757 DNS services. 267 discontiguous classful. 412-413 dynamic mapping. 268 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 266-267 routes. 739 classful autosummarization at boundaries. 735 NIMs (Network Interface Modules). 547-548 traffic bandwidth. 754 VMs. 696-697 no auto-summary command. 739 NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information). 718. managing. 765-766 discontiguous. 266-268 flow. 332 NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). 757-758 VNFs. 773-774 comparisons. 736 NFV (network functions virtualization). 768-770 Southbound Interfaces (SBIs). See authentication. 764 security. 754 NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol). 767-768 devices. 491 jitter. 762 control. centralizing. injecting. 491 loss. 303 Network Management Station. 701 SNMP. 491 characteristics. 762-763 management plane. 760 APIC Enterprise Module (APIC-EM).892 Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI). 400-401 virtual. 491 types. AAA servers switch internal processing. 735-736. 763-764 data plane. 736 Nexus 1000v vSwitch. 492-494 unsecured. 303 NMS (Network Management Station).

190 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 771 Open SDN. 683 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 715 no neighbor shutdown command. 359 EIGRP for IPv6. 539 no ip domain-lookup command. 476 no ip address command. 771-772 Odom. 527 no spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default command. editing ACLs with. 493 nonroot switches (RPs). 101-103 problems. 210-211 areas. 768-770 notification community strings. 788 noninteractive data application traffic. 354 OSPF processes. 314 no passive-interface command. 772 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). 270 no shutdown command. 491 ONF (Open Networking Foundation). 697 on-demand self-service (cloud computing). 103 tiebreakers. 473-475 numeric reference table conversions binary-to-hexadecimal. 40. configuring. 189-190 backbone areas. 771-772 OpenFlow. 771 operations (IP SLAs). 95 no switchport command Layer 3 EtherChannels. 190 backbone routers. 808 O ODL (OpenDaylight). See ASNs HSRP group. 757-758 9781587205798_BOOK. 696-697 SNMPv3. 95 no spanning-tree portfast default command. 768 OSC (Open SDN Controller). 223. 799 OIDs (object IDs). 543 routed ports. 808 decimal-to-binary. 294 ROAS subinterfaces.indb 893 numbered ACLs. 697 ROAS subinterfaces. 710-711 NS (neighbor solicitation) messages. 650. 539 Layer 3 switches. See OSPF OpenDaylight (ODL).OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) 893 no ip access-group command. 189 ABR. 805-807 hexadecimal-to-binary. 572 no ip sla schedule 1 command. Wendell Twitter/Facebook information. 555 MIB variables. 771 Open SDN Controller (OSC). 102-103 normal-time questions. 662 Layer 1 leased-line WAN problems. 535 nondisclosure agreement (NDA). troubleshooting. 772 Open Shortest Path First. 170. 785 Northbound Interfaces (NBIs). 768. 713-715 OpFlex. 475-476 numbers AS numbers. 179 area design. 525 sequence. 701 notifications SNMP. 190. 739 one-way delay.

619 history. reducing. 219-221 load balancing. shutting down. 190 MPLS VPNs. 184-185 meeting. See OSPFv2 OSPFv2 (OSPF Version 2). 217 6/1/16 12:04 PM . calculating.894 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) benefits. 294-296 RIDs configuring. 291-293 super backbone. 215 based on interface bandwidth. 281 single-area. 282-283 mode. 293-294 history. 296 neighbors. 619 interface configuration example. 217 metrics. 191 interarea routes. 182-186. 216-217 higher reference bandwidth. verifying. 288-294 process-ids. 213-215 dual stack. 619 interarea routes. 381-382 network size. 198 processes.indb 894 area mismatches. compared. 213-215 Dijkstra SPF algorithm. 190 internal routers. 170 default routes. 217 setting. 190 intra-area routes. 281 identifying. compared. 215 based on interface bandwidth. 293-294 LSAs. 181 9781587205798_BOOK. learning. 217 MTU mismatched settings. 185-186 duplicate RIDs. 224 goals. setting. troubleshooting. 291-293 Hello messages. 275 passive. troubleshooting. 290-291 DRs on Ethernet links. 183-184 maintaining. 188. 190 three-area. 179 metrics. 186-188 configuration errors. 189 problems. 289 RIDs. 381 Version 2. 189 best routes with SPF. 180 EIGRP. 288 troubleshooting. 302 Hello/dead timers. 218 verifying. 181-182 Hello/dead timer mismatches. 196 troubleshooting. 284. exchanging. 216-217 higher reference bandwidth. 217 setting. 203-204 duplicate. finding. 181 states. enabling. 181 requirements. 217 LSAs. 216-217 EIGRP interfaces. 281-283 load balancing. 198 default routes. 188 SPF workload. 212 interfaces costs.

compared. 198 organization. 632-633 OSPFv2. 512-513 tools. 630-631 IPv6 MTU mismatches. 621 default routes. 513-514 congestion management. 504 overages (MetroE data usage). 623-624 dual stack. compared. 625 route selection metrics. 374-375 overlapping routes. 210-212 OSPFv3. 197 matching with network command. 497 matching. 633-635 verifying. 627-628 load balancing. 504 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 628-629 RIPv2/EIGRP. 512 TCP windowing. compared. 624 RIDs. 583-585 without VLSM. 638-641 9781587205798_BOOK. 233 single-area configuration. setting.packets 895 multiarea configuration. 621. 204-206 RIDs. 209 single-area configurations. 207-208 network command. 626 single-area. 632 requirements. 206 verifying. 631-632 verifying. 504 Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). 633-634 troubleshooting. 496-497 NBAR. 743-744 packets classification. 505-507 multiple queues. troubleshooting. 199 OSPFv3 (OSPF Version 3). 628-629 passive interfaces. 198-200 multiarea configurations. 627 multiarea example. 577-580 overlapping subnets with VLSM. 636 LSDBs. 504 output queuing. 197-198 IPv4 addresses. 622 multiarea on ABR. 495 ACLs. 581-583 P PaaS (Platform as a Service). 630 troubleshooting. 496 routers. 207-208 subnets. 196-197 passive interfaces. 497 with marking. 206-210 network commands. 624 output queuing. 203-204 verifying. 620 configuration.indb 895 LSAs. 497 congestion avoidance. 616 address families dual stack. 636-638 routes. 621. 636 neighbors. 619 interfaces. 200-202 wildcard masks. 498 router queuing.

336 defined. 501 with classification. 778 APIC-EM Path Trace app.1Q headers. 305-306 Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD). 369 partial updates (EIGRP). 675 UDP. 777 selections. 205. 502 IP headers. 251. 86 9781587205798_BOOK. 198 partial mesh topology (MetroE). 501 trust boundaries. 501-502 matching. 503 DiffServ DSCP EF values. 232. configuring. 508 router originated. 196. 297 EIGRP. 499-501 MPLS Label headers. 205 defined. 356 configuring. 496 routing over serial links. 624 Password Authentication Protocol. 509 edge between networks. 251 OSPF. 669 ip_address. See PAP passwords. 270 OSPF interfaces as passive. 507 discarding excess traffic. 196 OSPFv3. 675 marking. 502-503 DiffServ DSCP CS values. 507. 495 filtering. 510 features. 509-510 features. 497 DiffServ DSCP AF values. 675 PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol). 204-206 OSPFv3. 510 traffic rate versus configured policing rate. 505 de-encapsulating/re-encapsulating with HDLC. 670 router queuing. 668 paths forwarding APIC-EM Path Trace ACL Analysis tool. 34 PCP (Priority Code Point) field (802. 198 wildcard_mask. 172 PBX (private branch exchange).896 packets prioritization.11 headers. 500 PE (provider edge). See ACLs ICMPv6.1Q header). 377 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 512 slowing messages. 499 802. 624 passive-interface default command. 698 path attributes (BGP). 505 queuing strategy. 346-347 parameters ICMPv6.indb 896 PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) authentication. 510 time intervals. 398 shaping. 507 round robin scheduling. 343. 511-512 TCP. 222. 270 passive interfaces EIGRP. 235 passive-interface command. 500-501 802. 441-442 policing.

