CCENT/
CCNA
ICND1 100-105
Official Cert Guide
WENDELL ODOM, CCIE No. 1624

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA

ii

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Wendell Odom
Copyright© 2016 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Published by:
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage
and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief
quotations in a review.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing May 2016
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016933699
ISBN-13: 978-1-58720-580-4
ISBN-10: 1-58720-580-7

Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco ICND1 100-105 exam for CCENT
certification. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible,
but no warranty or fitness is implied.
The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc.
shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs
that may accompany it.
The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of
Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or
service mark.

Special Sales
For information about buying this title in bulk quantities, or for special sales opportunities (which
may include electronic versions; custom cover designs; and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, or branding interests), please contact our corporate sales department at
corpsales@pearsoned.com or (800) 382-3419.
For government sales inquiries, please contact governmentsales@pearsoned.com.
For questions about sales outside the U.S., please contact intlcs@pearson.com.

We greatly appreciate your assistance. you can contact us through email at feedback@ciscopress. our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Chuck Hutchinson Technical Editors Aubrey Adams. or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs. Paula Lowell . If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book. Cisco Press Jan Cornelssen Executive Editor Brett Bartow Managing Editor Sandra Schroeder Senior Development Editor Christopher Cleveland Senior Project Editor Tonya Simpson Copy Editors Keith Cline.iii Feedback Information At Cisco Press. undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. Each book is crafted with care and precision. Elan Beer Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Cover Designer Mark Shirar Composition Studio Galou Senior Indexer Erika Millen Proofreaders Kathy Ruiz. Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process.com. Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Business Operation Manager.

has been in the networking industry since 1981. Elan has been focused on data center design. Elan has a global perspective of network architectures via his international clientele. graduate diplomas in computing and education. With a background in telecommunications design. and other resources at www. CCNP ROUTE. About the Technical Reviewers Aubrey Adams is a Cisco Networking Academy instructor in Perth. and online products.iv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide About the Author Wendell Odom. he currently works writing and creating certification study tools. Elan was among the first to obtain the Cisco Certified System Instructor (CCSI) certification. For the past 27 years. Elan Beer. the Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert. 1837. and he is the author of all editions of the CCNA R&S and CCENT Cert Guides from Cisco Press. Elan has been instrumental in large-scale professional service efforts designing and troubleshooting internetworks. Aubrey has qualifications in electronic engineering and management. He maintains study tools. simulation. configuration. he was among the first to attain the Cisco System highest technical certification. CCNA R&S. Elan has been involved in numerous large-scale data center and telecommunications networking projects worldwide. CCNA DC. This book is his 27th edition of some product for Pearson.and long-term design objectives. including video. 1624 (Emeritus). CCNP QoS. Elan has designed networks and trained thousands of industry experts in data center architecture. Elan has used his expertise to design and troubleshoot data centers and internetworks in Malaysia. is a senior consultant and Cisco instructor specializing in data center architecture and multiprotocol network design. and course developer. CCIE No. consultant.certskills. . Australia. and troubleshooting as well as service provider technologies. China. North America. He has written books about topics from networking basics. Africa. Since 2007. He has taught across a broad range of both related vocational and education training areas and university courses. certification guides throughout the years for CCENT. Western Australia. Since then. and the Middle East.com. routing. and CCIE R&S. instructor. He helped develop the popular Pearson Network Simulator. and in 1996. performing data center and network audits. and assisting clients with their short. systems engineer. In 1993. Most recently. links to his blogs. Aubrey has technically reviewed several Pearson Education and Cisco Press publications. Europe. and switching. and associated industry certifications. He has worked as a network engineer. CCIE No.

wasabi.v Dedications For Hannah Grace Odom. Love you. my wonderful daughter: Tomato softball. Underdog stories. precious girl. equiangular equilateral quadrilaterals. movies while other kids are at school. singing scat. being Jesus’s hands and feet. smart brain and a bigger heart. math homework—hooray!. .

As part of writing these books. From fixing all my grammar. and Chris’s part of the work happened on a challenging timeline. because he knows of the common mistakes that students make when learning these same topics. ho hum. thanks. Chris. This book has more moving parts than most. From finding small technical errors. Thanks to Sandra Schroeder. the juggling act continues. a pleasure to work with. It means more edits when I change my mind. Elan. I use a different process with the figures than most authors. and all the production team for making the magic happen. useful comments all around. he was the driving force behind adding all the new apps to the DVD/web. In particular. word docs with gobs of queries and comments feed into the machine. As always. and Phil Vancil were a great help while we worked on these titles. huh Lisa?). Joe Stralo. and especially for keeping us on track with the new features. Thanks. once again. and he’s been involved with the series ever since. thanks. Mike Tanamachi. Elan Beer did his usual amazing job. Aubrey Adams tech edited the book. It is truly abnormal to find one person who can do all aspects of technical editing in the same pass. passive-voice sentences. and out pops these beautiful books. his first time tech editing one of my books. Elan does it all. for jumping into the fray to keep the schedule moving. did a great job on the figures again. we work in concert with Cisco. they do it all. for the many late-night hours working through the different elements. Fantastic job as usual. Lisa! I love the magic wand that is production. Mandie Frank. Thanks for managing the whole production process again. Lisa Matthews. We’ve worked together on probably 20+ titles now. once again getting the “opportunity” to manage two books with many elements at the same timeline. and then pulling the design and layout together. even though I’m jealous of his office setup. It’s always great to work with Chris. and an important part of deciding what the entire Official Cert Guide series direction should be. illustrator and mind reader. to noticing phrasing that might mislead. And Tonya. Lisa handled all the practice app development: taking various appendixes. . Greg Cote.vi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Acknowledgments Brett Bartow again served as executive editor on the book. to suggesting where an extra thought or two rounds out a topic. Aubrey’s experience teaching the material was a big help in particular. Besides the usual wisdom and good decision making to guide the project. A special thanks goes out to various people on the Cisco team who work with Pearson to create Cisco Press books. learning some subnetting (fun. thanks for putting it all together and making it look easy. Thanks for guiding us through the process. with excellence. objective. and he also provided some excellent feedback. and done well. crummy word choices. new at least in terms of someone I interact with during the writing process. Diligent. and building apps to make the practice experience more interactive. Chris Cleveland did the development editing for the very first Cisco Press exam certification guide way back in 1998. Aubrey! Welcome and thanks to a new team member. Tonya Simpson. with Mike drawing new figures as soon as I outline a new section or chapter. Presto. As for technical editors.

I could not have made the timeline for this book without Chris Burns of Certskills Professional. doll. And thanks to Jesus Christ. And a thanks goes out to Laura Robbins for working on helping make sure all the figures follow our color standards—standards she helped develop over several other editions of other books. and especially those of you who post online at the Cisco Learning Network. the comments I receive directly and overhear by participating at CLN made this edition a better book. Sean! A special thanks you to you readers who write in with suggestions and possible errors. Mike came through again with some beautiful finished products.vii and lots of mind reading of what Wendell really wanted versus what I drew poorly on my Wacom tablet. Chris. No way the books are out on time without Sean’s efforts. . Kris. Thanks to my daughter Hannah (see dedication). and then catches anything I need to toss over my shoulder so I can focus on the books. who helps make this sometimes challenging work lifestyle a breeze. does various tasks related to specific chapters. Without question. Thanks to my wonderful wife. thanks for the great job. you are the man! Sean Wilkins played the largest role he’s played so far with one of my books. Chris owns the mind map process now. I love walking this journey with you. owns big parts of the lab development process for the associated labs added to my blogs. Sean did a lot of technology work behind the scenes. Lord of everything in my life. A longtime co-collaborator with Pearson’s CCNA Simulator.

VLANs. and Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs Part III Review 218 242 270 298 Part IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets Part IV Review 378 340 356 302 326 301 217 .viii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Contents at a Glance Introduction xxxiv Your Study Plan 2 Part I: Networking Fundamentals 13 Chapter 1 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications Part I Review 14 38 60 78 102 120 Part II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces Part II Review 125 126 146 166 190 212 Part III: Ethernet LANs: Design.

ix Part V: Implementing IPv4 383 Chapter 17 Operating Cisco Routers Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts Part V Review 384 434 470 498 Part VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting Chapter 21 Subnet Design Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part VI Review 503 504 528 542 564 586 Part VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 591 Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 27 Network Address Translation Part VII Review 592 614 642 666 Part VIII: IP Version 6 671 Chapter 28 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing Part VIII Review 672 688 750 772 Part IX: Network Device Management Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802 777 778 704 728 402 .

x CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820 Chapter 36 IOS License Management Part IX Review 864 Part X: Final Review Chapter 37 848 867 Final Review Part XI: Appendixes 868 887 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates Glossary Index 889 895 897 928 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Appendix E Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks Appendix F Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets Appendix G Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design Appendix H Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Appendix I Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix J Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Appendix K Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Appendix L Mind Map Solutions Appendix M Study Planner Appendix N Classless Inter-domain Routing Appendix O Route Summarization Appendix P Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Appendix Q Topics from Previous Editions Appendix R Exam Topics Cross Reference .