432 permit icmp any any routeradvertisement command. 762-763 management. 399 point-to-point lines. 63. testing. 63. 333-334 troubleshooting. 354 Layer 2 problems. 336 configuring HDLC. 358 Point-to-Point over Ethernet. 341 multilink. 687 permit keyword. 600-602 routes. 605-606 planes (networking devices) control. 763-764 data. 736 physical design (MetroE). 672 permit gre command. See MLPPP PPP functions. 357-358 mismatched subnets. 471-474. 448-449 Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (PVST+). 336 framing. testing. 340 speeds. 332-333 with PPP authentication. 93 Point-to-Point Protocol. 606-607 name resolution problems. 796 peers (BGPs). testing. 615 IPv6 connectivity. See PPP 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 668 point-to-point edge ports. 601 pings (IPv6 hosts) failure from default router. 303 periodic updates. 487 extended IPv6 ACLs. 93 point-to-point GRE tunnels. 346-347 control protocols. 764 9781587205798_BOOK.indb 897 planning EIGRP configuration. 354-356 Layer 3 problems. 684 permit ipv6 commands. 410 IPv6 ACLs. 614 leased-line WANs. 675 GRE tunnel ACLs. 353-354 Layer 1 problems. 335-336 CSU/DSU. 343-344 configuring PPP CHAP.Point-to-Point Protocol 897 Pearson Network Simulator (the Sim). 674 IPv6 connectivity. 229 permit command. 483-485 ping6 command. 334 with HDLC. 337-340 de-encapsulating/ re-encapsulating IP packets. 483. 336 physical components. 129 Platform as a Service (PaaS). 330-331 building. 743-744 PMTUD (Path MTU Discovery). 341 framing. 72-73 physical data center networks. 442. 246 VTP configuration. 365-366 physical server model. 353 self-ping. See PPPoE point-to-point ports. 684 permit icmp any any router-solicitation command. 734 ping command. 571-574. 607-608 working only in some cases. 615 IPv6 ACLs. 344-346 configuring PPP PAP. 342-343 configuring PPP.

60 disabled. 507 discarding excess traffic. 60 Layer 3 switch routed.indb 898 per-VLAN STP costs. 341 leased-line WANs. 508 pooling resources. 365 policies ACI. 60. 348-349 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 52-53 RSTP backup. 82-83 ports 802. 509-510 features. 60. 91-92 states. 348 configuring. 83 global settings. 65 configuring. matching. 773 filtering. 345-346 configuring. 60-61. 62-63 roles. 92 SPAN destination/source. 74 root (RPs). See EtherChannels PortFast. 63. 508 rate. 343-344 control protocols. 53. 341 dial connections to ISPs. 86 costs IEEE default. choosing. choosing. 153 DHCP snooping. 356 configuring. 534-537 numbers. 44 channels. 49. 304. choosing. 413 authentication. 349 Layer 3. 62 switch root. 92 STP versus RSTP. 304. 344-345 verifying. 78-79 designated. 151-153 configuring. 349-350 Layer 2 fragmentation balance. 367-368 points of presence (PoP). 509 edge between networks. 91-92 backup. 101-103 switches. 342-343 CHAP authentication. 342. 365 Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP).898 Point-to-Point topology (MetroE) Point-to-Point topology (MetroE). 55 STP. 340. 810 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol). 83 verifying. 81 enabling/disabling. 719 stacking ports. 374 QoS. 60 nonroot switches. 464-467 9781587205798_BOOK. 60 alternate. 510 traffic rate versus configured policing rate. 340 multilink (MLPPP). 52-53 trusted/untrusted. 91-92 blocking. 154 powers of 2 numeric reference table. 414 framing. 668 policing data overages (MetroE). 156 states RSTP. 92-93 types. displaying. 739 PoP (points of presence).1w RSTP roles. 54. 86 PortChannels.

finding. 792 scores. 417. 350. 796-797 taking. 790 checklist. 792-793 other. 356 configuring.indb 899 899 verification. 303 IPv6. 796-797 taking. 417 status. 417. 790-791 CCNA R&S. 413-415 configuring. 790 checklist. 432 ppp multilink command. 428-429 Layer 3. 346. 423 pppoe-client dial-pool number command. 557-558 pre-exam suggestions. 790 knowledge gaps. 789-790 pre-exam suggestions. 360 ppp multilink group 1 command. 418-419 enabling. 359 ppp chap hostname command. 349. 790 ICND2. 432 practice exams answering questions. 416-417 Layer 2. 425 session status. 594. 786-787 preparing for failure.preparing for the exam load balancing. 421-422 Layer 3 status. 419 Layer 1. 344 ppp authentication chap command. 794-796 exam-day suggestions. 670 preparing for the exam CLI skills. 417 Layer 3. 787 knowledge gaps. 432 pppoe enable command. 425-426 customer router configuration. 345 ppp authentication command. 786-787 prefixes BGP. 414 troubleshooting. 360 ppp multilink group command. finding. 432 ppp chap password command. 350 ppp pap sent-username command. 429 summary. 790 ICND2. 427-428 Layer 2. 788 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 351-353 PAP authentication. 346-347 PPPoE Layer 2 configuration. 343. 349 verifying. 790-791 CCNA R&S. 417-418 summary. 415-416 ISP router configuration example. 426 dialer 2 status. 359 PPPoE (Point-to-Point over Ethernet). 430 9781587205798_BOOK. 417 history. 424 virtual-access interfaces. 792-793 practice exams answering questions. 789-790 preemption (HSRP active/standby roles). 792 scores. 420-421 dialers. 790 other. 427 Layer 1.

506 priv keyword (snmp-server group command). 364 access links. 365-366 Point-to-Point topology. 377 MPLS VPNs.900 preparing for the exam question types. 751 types. 62 programmability (network). 302 internal (iBGP). 303-304 routing table analysis reports website. 368-372 E-Line services. 784 ready to pass assessment. 375-377 access links. compared. 500 priority queues. 366 Layer 3 design. 303-310 BPDUs (bridge protocol data units). 362 probes. 310 external. 773-774 comparisons. 303. 739-741 private WANs MetroE. 373-375 E-LAN services. 370-372 MEF. 300. 369 physical design. 304 best path selection. 505 Priority Code Point (PCP) field (802. 320-321 neighbors. 760 APIC Enterprise Module (APIC-EM). 224 BGP.indb 900 public cloud accessing. 198 processes OSPF. 368 hub and spoke topology. 797-798 tutorial. 776 proprietary routing protocols. 174. 304 ASNs. 379-382 QoS. 367-371 E-Tree services. 304 ISP default routes. 784-785 prioritization (congestion management). 797 study tasks. 366 MPLS. 369-372 full mesh topology. 314-320 update messages. injecting. learning.1Q header). 369 IEEE Ethernet standards. 303 reachability. 365 data usage. 378-379 VPNs. 49 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 305-306 configuring. 367-368 services. 746-749 branch office connections. 302 route advertising. 378 Layer 3 design. 303 table entries. shutting down. 366 partial mesh topology. 707 private branch exchange (PBX). See eBGP IGPs. 313-314 prefixes. 774-776 Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). 175 protocols. 294-296 RSTP. 713-715 process-ids (OSPF). 303 AS. 376 9781587205798_BOOK. 34 private cloud computing. 798 studying after failing to pass.

311-314 EGP. 175 FHRP. 555 9781587205798_BOOK. 544 HDLC. See IPv6 routing link-state. 228 EIGRP as. 412 spoke-to-spoke communication. 559-560 iBGP. 549 options. 173. 175 subnets. 463-464 MPBGP. 757 snooping. 344-345 verifying. 765 matching. 336-340. 552 group numbers. 229-230 EAP. 413 NTP. 555 load balancing. 230-231 update messages. 593 filtering messages through IPv6 ACLs. 551 active/standby routers. 331. 554 failover. 173. 551 active/passive model. 342. 146 EAPoL. 544. 558 troubleshooting. 304 IGPs. 232-233 route poisoning. 153 DHCP Relay.indb 901 active/standby rules. 557 configuring.protocols 901 CHAP authentication. 177 configuring. 544 features. 560-563 verifying. 597 NHRP. choosing. 557 with preemption. 679-683 implicit filtering messages through IPv6 ACLs. 412-413 dynamic mapping. 303 IGRP. 398 HSRP. 550 HSRP. 228 distance/vector information learned. compared. enabling. 175. 310 goals. 555-556 versions. 356 configuring. 380 NDP. 116 DV (distance vector). 304 Internet edge. 573 public cloud services. 683-684 SLAAC. 175-176 routing protocol algorithm. 553 no preemption. 226 BGPs. 302 EIGRP. 757-758 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 151-154 Dijkstra SPF algorithm. 345-346 control plane. 175 management plane. 550-551 GLBP. 764 DHCP Binding Table. See IPv4 routing IPv6. 146 eBGP. 302 classless/classful. See HSRP need for. 231-232 split horizon. 302 metrics. 306-309 neighbors. 175 IPv4. 180 DTP.