xi Contents Introduction xxxiv Your Study Plan Part I 2 Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 13 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking 14 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 14 Foundation Topics 17 Perspectives on Networking 17 TCP/IP Networking Model 18 History Leading to TCP/IP 19 Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 20 TCP/IP Application Layer 22 HTTP Overview 22 HTTP Protocol Mechanisms 22 TCP/IP Transport Layer 23 TCP Error Recovery Basics 23 Same-Layer and Adjacent-Layer Interactions 24 TCP/IP Network Layer 25 Internet Protocol and the Postal Service 25 Internet Protocol Addressing Basics 27 IP Routing Basics 27 TCP/IP Link Layer (Data Link Plus Physical) 28 TCP/IP Model and Terminology 30 Comparing the Original and Modern TCP/IP Models Data Encapsulation Terminology 30 Names of TCP/IP Messages 31 OSI Networking Model 32 Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32 Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 33 OSI Layers and Their Functions 33 OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35 OSI Encapsulation Terminology 35 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs 30 38 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 38 Foundation Topics 40 An Overview of LANs 40 Typical SOHO LANs 41 Typical Enterprise LANs 42 The Variety of Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 43 Consistent Behavior over All Links Using the Ethernet Data Link Layer 44 .

xii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Building Physical Ethernet Networks with UTP 45 Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 45 Breaking Down a UTP Ethernet Link 46 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T 48 Straight-Through Cable Pinout 48 Choosing the Right Cable Pinouts 50 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T 51 Sending Data in Ethernet Networks 51 Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 51 Ethernet Addressing 52 Identifying Network Layer Protocols with the Ethernet Type Field Error Detection with FCS 55 Sending Ethernet Frames with Switches and Hubs 55 Sending in Modern Ethernet LANs Using Full Duplex 55 Using Half Duplex with LAN Hubs 56 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs 60 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 60 Foundation Topics 62 Leased-Line WANs 62 Positioning Leased Lines with LANs and Routers 62 Physical Details of Leased Lines 63 Leased-Line Cabling 64 Building a WAN Link in a Lab 66 Data-Link Details of Leased Lines 66 HDLC Basics 67 How Routers Use a WAN Data Link 68 Ethernet as a WAN Technology 69 Ethernet WANs that Create a Layer 2 Service 70 How Routers Route IP Packets Using Ethernet Emulation Accessing the Internet 72 The Internet as a Large WAN 72 Internet Access (WAN) Links 73 Digital Subscriber Line 74 Cable Internet 76 Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 71 78 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 78 Foundation Topics 81 Overview of Network Layer Functions 81 Network Layer Routing (Forwarding) Logic 81 Host Forwarding Logic: Send the Packet to the Default Router R1 and R2’s Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 83 R3’s Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 83 82 54 .

xiii How Network Layer Routing Uses LANs and WANs 83 IP Addressing and How Addressing Helps IP Routing 84 Routing Protocols 85 IPv4 Addressing 86 Rules for IP Addresses 86 Rules for Grouping IP Addresses 87 Class A. and C IP Networks 90 IP Subnetting 91 IPv4 Routing 93 IPv4 Host Routing 93 Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table A Summary of Router Forwarding Logic 94 A Detailed Routing Example 94 IPv4 Routing Protocols 96 Other Network Layer Features 98 Using Names and the Domain Name System 98 The Address Resolution Protocol 99 ICMP Echo and the ping Command 100 Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications 94 102 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 102 Foundation Topics 104 TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 104 Transmission Control Protocol 105 Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 106 Popular TCP/IP Applications 108 Connection Establishment and Termination 110 Error Recovery and Reliability 111 Flow Control Using Windowing 112 User Datagram Protocol 113 TCP/IP Applications 114 Uniform Resource Identifiers 114 Finding the Web Server Using DNS 115 Transferring Files with HTTP 117 How the Receiving Host Identifies the Correct Receiving Application Part I Review Part II 120 Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Foundation Topics 128 126 125 126 118 . B. B. and C IP Networks 88 The Actual Class A.

xiv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Accessing the Cisco Catalyst Switch CLI 128 Cisco Catalyst Switches 128 Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 129 Cabling the Console Connection 130 Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 133 User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 133 Password Security for CLI Access from the Console CLI Help Features 136 The debug and show Commands 137 Configuring Cisco IOS Software 138 Configuration Submodes and Contexts 139 Storing Switch Configuration Files 141 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching 135 143 146 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 146 Foundation Topics 148 LAN Switching Concepts 148 Overview of Switching Logic 149 Forwarding Known Unicast Frames 150 Learning MAC Addresses 153 Flooding Unknown Unicast and Broadcast Frames 154 Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 154 LAN Switching Summary 155 Verifying and Analyzing Ethernet Switching 156 Demonstrating MAC Learning 156 Switch Interfaces 158 Finding Entries in the MAC Address Table 159 Managing the MAC Address Table (Aging. Clearing) 161 MAC Address Tables with Multiple Switches 162 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management 166 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 166 Foundation Topics 168 Securing the Switch CLI 168 Securing User Mode and Privileged Mode with Simple Passwords 169 Securing User Mode Access with Local Usernames and Passwords 173 Securing User Mode Access with External Authentication Servers 175 Securing Remote Access with Secure Shell 176 Enabling IPv4 for Remote Access 179 Host and Switch IP Settings 179 Configuring IPv4 on a Switch 181 .

and no ip domain-lookup Commands 184 Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces 190 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 190 Foundation Topics 192 Configuring Switch Interfaces 192 Configuring Speed. and Description 193 Configuring Multiple Interfaces with the interface range Command 195 Administratively Controlling Interface State with shutdown 195 Removing Configuration with the no Command 197 Autonegotiation 198 Autonegotiation Under Working Conditions 198 Autonegotiation Results When Only One Node Uses Autonegotiation 200 Autonegotiation and LAN Hubs 201 Port Security 202 Configuring Port Security 203 Verifying Port Security 205 Port Security Violation Actions 207 Port Security MAC Addresses as Static and Secure but Not Dynamic 207 Part II Review Part III 212 Ethernet LANs: Design. Duplex. exec-timeout. VLANs.xv Configuring a Switch to Learn Its IP Address with DHCP 182 Verifying IPv4 on a Switch 183 Miscellaneous Settings Useful in Lab 184 History Buffer Commands 184 The logging synchronous. and Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs 217 218 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 218 Foundation Topics 220 Analyzing Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 220 Ethernet Collision Domains 220 10BASE-T with Hub 220 Ethernet Transparent Bridges 221 Ethernet Switches and Collision Domains 222 The Impact of Collisions on LAN Design 223 Ethernet Broadcast Domains 224 Virtual LANs 225 The Impact of Broadcast Domains on LAN Design Analyzing Campus LAN Topologies 227 Two-Tier Campus Design (Collapsed Core) 227 226 .

xvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide The Two-Tier Campus Design 227 Topology Terminology Seen Within a Two-Tier Design 228 Three-Tier Campus Design (Core) 230 Topology Design Terminology 232 Analyzing LAN Physical Standard Choices 233 Ethernet Standards 234 Choosing the Right Ethernet Standard for Each Link 235 Wireless LANs Combined with Wired Ethernet 236 Home Office Wireless LANs 236 Enterprise Wireless LANs and Wireless LAN Controllers 238 Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 242 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 242 Foundation Topics 244 Virtual LAN Concepts 244 Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 246 VLAN Tagging Concepts 246 The 802.1Q and ISL VLAN Trunking Protocols 248 Forwarding Data Between VLANs 249 Routing Packets Between VLANs with a Router 249 Routing Packets with a Layer 3 Switch 251 VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 252 Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 252 VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration 253 VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration 256 VLAN Trunking Protocol 257 VLAN Trunking Configuration 258 Implementing Interfaces Connected to Phones 262 Data and Voice VLAN Concepts 262 Data and Voice VLAN Configuration and Verification 264 Summary: IP Telephony Ports on Switches 266 Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs 270 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 271 Foundation Topics 274 Perspectives on Applying Troubleshooting Methodologies 274 Troubleshooting on the Exams 275 A Deeper Look at Problem Isolation 275 Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 277 Analyzing Switch Interface Status and Statistics 278 Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 279 Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 282 278 .

0.0. 200 Hosts 319 Masks and Mask Formats 319 Build a List of All Subnets 320 .xvii Predicting Where Switches Will Forward Frames 284 Predicting the Contents of the MAC Address Table 284 Analyzing the Forwarding Path 286 Analyzing Port Security Operations on an Interface 287 Troubleshooting Shutdown Mode and Err-disabled Recovery 288 Troubleshooting Restrict and Protect Modes 289 Analyzing VLANs and VLAN Trunks 292 Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 292 Access VLANs Not Being Defined 293 Access VLANs Being Disabled 294 Mismatched Trunking Operational States 294 Part III Review Part IV 298 IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 301 302 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 302 Foundation Topics 304 Introduction to Subnetting 304 Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 305 Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 306 Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 306 Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 306 Determining the Number of Subnets 308 Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 309 One Size Subnet Fits All—Or Not 310 Defining the Size of a Subnet 310 One-Size Subnet Fits All 311 Multiple Subnet Sizes (Variable-Length Subnet Masks) 312 This Book: One-Size Subnet Fits All (Mostly) 312 Make Design Choices 313 Choose a Classful Network 313 Public IP Networks 313 Growth Exhausts the Public IP Address Space 314 Private IP Networks 315 Choosing an IP Network During the Design Phase 316 Choose the Mask 316 Classful IP Networks Before Subnetting 316 Borrowing Host Bits to Create Subnet Bits 317 Choosing Enough Subnet and Host Bits 318 Example Design: 172.16. 200 Subnets.