See DV protocols EGP (exterior gateway protocol). 173-177 9781587205798_BOOK. 173 defined. 92 processes. 146-148 RIP.indb 902 interfaces enabled with. 175 AS. 235 SNMP. 175-176. See SNMP STA (spanning-tree algorithm). 172 routing administrative distance. 88 link types. verifying. 172 routed. matching.902 protocols OSPF. 346-347 PPP. 464-467 transporting messages between BGP peers. 414 ISP router configuration example. 48 STP. 172-173 IGP. 173 functions. 310 windowing. 174 autosummarization. 62-63 Cisco Catalyst STP modes. 302 EIGRP/OSPFv2. 415-419 enabling. See OSPFv3 PAgP. 59-60 RTP. 313 packets. See OSPF OSPFv2. 62 standards. See STP TACACS+. 60-61 backup port role. 413. 266-268 classless/classful. See PPP PPPoE. 175 RIPv1. 675 port numbers. displaying. 274 interior comparison. compared. 62. 425-430 verification. 92-93 port types. 233 IPv4. 177-178 algorithms. 415 configuring. 172 proprietary. 177. 58 STP. See OSPFv2 OSPFv3. 91-92 port states. 63. 417 history. 60. 226 route redistribution. 202 link-state. 512-513 6/1/16 12:04 PM . compared. 356 configuring. 343. 88-90 implementing. 148 TCP BGP connections. 266 convergence. 63 port roles. 226 RIPv2. 419 troubleshooting. 233 goals. 172 DV. 175 path selections. 177 troubleshooting. 420-425 RADIUS. 302 routable. 86 PAP authentication. 226 RIPv2. 273-274 RSTP alternate ports.

752-754 PVST+ (Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus). 504 Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). 491 jitter. 491 classification. 491 loss. 126-127 servers. 751 private WAN connections. verifying. 675 port numbers. 378. 497 congestion avoidance. 131-133 synchronization. 505 defined. 751 9781587205798_BOOK. 754-756 intercloud exchanges. 497 matching. 741 accessing with Internet. 497 with marking. 492 QoS (Quality of Service). 488 delay. 746-749 VPNs. 125-127 features. IPv6 ACL matching.indb 903 DHCP services. 544 VTP. 757 DNS services. 745-746 private WANs. 72-73 Q QoE (Quality of Experience). 505-507 multiple queues. 512 TCP windowing. 464-467 VRRP. 135 troubleshooting. 496 routers. 505 queuing strategy. 504 output queuing. 124 standard range VLANs. 488 bandwidth. 127-128 public cloud computing. 491 6/1/16 12:04 PM . adding. matching. 123 provider edge (PE). 757-758 VNFs. 120 automated update powers. 749-752 email services traffic flow. 496-497 NBAR. 120 configuration. 756-757 branch offices example. 134-135 switches synchronization to VLAN database. 504 prioritization. 127-128 requirements. 377 pruning (VTP). 713 packets. 748-749 NTP. 750-751 Internet connections. 135-139 versions. 507 round robin scheduling. 129-131 domains. 513-514 congestion management. 125-126 transparent mode. 123 storing configuration. 128 planning configuration.QoS (Quality of Service) 903 UDP Jitter probes. 747 address assignment services. 129 pruning. 498 router queuing. 127 VLAN support. 495 ACLs. 512-513 tools.

learning. 784 9781587205798_BOOK. 511-512 switches/routers. 495 tools. 496 R RA (Router Advertisement). 509-510 features. 508 shaping. 785 knowledge gaps. 242 questions (exam) answering. 507 priority queues. 504 prioritization. See RSTP rate limiting (DHCP snooping).indb 904 queuing congestion management. 235 redistribution Internet edge ISP routes. 699 ready to pass assessment (exam).1Q headers. 493-494 query messages (EIGRP). 499 with classification. 739 Rapid PVST+. 497 DiffServ DSCP AF values. 257 reachability (BGP). 501 IP headers. 501-502 MPLS. 507. 501 trust boundaries. 509 edge between networks. 790-791 budgeting time. 502-503 DiffServ DSCP CS values. 146-148 rapid elasticity (cloud computing). 699 read-write (RW) communities (SNMP). 507 discarding excess traffic. 510 features. 494 voice applications. 309 routes (MPLS VPNs). 505 strategy. 510 traffic rate versus configured policing rate. 492-493 video applications. 154 RD (reported distance). 500-501 Ethernet 802. 302 read-only (RO) communities (SNMP). 240-241. 504 Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). 72 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol. 504 output queuing. classification for. finding. 797 Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). 550 HSRP. 499-501 MPLS Label headers. 493-494 policing. 505-507 multiple queues. 506 routers. See HSRP 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 510 time intervals. 496 VoIP.904 QoS (Quality of Service) marking.11 headers. 506 queue starvation. 505 round robin scheduling. 378-379 needs based on traffic types data applications. 684 RADIUS protocol. 512 slowing messages. 792-793 types. 610. 380 redundancy FHRP features. 502 Ethernet 802. 503 DiffServ DSCP EF values.

181 configuring. 472. 285 requirements. 525-526 subinterface numbers. 713 REST (Representation State Transfer). 550-551 LANs problems caused without STP. 45-46 STP. 527 roles ports alternate. 196 EIGRP. 520. 624 RIP (Routing Information Protocol). 524 native VLANs. 226 EIGRP/OSPFv2.indb 905 RESTful APIs. 42 network needs for. 633-634 SNMPv3 configuration. 694 RFC 4301 Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol. troubleshooting. 60-61 backup. 242 reported distance (RD). 769 9781587205798_BOOK. 656 neighbors. 628 relay agents (DHCPv6). 284 EIGRP. 721 reply messages (EIGRP). compared. 126-127 resource pooling (cloud computing). 487 Remote SPAN (RSPAN). 284 states. 302 RO (read-only) communities (SNMP). 233 goals. 395 RIDs (router IDs). 524 example. 284 EIGRP for IPv6. 291-293 OSPFv3. 226 RIPv2 (RIP Version 2). creating. 547 reference bandwidth. 699 ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 769 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 257 Representational State Transfer (REST). 633-635 pinging routers. troubleshooting.roles 905 need for. 203-204 duplicate. 62-63 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 704 VTP. 480-481 RFC 1065. 547-548 single points of failure. 739 EIGRP for IPv6 neighbors. 549 options. 526 show vlans command. 235 remark command. confirming. 240-241. 525 subinterfaces. 454-456 reversed source/destination IP address. troubleshooting. 739 responders (IP SLAs). 596 Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP). 181 defining. 524 configuration. 528-529 verifying. 216-217 relationships (neighbors). 526-527 connected routes. 252 OSPF. 289 OSPFv3. 524-525 troubleshooting. 286 OSPF. 527 subinterface state. configuring. 769 requirements cloud computing services. 175-176. 656-657 OSPFv3.

557 configuring. 598-599 connectivity. 554 failover. 747 configuring different VIPs. 99-101 round robin scheduling (queuing). 186 flooding.indb 906 best routes. 185-186 DROthers. 172 routed ports. See RIDs internal. 311 router eigrp command. 497 ACLs. 222. verification. 534-537 routed protocols. verifying. 185 backup (BDRs). See ROAS router ospf command. 185 discovering. 647 router-id command. 553 no preemption. 100-101 STP. verifying. 555 active/standby rules. 552 group numbers. 209-210 advertisement (RA) messages. 91-92 STP. 563 data plane processing. 270. finding. 557 with preemption. 211-212 Ethernet links. troubleshooting. 198 Router Solicitation (RS). 172 Router Advertisement (RA) messages. 180 classification. 558 troubleshooting. See RPs root switches electing. 610. 498 Cloud Services Routers (CSRs). 196. 246. 80-81 ruling out switches.906 roles root. 57 root bridge IDs. 684 backbone. See RPs RSTP. 555-556 versions. 210-211 OSPFv2 multiarea configuration. 559-560 IDs. 604 routing. 399 HSRP active/passive model. 598 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 555 load balancing. enabling. 190 interface OSPF areas. defining. 643 RIDs. 763 designated (DRs). 560-563 verifying. 77 troubleshooting. 60. 179 GRE tunnels between. 190 9781587205798_BOOK. choosing. 614 OSPFv3. 610. 497 NBAR. configuring. See also routes. 50 root costs (switches). 684 router bgp command. 222 router ospf 1 command. routing ABR (Area Border Router). 715 routable protocols. 623-624 IPv6 addressing configuration. 50-52 election influence. 624. 48 root ports. 190. 601-603 issues. 491 Round Trip Time (RTT). 505 round-trip delay. 551 active/standby routers. 196 router-on-a-stick. 610 routers.