B. and C Networks Address Formats 330 Default Masks 331 Number of Hosts per Network 331 Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 332 Unusual Network IDs and Network Broadcast Addresses 334 Practice with Classful Networks 334 Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 335 Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 335 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 337 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 337 Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks 340 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 340 Foundation Topics 342 Subnet Mask Conversion 342 Three Mask Formats 342 Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 343 Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 344 Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 346 Practice Converting Subnet Masks 346 Identifying Subnet Design Choices Using Masks 347 Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 348 Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 349 Classless and Classful Addressing 350 Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 350 Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 352 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 354 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 354 Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets 356 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 356 329 .xviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Plan the Implementation 321 Assigning Subnets to Different Locations 322 Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 323 Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 326 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 326 Foundation Topics 328 Classful Network Concepts 328 IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 328 The Number and Size of the Class A.

0.16.0 and Four Subnets Subnet ID Concepts 360 Subnet Broadcast Address 361 Range of Usable Addresses 361 Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 362 Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 362 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 364 Binary Practice Problems 364 Shortcut for the Binary Process 366 358 Brief Note About Boolean Math 367 Finding the Range of Addresses 367 Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 368 Analysis with Easy Masks 368 Predictability in the Interesting Octet 369 Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 370 Resident Subnet Example 1 370 Resident Subnet Example 2 371 Resident Subnet Practice Problems 372 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 372 Subnet Broadcast Example 1 372 Subnet Broadcast Example 2 373 Subnet Broadcast Address Practice Problems 374 Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 374 A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 374 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 375 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 376 Part IV Review Part V 378 Implementing IPv4 Chapter 17 383 Operating Cisco Routers 384 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 384 Foundation Topics 386 Installing Cisco Routers 386 Installing Enterprise Routers 386 Cisco Integrated Services Routers 387 Physical Installation 388 Installing Internet Access Routers 389 Enabling IPv4 Support on Cisco Router Interfaces 390 Accessing the Router CLI 390 .xix Foundation Topics 358 Defining a Subnet 358 An Example with Network 172.

xx CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Router Interfaces 391 Interface Status Codes 393 Router Interface IP Addresses 394 Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces Router Auxiliary Port 398 Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes 396 402 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 403 Foundation Topics 405 IP Routing 405 IPv4 Routing Process Reference 405 An Example of IP Routing 408 Host Forwards the IP Packet to the Default Router (Gateway) 409 Routing Step 1: Decide Whether to Process the Incoming Frame 409 Routing Step 2: De-encapsulation of the IP Packet 410 Routing Step 3: Choosing Where to Forward the Packet 410 Routing Step 4: Encapsulating the Packet in a New Frame 411 Routing Step 5: Transmitting the Frame 412 Configuring IP Addresses and Connected Routes 412 Connected Routes and the ip address Command 413 The ARP Table on a Cisco Router 415 Routing Between Subnets on VLANs 415 Configuring Routing to VLANs Using 802.1Q on Routers 416 Configuring Routing to VLANs Using a Layer 3 Switch 420 Configuring Static Routes 422 Static Route Configuration 422 Static Host Routes 424 Static Routes with No Competing Routes 425 Static Routes with Competing Routes 425 Static Default Routes 427 Troubleshooting Static Routes 428 Troubleshooting Incorrect Static Routes that Appear in the IP Routing Table 429 The Static Route Does Not Appear in the IP Routing Table 429 The Correct Static Route Appears but Works Poorly 429 Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 434 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 435 Foundation Topics 437 RIP and Routing Protocol Concepts 437 History of Interior Gateway Protocols Comparing IGPs 438 Distance Vector Basics 439 437 .