learning. 398 solicitation (RS) messages. 231-232 redistribution. 320-321 Internet edge. 357 interarea. learning. 528-529 verifying. See routing protocols troubleshooting default router IP address setting. 650-651 OSFPv3 metrics. 23. 581-585 IP forwarding issues. 315-318 default. 319 EIGRP choosing. 611-612 ISP. 496 congestion management. 627-628 discard. 577-580 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 659-660 feasibility conditions. 21-23 routes. 305-306 classful networks. 650 LANs.indb 907 tuning with bandwidth. 636 multiple serial links between. 526-527 router WAN interface status. 524-525 troubleshooting. 347 OSPF interface costs. 575-576 VLAN routing. enabling/disabling. 626. 242 feasible successor. routing BGP advertising. creating. 640-641 ISP default. 216-217 public cloud networks. 640 IPv6 EIGRP for IPv6 metrics. 573-574 LAN issues. 573-574 DNS problems. 303-304 best path selection. See also routers. 260-261 identifying. 495 queuing classification for. 638-640 static. routes EIGRP for IPv6. configuring. 309 OSPF default routes. 504-507 strategy. 523 protocols. 572 DHCP issues. See also FHRP ROAS. 549. 319-320 successor. 380 static discard.routing 907 static route configuration. injecting. 507 redundant. 234 load balancing. 610. 684 troubleshooting DHCP issues. 177. 599 troubleshooting. 263-264 EIGRP for IPv6. verifying. 419 LSAs. 212 poisoning. 524 configuration. 213-215 interarea. 525-526 subinterfaces. 571-572 incorrect addressing plans. 585 routing IP packets over serial links. 754 QoS. 241-242 convergence. 259 variance. 258-260 host. 599 troubleshooting. See also routers. 524-526 native VLANs. 257-258 routing. 263-264 9781587205798_BOOK.

verifying. 62. 575-576 mismatched IPv4 settings. 226 RIPv2. 235 RTP (Reliable Transport Protocol). 102-103 switches. 175 path selections. 175.indb 908 proprietary. 173 algorithms. 231-232 split horizon. 60 nonroot switches. 175 RIPv1. 172 DV. 60-61 backup port role. 62 standards. 177 troubleshooting configuration errors. analyzing. 568-569 mismatched masks. 273 neighbor relationships.908 routing LAN issues. 610. 232-233 route poisoning. 52-53 RS (Router Solicitation) messages. 172 9781587205798_BOOK. 177 metrics. 91-92 states. 229-230 EGP (exterior gateway protocol). 173 functions. 228 EIGRP as. See VLAN routing Routing Information Protocol (RIP). 59-60 RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol). 202 link-state. 58-59 alternate ports. 58 STP. troubleshooting. 274 interior comparison. 274 routing tables. 63 ports roles. 273 RPs (root ports). 177-178 algorithms. 62-63 Cisco Catalyst switch RSTP modes. 266 classful network boundaries. 233 IPv4. 175 AS. 177. 266-267 discontiguous classful networks. 228 distance/vector information learned. 172-173 IGP. choosing. 684 RSPAN (Remote SPAN). 88-90 implementing. 92-93 types. 274 internetwork. 569-571 router WAN interface status. 266 convergence. 715 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 175 routing protocols administrative distance. 235 RTT (Round Trip Time). 721 RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol). 585 VLAN. 101-103 problems. compared. 175-176 interfaces enabled with. 175 classless/classful. 60. 63. 103 tiebreakers. 226 route redistribution. 88 link types. 267-268 classless/classful. 230-231 update messages. 173 defined. 92 processes. 174 autosummarization.

393 IPsec encryption. 153 rate limiting. 145 EAP. 768-770 OpenDaylight SDN controller. 770 comparisons. 532 sdm prefer lanbase-routing command. verifying. 395-396 SNMP. 767-768 Open SDN.1x. 145 AAA servers. 153 features. 698-699 SNMPv3. 154 rules summary. 771-772 OpenFlow. 148 access. 152 types. 396-397 9781587205798_BOOK. 707-708 DHCP snooping configuration settings. 153 DHCP-based attacks. 772 OpenDaylight (ODL). 150 authentication 802. 150 login process. 147 TACACS+/RADIUS protocols. 699 S SaaS (Software as a Service). 771 Southbound Interfaces (SBIs). 796-797 sdm prefer command. 144-146 AAA servers. 151-154 encryption. 683-684 ruling out switches. 767-768 scoring exams. 153 trusted/untrusted ports. 699. 151 ports as trusted. 760 APIC Enterprise Module (APIC-EM). 776 controllers centralized control. 145 Internet VPNs. 705-707 STP. 707-708 IEEE 802. 557 implicit IPv6 ACL ICMPv6 message filtering. 145 authentication process. 774-776 Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI).1x. 100-101 RW (read-write) communities (SNMP). 65-66 6/1/16 12:04 PM . configuring. configuring. 771 Secure Shell (SSH). 771 Open SDN Controller (OSC). 147-150 Internet VPNs. 152 DHCP Binding Table. 145 attacks DHCP-based. 699. 765 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). 150 HSRP active/standby. 766-767 Northbound Interfaces (NBIs).indb 909 security AAA servers configuration. 148-150 login authentication rules.security 909 rules AAA login authentication. 393 SNMPv3. 743 SBIs (Southbound Interfaces). 543 SDN (Software Defined Networking). 146 username/password combinations. 773-774 architecture.

743 DHCP. 483-485 sender’s bridge IDs. 739 requirements. 748-749 session keys. 696 shaping (QoS). 743-744 9781587205798_BOOK. 332 serial links. 369-372 public cloud accessing with Internet. 510 time intervals. 734 virtualization. 50 sequence numbers. 149 username/passwords. 739 on-demand self-service. 507. 720-721. 757 DNS. 389 MetroE. 368-372 E-Line. 367-371 E-Tree. 511-512 shaping data overages (MetroE). 375 shared edge ports. 512 rate. 739 cloud services catalogs. 362 services cloud computing broad network access. 734 multithreading. 510 features. 50 sender’s root cost. 739 Platform as a Service (PaaS). 735-738 VMs.1x. 395 session status (PPPoE). verifying. 740 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). 736 virtual data centers. 149 enabling. 734 VTP. 725 Set messages RO/RW communities. 741 rapid elasticity. 510 slowing messages. 739 resource pooling. 746-749 accessing with VPNs. 732 physical server model. 145 defining. 734 hypervisors. 63. 93 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 734-735 hosts. 699 SNMPv2 support. 734 networking. 145 Cisco hardware. 756-757 branch offices example. 754-756 Internet as WAN. 124 service-level agreements (SLAs). 395 shared ports.910 self-ping self-ping. 712 service providers (SPs). 742 measured. 749-752 intercloud exchanges.indb 910 private. 739-741 public. 424 sessions (SPAN). 473-475 serial cables. 147-150 configuring for 802. 366 E-LAN. 745-746 accessing with private WANs. 747 address assignment. See leased-line WANs servers AAA authentication. 732-733 defined. 699-701 writing variables on agents. 93 shared keys. 739 Software as a Service (SaaS).

423 show interfaces vlan command. 536 show interfaces description command. 421. 405. 41. displaying. See SPF algorithm show access-list command. 474-476 show ip access-lists command. 345 PPP PAP. 260 show ip eigrp topology command. 543 show etherchannel summary command.indb 911 show interfaces status command Layer 3 EtherChannels. 262 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 259 metrics. 536 show interfaces switchport command. 687 show arp command. 250. 433 show interfaces virtual-access configuration command. 457. 473 show access-lists command. 116-117 show interfaces tunnel command. 543 show ip access-list command. 569 EIGRP neighbor requirements. 286 MLPPP. 433 show interfaces virtual-access command. 31-34. 275 STP status. 395 shorter VLAN configuration example. 479. 107. 68 show controllers command. 41. 352 OSPF interfaces. 297 EIGRP-enabled interfaces. 285 show ip eigrp topology all-links command. 673 routing protocol-enabled interfaces. 271 feasible successor routes. 352 show ip eigrp interfaces detail command. 135 show interfaces trunk command. 286 multilink interfaces. 344 routed ports. 450. verifying. 271 show ip eigrp neighbors command. 543. 114-116. 38. 576 show interfaces dialer command. verifying. 450. 360. 298. 297 neighbor status. 539 routed ports. 487 show ip bgp command. 323 show ip eigrp interfaces command. 313.show ip eigrp topology command 911 shared session keys. 433 9781587205798_BOOK. 479. 283 neighbors. 86 show etherchannel command. 572 show commands IPv6 ACLs. 96. 323 show ip bgp summary command. 271. 28-29 Shortest Path First algorithm. 37. 457. 346 PPP status. 275 EIGRP neighbor requirements. verifying. 360 show etherchannel 1 summary command. 250-251. 487. 289 OSPFv3 interface bandwidth. 298. 352 show controllers serial command. 253 neighbor verification checks. 540 show interfaces command. 32-34. 640 PPP CHAP status. 271.

displaying. 219 show ip route command. 201. 323. 253. 271. 223. 543 show ip route eigrp command. 663 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 729 show ipv6 access-list command. 352 OSPF interfaces. 289 show ip ospf database command. displaying. 425 EIGRP-learned routes. 178 dialer interface Layer 3 orientation. listing. troubleshooting. 298 DRs/BDRs details. 179. 577-580 administrative distance. 450. 202 OSPF configuration errors. 271. 297 show ip route ospf command. 293 OSPF areas for ABR interfaces. 289 OSPF status on interfaces. 258 topology table. 662 show ipv6 eigrp interfaces detail command. 729 show ip sla history command. 687 show ipv6 eigrp interfaces command. 223. 210 OSPF-enabled interfaces. 729 show ip sla statistics command. 662 show ipv6 eigrp neighbors command. 206 show ip ospf neighbor command. 286. 663 show ipv6 eigrp topology command. 214 show ip sla enhanced-history distribution-statistics command. 298. 223. 729 show ip sla summary command. 220 passive interface. 577-578 show ip route static command. 297 EIGRP-enabled interfaces. 275 EIGRP neighbors. 254. 298 OSPF areas for ABR interfaces. 298 duplicate OSPF RIDs. 677. 223. 254 IPv4 routes added by OSPF.912 show ip eigrp topology command successor routes. 479 show ip ospf command. 223. 256 show ip interface brief command.indb 912 show ip protocols command. 205. 223. identifying. 283 show ip interface command. 295 show ip ospf neighbor interface brief command. 182. 211 neighbors. 211 Hello/dead timer mismatches. 289 OSPFv2 interface configuration. troubleshooting. 654. 288 OSPF processes shutdown. 291 OSPF neighbors. 457. 295 9781587205798_BOOK. 717. 210 OSPF neighbors. 663 show ipv6 eigrp topology | section command. 223 show ip ospf interface brief command. 251-252. troubleshooting. 360 GRE tunnels. troubleshooting. 221 show ip ospf interface command. 282-283 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 201 routing tables. displaying. 404 multilink interfaces. 223. 275 OSPF neighbors. 281 OSPFv2 interface configuration. 271. 286 IPv4 routing protocols. displaying. 298 DRs/BDRs details.

681 IPv6 IPv4 replacement. 96 show standby brief command. 640. 724. 81 show spanning-tree command. 630. 353. 729 show ppp all command. 360 9781587205798_BOOK. 614 IPv6 ACL ICMPv6 NDP message filtering. 92 show spanning-tree vlan command. 424. 643 show ipv6 ospf database command.indb 913 show ppp multilink command. 729 show spanning-tree bridge command. 360 show pppoe session command. 83. 323 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 729 show monitor session all command. 728 show snmp contact command. 603 show ipv6 ospf command. 708. 96 show spanning-tree vlan 10 bridge command. 82 show spanning-tree root command. 654 OSPFv3 interfaces. 643 show ipv6 ospf interface brief command. 662 EIGRP for IPv6 interfaces. 724. 111 show monitor detail command. 643 show ipv6 route | section command. 728 show snmp group command. 643 show ipv6 protocols command. 643 show ipv6 ospf interface command. 135. 560 status. 313 show tcp summary command. 635. 81 show spanning-tree summary command. 433 show running-config command. 96 show spanning-tree interface detail command. 663 IPv6 router connectivity. 630-631.show tcp summary command 913 show ipv6 interface command. 614. 687 show ipv6 neighbors command. 702. 640. 728 show snmp user command. 723 show monitor session command. 729 show snmp community command. 729 show snmp location command. 614. 565 configuration. 630 show ipv6 route command. 77 show spanning-tree vlan 10 command. 636. 614. 643 EIGRP for IPv6. 709. 346-347. 603 show ipv6 route eigrp command. 729 show snmp host command. 473-475 show snmp command. 114 show mac address-table dynamic command. 703. 555-565 show standby command (HSRP). 681 show mac address-table command. 75-77 show spanning-tree vlan 10 interface gigabitethernet0/2 state command. 77. 638. 96 show spanning-tree interface command. 663 show ipv6 route ospf command. 643 show ipv6 ospf neighbor command. 702. 556 show tcp brief command. 449. 643 EIGRP for IPv6. 663 show ipv6 routers command. 614.

650. 131. 597 NDP. 141 show vtp status command. 698 communities. 699 security. 359 EIGRP for IPv6. 141 shutdown command. 696-697 read-only (RO) communities. 623-624 single homed Internet edge design. 354 OSPF processes. 135. 40. 712 SLAAC (stateless address autoconfiguration) EUI-64. 695 Inform messages. 197 matching with network command. 692 agents. 114 show vlan command. 134. 698-699 Get messages agent information. 201-202 LSDB contents. 201 wildcard masks. 198 organization. 207-208 network command. 140 shutting down OSPF processes. 294 ROAS subinterfaces. 597 IPv6 settings. 543 show vtp password command. 306 single points of failure. 26-29. 197-198 IPv4 addresses. 294-296 signatures. 695 MIB. 196-197 passive interfaces. 198-200 multiarea configurations. 203-204 verifying. 114 show vlan status command. 134. 701-702 managers. 695-696 clear-text passwords. 27. 699 SNMPv2 configuration. 796 Simple Network Management Protocol. 696-697. 141 show vlan id command.indb 914 single-area OSPFv3 configuration. 696-697 notifications. 662 Layer 1 leased-line WAN problems. 204-206 RIDs. 699-701 writing variables on agents. 701-702 snmp-server command. 700 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 696-697. 696 Trap messages. 114. 597 troubleshooting. 696 RO/RW communities. displaying. 699 SNMPv2 configuration. 29. 547 site-to-site VPNs. 609-610 SLBaaS (SLB as a service). See SNMP single-area OSPF. 41. 41. 199 9781587205798_BOOK. 394-396 SLA (service level agreement). 699-701 history. 200-202 IPv4 routing protocols. 135 show vlans command. 699 read-write (RW) communities. 498 the Sim (Pearson Network Simulator). 527. 753 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).914 show vlan brief command show vlan brief command. 188 single-area OSPFv2 configuration. 698-699 Set messages RO/RW communities. 527 shutdown vlan command.

711-712 users. 777 sources addresses. 72. 48 spanning-tree bpduguard disable command. 719 sources. 704 summary. 699 Trap messages. 705 write views. 72 spanning-tree mode pvst command. monitoring. 721 spanning-tree algorithm (STA). 463-464 IP SLAs. 705 security levels. 725 VLANs. 722 destination ports. 406 IPs. 727 snmp-server group command. limiting. 725 traffic direction. 705 snmp-server host command. 95 spanning-tree bpguard enable command.indb 915 Software Defined Networking. 727 snmp-server contact command. See SDN solution apps. 95 spanning-tree bpduguard enable command. 704 authentication. 55 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 708-709 groups MIB views. 743 9781587205798_BOOK. 707 SNMPv2 configuring Get/Set messages. 707 verifying.spanning-tree pathcost method long command 915 snmp-server community command. 81. 727 snmp-server location command. 699 SNMPv2c (Community-based SNMP Version 2). 710. 705 security. 710-711 requirements. 720-721 source ports. 95 spanning-tree mode mst command. 767-768 SPAN (Switched Port Analyzer). 707-708 groups. 721-724 network analyzer needs for. 88. 72 spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst command. 707-708 encryption. 710-711 MIB views. 721 local. 719 Remote (RSPAN). 90 spanning-tree pathcost method long command. 699-701 Trap/Inform messages. 718 dependencies. 713 ports (SPAN). limiting. 702-704 security. 719 Encapsulated RSPAN (ERSPAN). 706 Inform messages. 725 Southbound Interfaces (SBIs). 701-702 verifying. 727 snmp-server user command. 75 spanning-tree commands. 95 spanning-tree mode command. 699 SNMPv3 configuring. 701. 705-707 notifications. matching. 727 snmp-server enable traps command. 721 sessions. 710-711 Software as a Service (SaaS). 719 SPAN.