xxi The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 439 Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 440 Split Horizon 441 Route Poisoning 441 Summarizing RIPv2 Features 442 Core RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 443 Configuring Core RIPv2 Features 443 Understanding the RIP network Command 444 RIP Configuration Example. with Many IP Networks 445 RIP Configuration Example. with One IP Network 446 RIPv2 Verification 447 Examining RIP Routes in the IP Routing Table 447 Comparing Routing Sources with Administrative Distance 449 Revealing RIP Configuration with the show ip protocols Command 450 Examining the Best RIP Routes Using RIP Database 451 Optional RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 452 Controlling RIP Updates with the passive-interface Command 452 Supporting Multiple Equal-Cost Routes with Maximum Paths 453 Understanding Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 454 Verifying Optional RIP Features 456 RIPv2 Default Routes 458 Learning Default Routes Using Static Routes and RIPv2 458 Learning a Default Route Using DHCP 460 Troubleshooting RIPv2 461 Symptoms with Missing and Incorrect network Commands 463 Issues Related to Passive Interfaces 464 Issues Related to auto-summary 465 RIP Issues Caused by Other Router Features 466 Summary of RIP Troubleshooting Issues 466 Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts 470 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 471 Foundation Topics 473 Implementing and Troubleshooting DHCP 473 DHCP Concepts 473 Supporting DHCP for Remote Subnets with DHCP Relay 475 Information Stored at the DHCP Server 476 DHCP Server Configuration on Routers 478 IOS DHCP Server Verification 480 Troubleshooting DHCP Services 481 DHCP Relay Agent Configuration Mistakes and Symptoms 481 .

0. B. Mask 255.255.16. and C) IP Addresses 491 IP Broadcast Addresses 491 IPv4 Multicast Addresses (Class D Addresses) 492 Comparing and Contrasting IP Address Types 494 Part V Review Part VI 498 IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting Chapter 21 Subnet Design 503 504 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 504 Foundation Topics 506 Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 506 Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 507 No Masks Meet Requirements 508 One Mask Meets Requirements 509 Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 510 Finding All the Masks: Concepts 510 Finding All the Masks: Math 511 Choosing the Best Mask 512 The Formal Process 512 Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 513 Practice Problems for Choosing a Subnet Mask 513 Finding All Subnet IDs 513 First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 514 Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 515 A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 515 Example 1: Network 172.1.xxii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide IOS DHCP Server Configuration Mistakes and Symptoms 482 IP Connectivity from DHCP Relay Agent to DHCP Server 484 LAN Connectivity Between the DHCP Client and Relay Agent 484 Summary of DHCP Troubleshooting 485 Detecting Conflicts with Offered Versus Used Addresses 485 Verifying Host IPv4 Settings 486 IP Address and Mask Configuration 487 Name Resolution with DNS 488 Default Routers 489 IPv4 Address Types 490 Review of Unicast (Class A.0. Mask 255.168.0.255.0 517 Example 2: Network 192.240.224 518 Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 519 Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 520 Process with 9–16 Subnet Bits 520 Process with 17 or More Subnet Bits 522 .255.

xxiii Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 523 Practice Problems for Finding All Subnet IDs Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 524 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 524 Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks 523 528 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 528 Foundation Topics 530 VLSM Concepts and Configuration 530 Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 530 VLSM Configuration and Verification 531 Finding VLSM Overlaps 532 Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM 533 An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap 534 Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps 536 Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design 536 An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet 537 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 539 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 539 Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools 542 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 543 Foundation Topics 543 Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 543 Ping Command Basics 543 Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 544 Testing Longer Routes from Near the Source of the Problem 545 Using Extended Ping to Test the Reverse Route 547 Testing LAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 549 Testing LAN Neighbors with Extended Ping 550 Testing WAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 551 Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 552 Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 553 traceroute Basics 553 How the traceroute Command Works 554 Standard and Extended traceroute 556 Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 557 .

xxiv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Telnet and SSH 559 Common Reasons to Use the IOS Telnet and SSH Client IOS Telnet and SSH Examples 560 Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing 559 564 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 565 Foundation Topics 565 Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 565 Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 566 Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 566 Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 569 567 Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 570 Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 570 DHCP Issues 571 Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 573 Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 574 IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 575 Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 577 show ip route Reference 577 Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 579 Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 579 Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 579 Overlaps When Using VLSM 581 Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 582 Pointers to Related Troubleshooting Topics 583 Router WAN Interface Status 583 Filtering Packets with Access Lists 584 Part VI Review Part VII 586 IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists 591 592 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 592 Foundation Topics 594 IPv4 Access Control List Basics 594 ACL Location and Direction 594 Matching Packets 595 Taking Action When a Match Occurs 596 Types of IP ACLs 596 Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 597 List Logic with IP ACLs 598 Matching Logic and Command Syntax 599 575 .