48-49 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 576 speeds LAN/WAN interfaces. 74 speed command. 159-161 FlexStack/FlexStack-Plus. 445-446 matching subset of address. 608-609 stateful DHCPv6. 671-674 standard numbered IPv4 ACLs. 75. 443 access-list command. 155 chassis aggregation. 156 stacking ports. 57-58 criteria. 490 leased-line WANs. 443 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 557 standby version 1 | 2 command. See STP spanning-tree vlan 10 port priority 112 command. 452-453 wildcard masks binary wildcard masks. 83. 156-157 benefits. 157 standard ACLs. 157-158 stack masters. 448-452 list logic. configuring. 156 stacking switches access layer switches. 446-447 standard range VLANs.indb 916 operating as single logical switch. 559 stateful DHCP. 452-453 verification. 564 standby version command. 61 interfaces changing with STP. 81. 158 9781587205798_BOOK. troubleshooting. 564 standby HSRP routers. 95 Spanning Tree Protocol. 558 standby command. 180 Dijkstra SPF. 157 stacking cables. 742 split horizon (DV routing protocols). 765 SSL (Secure Sockets Layer). 55-56 discarding. 83. 596 stateless address autoconfiguration. 554. 454-456 troubleshooting. 123 standby 1 preempt command. 396-397 STA (spanning-tree algorithm). 95 spanning-tree portfast default command. 95 spanning-tree portfast disable command. 447-448 decimal wildcard masks. 48 stack masters. 156 stacking modules. 446-447 overview. 445 configuration examples. 95 spanning-tree portfast command. 333-334 SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm. 454 command syntax.916 spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default command spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default command. 362 SSH (Secure Shell). 180 OSPF best routes. See SLAAC states change reactions (STP topology). 444-445 matching any/all addresses. 422 SPs (service providers). 186-188 spinning up VMs. 448 matching exact IP address. calculating. 103 spanning-tree vlan command. 230-231 spoofing.

49 root switch election. 47 learning. 319-320 static routes (IPv6). 424 STP verification. 58 listening. 353 PortFast global settings. 72-73 system ID extensions. verifying. 88-89 configuration. 253 HSRP. changing. 72 options. 57 tunnel interfaces. 186. 64-65 configuring. 111-112 troubleshooting. displaying. 182-183. 313 OSPF. 44 MAC tables impact. configuring. 82-83 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 48. 110 PortFast. 65 configuring. 71 modes. choosing. 106-109 forwarding or blocking criteria. 84-87 MAC tables impact. 105-106 EtherChannels. 57-58 LAN redundancy. 527 STP. 81 enabling/disabling. 58 neighbors BGP. 83 verifying. 83 global settings. 83 PPP. 54 looping frames. 83 verifying. predicting. preventing. 75-77 steady-state operation (STP). 407 VLAN mismatched trunking operational. 425 sessions. 81 enabling/disabling. 42 802. 74 PVST+. 628 ports RSTP. 344 PPP CHAP. 632 relationships. predicting. 42-46 LAN segment DPs. 555 interface codes. displaying. 49 BPDU Guard configuring.1D standard. 73-74 BPDUs (bridge protocol data units). 83 global settings. 72 9781587205798_BOOK.indb 917 BIDs defined. 116 static discard routes. 73-74 convergence. 92-93 STP versus RSTP. 345 PPP PAP. 50-52 system ID extensions. 83 EIGRP neighbors.STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) 917 forwarding/blocking. 48-49 interface states. 58 behind the scenes summary. 74-75 per-VLAN port costs. 82-83 Cisco Catalyst switch STP modes. 56 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 62 ROAS subinterfaces. 288 OSPFv3. 346 PPPoE Layer 3. 233. 599 status BPDU Guard global settings.

56-57 topology influences. 797-798 studying for exam. 101-103 verification. 63. 583-585 without VLSM. 56-57 switch RPs. 206 overlapping subnets with VLSM. 105-106 DPs on LAN segments. 78-79 states. choosing. 646 feasible convergence. 62-63 Cisco Catalyst switch RSTP modes. 446-447 successors EIGRP identifying. 525 state. 62 purpose. 52-53 tiebreakers. verifying. 258-260 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 104-105 root switch election. troubleshooting. 260-261 identifying. 56-57 switch reactions to changes. 593-594 mismatched EIGRP neighbors. 241-242 for IPv6.indb 918 studying after failing the exam. compared. 44 costs. 257-258 for IPv4. 88-90 implementing. matching. 100-101 RSTP (Rapid STP). 318 IGPs. 92 processes. 58 STP. 48 states. 60-61 backup port role. 50-52. 59-60 security. 524-525 numbers. 88 link types. 55-56 troubleshooting convergence. choosing. 92-93 port types. 58-59 alternate ports. configuring. 57 root election influence. 581-583 subset of IP address. 99-101 RPs on nonroot switches. 569-571 VLSM (variable length subnet masking) overlapping subnets. 527 subnet masks mismatched masks. 581 subnets advertising to ISPs. 303 IPv6. 102-103 timers.918 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) ports blocking. 358 OSPFv2 multiarea configuration. 80-81 root switch election. 798 subinterfaces defined. 62 standards. 524 ROAS creating. 75-77 9781587205798_BOOK. 91-92 port states. 47-49 roles. 53. 63 port roles. 583-585 recognizing when VLSM is used. 65-66 STA (spanning-tree algorithm). 286 leased-line WANs.

88-89 core. 719 traffic direction. 99-101 RPs (root ports). 159-160 switch stacking. 156-157 benefits. 725 VLANs. 77 troubleshooting. 23-24 Layer 3 EtherChannels configuring. 534-537 VLAN routing. 50 supplicants. 159-160 internal processing. choosing. 155 chassis aggregation. 539-540 9781587205798_BOOK. 721 limiting sources. 156-157 adding. 21 Layer 3. 161 design. 137-139 chassis aggregation. 721-724 network analyzer needs.1x authenticators. 160 distribution/core switches high availability. 159 benefits. improving. 381 superior Hello. 719 Encapsulated RSPAN (ERSPAN). 721 stacking access layer switches. 718 dependencies. 80-81 ruling out switches. 529-531 troubleshooting. 48 electing. See SPAN switches as 802. 145 access layer. 100-101 STP verification. 722 destination ports. improving. 541 verifying. 765-766 Layer 2. 520. 159-160 distribution design. 63 logical. 145 SVIs (switched virtual interfaces). 65 QoS. 720-721 source ports. 532-534 verifying. 52-53 SPAN. configuring. 495 root costs. 529 configuring. 721 sessions. 531 Switched Port Analyzer. 719 Remote (RSPAN).indb 919 Layer 3 with SVIs configuring. 158 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 50-52 election influence. 101-103 PortFast. 532-534 verifying. 88-90 STP modes. 537-539 troubleshooting.switches 919 super backbone (OSPF). 529-531 troubleshooting. 725 local. 21 with routed ports. monitoring. 159-161 FlexStack/FlexStack-Plus. 531 links. 159-161 Cisco Catalyst RSTP modes. 157-158 nonroot. 160 high availability with chassis aggregation.

694 TDM (time-division multiplexing). 601-603 three-area OSPF. 25. 524 switchport nonegotiate command. 37-38. 131-133 VTP. 765 ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM). 36-38. 32 switchport mode trunk command. 157-158 stack masters. 40 switchport trunk native vlan command. 334 time (exam) budget versus number of questions. 125-126. 334 TACACS+. 157 synchronization to VLAN database. 331. 766 T-carrier systems. 40. 25. 155 virtual (vSwitches). 785 checking. See leased-line WANs T3. 139 switchport trunk allowed vlan command.indb 920 T T1. 136-137 system ID extensions (BIDs). 677 connectivity hosts. 40 switchport mode dynamic auto command. 34 as VTP servers. 30. matching. 34. 736 traditional access switching. 675 port numbers. 785 time-division multiplexing (TDM). 512-513 tcp keyword. 18-20 tail drops. 334 telcos (telephone companies). 313 packets. 766 testing IPv6 ACLs. 600-601 routers. 131-133 ToR (Top of Rack). displaying. 501 tiebreakers (STP). 189 TID fields (QoS marking). 28-29. 135 synchronizing switches. 135 switchport command Layer 3 switches. 139 switchport mode command. 102-103 time burners. 535 switchport mode access command. 543 routed ports. 118 switchport voice vlan command. 148 tagging (VLAN).920 switches operating as single logical switch. 513 TCAM (ternary content-addressable memory). 117 switchport trunk encapsulation command. 116 switchport mode dynamic desirable command. 40. 30. 735 voice switches. 28. 333 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) BGP connections. 464 TCP/IP networks. 116. verifying. 41. 310 windowing. 113. 786 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 37-40. 464-467 transporting messages between BGP peers. 390 Telnet. 124 switchport access vlan command. 41. 116. 30. 73-74 9781587205798_BOOK.

504 output queuing. 367-368 9781587205798_BOOK. 615 traditional access switching. 652 EIGRP neighbors. 505-507 multiple queues. 491 loss. 491 policing. 188 STP. identifying. 574 GRE tunnels. 504 Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). 491 characteristics. 777-778 APIC-EM Path Trace app. 657-658 MetroE. 615 tracert command. 736 ToS (Type of Service) field (IPv4).traffic 921 time intervals (QoS shaping). 505 round robin scheduling. 155 traffic bandwidth. 368 hub and spoke. 670 jitter. 512-514 congestion management. 507-510 queuing strategy. influences.indb 921 OSPF area design. troubleshooting. 511-512 timers EIGRP for IPv6. 513-514 congestion management. 512-513 tools. 55-56 ToR (Top of Rack) switches. 614 traceroute6 command. 369 partial mesh. 504 prioritization. troubleshooting. 600-602 network router problems. 499 traceroute command. 258-261 metrics. 495-498 congestion avoidance. 255-257 feasible successor routes. managing. 491 end-user. 496 classification. 777 APIC-EM Path Trace ACL Analysis tool. 491 congestion avoidance. 293-294 STP. 736 topologies EIGRP displaying. 512 TCP windowing. 507 delay. 369 Point-to-Point. 505 strategy. 184 Hello/dead mismatches. compared. 507 shaping. 366 full mesh. 504-507 marking. 713 IPv6 ACLs. 509 edge between networks. 262 successor routes. 509-510 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 507-512 Top of Rack (ToR) switches. 499-503 policing. testing. 507 discarding excess traffic. 233 Hello messages. 406 IPv6 connectivity. 257-258 EIGRP for IPv6. 611 routes. measuring. 56-57 tools APIC-EM ACL Analysis. managing. 777 QoS ACLs. testing.

563 misconfiguration symptoms. 106 channel-group command incorrect options. 407 Layer 3 issues. 511-512 SPAN sessions. 106-108 configuration checks before adding interfaces. 356 DPs on LAN segments. 656-657 routes. 492-493 video. 494 voice. 477-479 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 481-482 reversed source/destination IP address. 561 routers configuring different VIPs. 286 example. 286-288 incorrect ASNs. 105 EIGRP for IPv6 interfaces. 573-574 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 477 ACL behavior in network. 560-561 group number mismatches. 378. 701-702 SNMPv3. 288 mismatched subnets. 409-410 interface state. 276-278 EIGRP neighbors authentication failures. 500 Transmission Control Protocol. 560 ACL blocks HSRP packets. 483-485 common syntax mistakes. 278-281 working details. 286 verification checks. 406 tunnel destination. 660 EIGRP interfaces. 696-697 SNMPv2. 508 public cloud branch office email services.indb 922 EtherChannels.922 traffic features. 710-711 troubleshooting CHAP authentication failures. 750-751 shaping. 717 IPv4 ACLs. 481 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. 507. 572 DHCP issues. 108-109 GRE tunnels. 510 time intervals. 510 features. 563 version mismatches. 725 types data. 275 configuration problems. 409 source/destination addresses. 562 with IP SLA counters. 406 ACLs. 510 traffic rate versus configured policing rate. See TCP transparent mode (VTP). 655 neighbors. 408 HSRP. 493-494 Traffic Class field (IPv6). 512 slowing messages. 480-481 troubleshooting commands. 563 configuration. 285-286 9781587205798_BOOK. 715-716 history data. 479-480 IPv4 routing default router IP address setting. 135 Trap messages.

troubleshooting 923

DNS problems, 571-572
incorrect addressing plans,
581-585
IP forwarding issues, 577-580
LAN issues, 575-576
mismatched IPv4 settings,
568-569
mismatched masks, 569-571
packet filtering with access lists,
586
router WAN interface status, 585
IPv6 routing, 604
ACLs, 612
filtering issues, 604
host issues, 604
host pings fail from default
router, 606-607
host pings only working in some
cases, 605-606
missing IPv6 settings in host,
608-610
name resolution problems,
607-608
router issues, 604
routes, 640-641
routing, 611-612
Layer 3 EtherChannels, 541
leased-line WANs, 353-354
Layer 1 problems, 354
Layer 2 problems, 354-356
Layer 3 problems, 357-358
mismatched subnets, 358
neighbors, 285
OSPF
MTU mismatched settings, 296
processes, shutting down,
294-296

9781587205798_BOOK.indb 923

OSPF interfaces, 281-283
area design, 281
configuration errors, 282-283
details, checking, 283
unsolicited log messages, 283
OSPF neighbors, 288-294
area mismatches, finding,
290-291
duplicate RIDs, 291-293
Hello timer/dead timer
mismatches, 293-294
LAN problems, 289
neighbor states, 288
OSPFv3
interfaces, 631-632
neighbors, 633-635
PAP authentication failures, 356
PPPoE, 425-426
customer router configuration,
426
dialer 2 status, 427
Layer 1, 427-428
Layer 2, 428-429
Layer 3, 429
summary, 430
ROAS, 528-529
routing protocols
configuration errors, 274
internetwork, analyzing, 273
neighbor relationships, 274
routing tables, 273
routing with SVIs, 532-534
RP problems, 103
SPAN sessions, 725
standard numbered ACLs, 452-453

6/1/16 12:04 PM

924

troubleshooting

STP
convergence, 105-106
DPs on LAN segments, 104-105
root switch election, 99-101
RPs on nonroot switches,
101-103
switch data plane forwarding
EtherChannel impact on MAC
tables, 111-112
STP impact on MAC tables, 110
VLAN of incoming frames,
112-113
VLANs
access interfaces, 113-114
frame switching problems, 113
undefined/disabled VLANs,
114-115
VLAN trunking
frame switching problems, 113
mismatched native VLANs, 118
mismatched operational states,
116
mismatched supported VLAN
lists, 117-118
VTP, 135
adding switches, 137-139
common configuration rejections,
137
synchronization, 136-137
trunking (VLANs)
802.1Q, 20-21
configuration, 30-34
disabling, 139
ISL (Inter-Switch Link), 20-21
overview, 18
protocol. See VTP
troubleshooting, 113-118
VLAN tagging, 18-20

9781587205798_BOOK.indb 924

trust boundaries (QoS marking),
501-502
trusted ports, 151
configuring, 153
DHCP snooping, 154
tunnel destination command, 406-408,
432
tunnel mode gre ip command, 404,
432
tunnel mode gre multipoint command,
404
tunnel source command, 406-407, 432
tunnels
destinations, 408
GRE, 398
between routers, 399
configuring, 402-404
details, displaying, 404
functionality, testing, 406
large scale environments, 411
multipoint with DMVPN, 411
point-to-point, 399
routes, 405
troubleshooting, 406-410
tunnel interfaces, 398
unsecured networks, 400-401
verifying, 404-406
interfaces
ACLs, 409-410
creating, 400
destinations, 408
Layer 3 issues, 409
replacing serial links, 398
state, 407
VPN, 394-395
tutorial (exam), 784-785

6/1/16 12:04 PM

verifying 925

Twitter (Wendell Odom), 799
Type of Service (ToS) field (IPv4), 499

U
UCS (Unified Computing System), 733
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
Jitter probes, 713
packets, IPv6 ACL matching, 675
port numbers, matching, 464-467
undebug all command, 298
undefined VLANs, troubleshooting,
114-115
unequal-cost load balancing, 263
UNI (user network interface), 365
unicast IPv6 addresses, 593-595
Unified Computing System (UCS), 733
unique local unicast addresses, 593
unsecured networks (GRE tunnels),
400-401
unsolicited log messages, 283
untrusted ports, 151-154
upd keyword, 464
updates
BGP, 303, 310
DV protocols, 229-230
EIGRP, 235-236
full, 229
partial, 232
periodic, 229
User Datagram Protocol. See UDP
user network interface (UNI), 365
username command, 345, 359
U.S. National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST), 739

9781587205798_BOOK.indb 925

V
v1default MIB view, 706
variable length subnet masking. See
VLSM
variables (MIB)
monitoring, 696
numbering/names, 697
variance (EIGRP), 263-264
variance command, 270
EIGRP for IPv4, 247, 263, 647
EIGRP for IPv6, 651, 662
vCPU (virtual CPU), 734
vector (DV protocols), 228
verification command, 75
verifying
BPDU Guard, 82-83
data and voice VLANs, 36-38
eBGP neighbors, 312-313
EIGRP configuration, 249
EIGRP enabled interfaces,
finding, 250-252
IPv4 routing table, displaying,
253-254
neighbor status, displaying, 253
EIGRP for IPv6
interfaces, 654
routes, 659-660
EIGRP neighbors, 235, 285-286
EtherChannel configuration before
adding interfaces, 108-109
GRE tunnels, 404-406
HDLC, 339
HSRP, 555-556
interarea OSPF routes, 212

6/1/16 12:04 PM

735 physical networks. 210-212 single-area. 702-704 SNMPv3 configuration. 345-346 PAP. 421-422 Layer 3 status. 347 PPPoE. 705 virtual-access interfaces. 367 Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). 200-202 OSPFv3 interfaces. 736 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 734 networking. See VPNs Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS). See VMs virtual network functions (VNFs). 754 networks. 351-353 OSPFv2 configurations interfaces. 559-560 OSPF. 526-527 routing protocol-enabled interfaces.926 verifying IPv6 connectivity. 367 Virtual Private Networks. 219-221 multiarea. 754 CPU (vCPU). 619 VTP. See VLANs virtual machines. 145 versions HSRP. 420-421 dialers. 423 virtual LANs. 494 shaping time intervals. 708-709 standard numbered ACLs. 630-631. 539-540 MLPPP. 425 session status. 75-77 switches synchronization to VLAN database. See VMs network functions virtualization (NFV). 274 routing with SVIs. 600-601 routers. 734 data centers networking. 735 routers (public cloud networks). 734-735 hosts. 737-738 firewalls. 734 hypervisors. 82-83 PPP CHAP. 531 SNMPv2 configuration. 452-453 STP. 131-133 username/passwords on AAA servers. 736 vendors. 424 virtual-access interfaces. 638-640 neighbors.indb 926 video traffic QoS requirements. 735 workflow. 512 views (MIB). 754 servers. 601-603 Layer 3 EtherChannels. 754 NICs (vNICS). 600 hosts. 423 ROAS. 754 machines. 735-736. 752-754 Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS). 632-633 PortFast. 127 9781587205798_BOOK. 734 multithreading. 544 virtualization ASA firewall (ASAv).

113-114 frame switching process problems. 23-24. 36-38 summary. See VLAN routing SPAN monitoring. 20-21 configuration. 37. 528-529 verifying. 16-18 routing.indb 927 tagging. 125-126 full VLAN configuration example. 123 9781587205798_BOOK. 38-39 LAN support. 30-34 disabling. 734 switches (vSwitches). 34-36 data and voice VLAN configuration and verification. 28-29 trunking. 139 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 20. 18-20 vlan 10 command. 20-21 overview. See VTP 6/1/16 12:04 PM .VLAN Trunking Protocol 927 virtual data center vendors. 529-531 troubleshooting. 531 ROAS. 18 incoming frames. choosing. See SVIs IP telephony. 25 enabling/disabling. adding. 21 Layer 3 EtherChannels configuring. See VTP troubleshooting. 21-23 VLAN Trunking Protocol. 113 undefined/disabled VLANs. 137 vlan command. 524 configuration. 539-540 Layer 3 switch routed ports. 735 VMs. 25. 24-25 shorter VLAN configuration example. 525-526 overview. 18 protocol. 735 VLANs (virtual LANs) configuration data and voice VLANs. 25-28 overview.1Q. 18-20 troubleshooting access interfaces. 721 standard range. 114-115 trunking 802. 117-118 native. 118 mismatched supported trunk lists. 122 mismatched native on trunks. 113-118 VLAN tagging. 115 IDs. 122 vlan 200 command. 36-38 database. 537-539 troubleshooting. 526-527 routers. 112-113 interfaces. switches synchronization. 524-526 troubleshooting. 34 data and voice VLAN concepts. 40. 534-537 Layer 3 switching with SVIs configuring. 532-534 verifying. 135 VLAN routing. 30-34 database. 541 verifying. VTP synchronization. 131-133 default.

735 voice switches. 493-494 VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service). 742 virtual NICs (vNICs). 136-137 versions. 512 VoIP. 135 troubleshooting. 389 benefits. 379-382 OSPF area design. 129 storing.indb 928 site-to-site. 378 VoIP (Voice over IP). 124 standard range VLANs. 583-585 recognizing when VLSM is used. troubleshooting. 367 VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol). 747 9781587205798_BOOK. 120 configuration common rejections. 378. 120 automated update powers. 411 NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol). 134-135 domains. 393 MPLS VPNs. 742 networking. 734 ACI. 743-744 SaaS. 129 steps. 126-127 servers. 123 switches synchronization to VLAN database. 396-397 dynamic multipoint (DMVPN). 493 QoS requirements. 29. 394-395 VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service). 127 VLAN support. 382 Layer 3. verifying. 367 VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) client. accessing.928 VLSM (variable length subnet masking) VLSM (variable length subnet masking) overlapping subnets. 127-128 requirements. 128 pruning. 735 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 736 PaaS. 137 default VTP settings. 394 security. 129 example. 130-131 new VTP configuration settings. 135 adding switches. 494 shaping time intervals. 411 multipoint GRE tunnels. 735 VNFs (virtual network functions). 752-754 vNICs (virtual NICs). 376 EIGRP challenges. 581 VMs (virtual machines). 130 planning. 381-382 public cloud. 125-127 features. 544 vSwitches (virtual switches). 123 vtp commands. 134 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 773 IaaS. 412-413 Internet. 34 voice traffic. adding. 743 spinning up. 394-396 tunnels. 137 synchronization. 137-139 common configuration rejections. 125 transparent mode. 131-133 synchronization.

376 private public cloud access. 362 public cloud connections Internet as. 29. 389 leased-line. 746-749 public cloud branch office connections. 368 hub and spoke topology. 392-393 WAN interface cards (WICs). 135 vtp password command. 341 framing. 140 vtp mode command. 140 W–Z WANs Ethernet. 140 vtp mode off command. 29. 342-343 configuring PPP. 140 vtp version command. 745-746 private WANs. 747 Frame Relay. 377 MPLS VPNs. 389 Internet as WAN service. 365 data usage. 346-347 control protocols. 379-382 QoS. 358 physical components. 378 Layer 3 design. 335-336 CSU/DSUs. See MLPPP PPP functions. 362 interface speeds. 341 9781587205798_BOOK. 135 vtp mode transparent command. 353-358 leased-line with HDLC. 344-346 configuring PPP PAP. 490 Internet access. 367-371 E-Tree service. 366 Layer 3 design. 134. 370-372 MEF. 369 physical design. 369 IEEE Ethernet standards. 40. See wildcard masks 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 365-366 Point-to-Point topology. 362 wireless. 751 types. 134. 364 access links. 367-368 services. 330-331 building. 343-344 configuring PPP CHAP. 369-372 full mesh topology. 337-340 de-encapsulating/ re-encapsulating IP packets.WC masks vtp domain command. 134. 334 mismatched subnets. 134. 366 partial mesh topology. 336 configuring HDLC. 336 leased-line with PPP authentication. 340 MetroE. 375-377 access links. 332 WC masks.indb 929 929 multilink. 140 vtp pruning command. 333-334 troubleshooting. 746-749 service providers (SPs). 332-333 speeds. 378-379 VPNs. 336 framing. 366 MPLS. 368-372 E-Line service. 373-375 E-LAN service.

174 BGP routing table analysis reports.930 websites websites APIC-EM Analysis tool released code. 248-249 finding. 706 6/1/16 12:04 PM . 505 Wendell Odom’s SDN Skills blog. 777 ARIN. 777 DevNet. 49 write views (SNMPv3 groups). 796 CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 Official Cert Guide.indb 930 MEF. 777 Cisco ACI. 682 ICMPv6 packets. 744 9781587205798_BOOK. 737-738 working interfaces. 531 Prime management products. 669 IPv6 multicast address space registry. 393 wireless WANs. 771 OpenFlow. 198 wildcard masks binary. 777 Feature Navigator. 774 APIC-EM pages. 332 wildcard_mask parameter (network command). 447 decimal. 392-393 Wireshark network analyzer. 669 Jenkins continuous integration and automation tool. 174 ICMPv6 parameters. 754 Google App Engine PaaS. 744 IANA. 744 ETSI. 777 Wireshark network analyzer. 777 WICs (WAN interface cards). 303 CCNA (ICND2) Config Labs. 796 Wendell Odom’s SDN Skills. 777 APIC-EM labs. 366 OpenDaylight SDN controller. 448 OSPF single-area configuration. 718 workflow (virtualized data center). 718 weighting. 446-447 EIGRP configuration. 199 wireless Internet. 695 Eclipse IDE. 768 Pearson Network Simulator (the Sim).

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