and Destination IP 617 Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 618 Extended IP ACL Configuration 621 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 622 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 623 Practice Building access-list Commands 624 Named ACLs and ACL Editing 625 Named IP Access Lists 625 Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 627 Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 629 ACL Implementation Considerations 630 Troubleshooting with IPv4 ACLs 631 Analyzing ACL Behavior in a Network 631 ACL Troubleshooting Commands 633 Example Issue: Reversed Source/Destination IP Addresses 634 Steps 3D and 3E: Common Syntax Mistakes 635 Example Issue: Inbound ACL Filters Routing Protocol Packets 635 ACL Interactions with Router-Generated Packets 637 Local ACLs and a Ping from a Router 637 Router Self-Ping of a Serial Interface IPv4 Address 637 Router Self-Ping of an Ethernet Interface IPv4 Address 638 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 641 . Source IP.xxv Matching the Exact IP Address 599 Matching a Subset of the Address with Wildcards 600 Binary Wildcard Masks 601 Finding the Right Wildcard Mask to Match a Subnet 602 Matching Any/All Addresses 602 Implementing Standard IP ACLs 602 Standard Numbered ACL Example 1 603 Standard Numbered ACL Example 2 604 Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 606 Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 607 Practice Building access-list Commands 608 Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 611 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 612 Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists 608 614 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 615 Foundation Topics 616 Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 616 Matching the Protocol.

xxvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 27 Network Address Translation 642 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 642 Foundation Topics 645 Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability 645 CIDR 645 Private Addressing 646 Network Address Translation Concepts 647 Static NAT 648 Dynamic NAT 650 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting 653 Static NAT Configuration 653 Dynamic NAT Configuration 655 Dynamic NAT Verification 657 NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration 660 NAT Troubleshooting 662 Part VII Review Part VIII Chapter 28 652 666 IP Version 6 671 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 672 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 672 Foundation Topics 674 Introduction to IPv6 674 The Historical Reasons for IPv6 674 The IPv6 Protocols 676 IPv6 Routing 677 IPv6 Routing Protocols 679 IPv6 Addressing Formats and Conventions 680 Representing Full (Unabbreviated) IPv6 Addresses 680 Abbreviating and Expanding IPv6 Addresses 681 Representing the Prefix Length of an Address 683 Calculating the IPv6 Prefix (Subnet ID) 683 Finding the IPv6 Prefix 683 Working with More-Difficult IPv6 Prefix Lengths 685 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 686 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 687 Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting 688 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 688 Foundation Topics 690 Global Unicast Addressing Concepts 690 A Brief Review of Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 690 .

xxvii Review of Public IPv4 Addressing Concepts 690 Review of Private IPv4 Addressing Concepts 692 Public and Private IPv6 Addresses 692 The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix 693 Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses 695 IPv6 Subnetting Using Global Unicast Addresses 696 Deciding Where IPv6 Subnets Are Needed 696 The Mechanics of Subnetting IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses Listing the IPv6 Subnet Identifier 698 List All IPv6 Subnets 699 Assign Subnets to the Internetwork Topology 699 696 Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet 700 Unique Local Unicast Addresses 701 Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses 701 The Need for Globally Unique Local Addresses 702 Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers 704 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 705 Foundation Topics 706 Implementing Unicast IPv6 Addresses on Routers 706 Static Unicast Address Configuration 707 Configuring the Full 128-Bit Address 707 Enabling IPv6 Routing 708 Verifying the IPv6 Address Configuration 709 Generating a Unique Interface ID Using Modified EUI-64 711 Dynamic Unicast Address Configuration 715 Special Addresses Used by Routers 715 Link-Local Addresses 716 Link-Local Address Concepts 716 Creating Link-Local Addresses on Routers 717 Routing IPv6 with Only Link-Local Addresses on an Interface 718 IPv6 Multicast Addresses 719 Local Scope Multicast Addresses 719 Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 720 Anycast Addresses 722 Miscellaneous IPv6 Addresses 723 IPv6 Addressing Configuration Summary 723 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 725 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 726 Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 728 728 .

xxviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Foundation Topics 730 The Neighbor Discovery Protocol 730 Discovering Routers with NDP RS and RA 731 Discovering Addressing Info for SLAAC with NDP RS and RA 732 Discovering Neighbor Link Addresses with NDP NS and NA 733 Discovering Duplicate Addresses Using NDP NS and NA 734 NDP Summary 735 Dynamic Configuration of Host IPv6 Settings 735 Dynamic Configuration Using Stateful DHCP and NDP 736 Differences Between DHCPv6 and DHCPv4 736 DHCPv6 Relay Agents 737 Using Stateless Address Auto Configuration 739 Building an IPv6 Address Using SLAAC 739 Combining SLAAC with NDP and Stateless DHCP 740 Troubleshooting IPv6 Addressing 741 Verifying Host IPv6 Connectivity from Hosts 741 Verifying Host Connectivity from Nearby Routers 744 Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing 750 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 750 Foundation Topics 752 Connected and Local IPv6 Routes 752 Rules for Connected and Local Routes 753 Example of Connected IPv6 Routes 753 Examples of Local IPv6 Routes 755 Static IPv6 Routes 756 Static Routes Using the Outgoing Interface 756 Static Routes Using Next-Hop IPv6 Address 758 Example Static Route with a Global Unicast Next-Hop Address 758 Example Static Route with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 759 Static Default Routes 760 Static IPv6 Host Routes 761 Floating Static IPv6 Routes 762 Default Routes with SLAAC on Router Interfaces 763 Troubleshooting Static IPv6 Routes 765 Troubleshooting Incorrect Static Routes That Appear in the IPv6 Routing Table 765 The Static Route Does Not Appear in the IPv6 Routing Table 767 Part VIII Review Part IX 772 Network Device Management Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Foundation Topics 780 779 777 778 .

Servers. and Client/Server Mode 789 NTP Using a Loopback Interface for Better Availability 791 Analyzing Topology Using CDP and LLDP 793 Examining Information Learned by CDP 793 Configuring and Verifying CDP Itself 796 Implementing Link Layer Discovery Protocol 797 Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 802 Foundation Topics 804 Securing IOS Passwords 804 Encrypting Older IOS Passwords with service password-encryption 805 Encoding the Enable Passwords with Hashes 806 Interactions Between Enable Password and Enable Secret 806 Making the Enable Secret Truly Secret with a Hash 807 Improved Hashes for Cisco’s Enable Secret 808 Hiding the Passwords for Local Usernames 810 Cisco Device Hardening 810 Configuring Login Banners 810 Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 812 Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs 813 Firewalls 814 Typical Location and Uses of Firewalls 814 Security Zones 815 Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 820 Foundation Topics 822 Managing Cisco IOS Images and Upgrades 822 The IOS File System 822 Upgrading IOS Images 824 Copying a New IOS Image to a Local IOS File System Using TFTP 825 Verifying IOS Code Integrity with MD5 827 .xxix System Message Logging (Syslog) 780 Sending Messages in Real Time to Current Users 780 Storing Log Messages for Later Review 781 Log Message Format 782 Log Message Severity Levels 783 Configuring and Verifying System Logging 784 The debug Command and Log Messages 786 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 787 Setting the Time and Timezone 788 Implementing NTP Clients.

Series.xxx CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Copying Images with FTP 828 Copying Images with SCP 829 The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 830 The Configuration Register 831 How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 831 Verifying the IOS Image Using the show version Command Password Recovery 835 The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 836 A Specific Password Reset Example 837 Managing Configuration Files 839 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 839 833 Traditional Configuration Backup and Restore with the copy Command 840 Alternatives for Configuration Backup and Restore 841 Erasing Configuration Files 843 Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 843 Chapter 36 IOS License Management 848 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 848 Foundation Topics 850 IOS Packaging 850 IOS Images per Model. and per Software Version/Release 850 Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 851 New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 851 IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 852 The Future: Cisco ONE Licensing 854 Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 854 Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 855 Example of Manually Activating a License 857 Showing the Current License Status 857 Adding a Permanent Technology Package License 859 Right-to-Use Licenses 861 Part IX Review Part X 864 Final Review Chapter 37 Final Review 867 868 Advice About the Exam Event 868 Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial Think About Your Time Budget Versus Number of Questions 869 A Suggested Time-Check Method 870 Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 870 Exam-Day Advice 871 868 .

xxxi Reserve the Hour After the Exam in Case You Fail 871 Exam Review 872 Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 873 Take Practice Exams 874 Practicing Taking the ICND1 Exam 875 Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 876 Taking Other Practice Exams 877 Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 877 Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 879 Review Mind Maps from Part Review 880 Do Labs 880 Assess Whether You Are Ready to Pass (and the Fallacy of Exam Scores) 881 Study Suggestions After Failing to Pass 882 Other Study Tasks 883 Final Thoughts 884 Part XI Appendixes 887 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates Glossary Index 889 895 897 928 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Appendix E Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks Appendix F Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets Appendix G Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design Appendix H Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Appendix I Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix J Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Appendix K Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Appendix L Mind Map Solutions Appendix M Study Planner Appendix N Classless Inter-domain Routing Appendix O Route Summarization Appendix P Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Appendix Q Topics from Previous Editions Appendix R Exam Topics Cross Reference .

To start the registration process.xxxii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Reader Services To access additional content for this book.ciscopress. Enter the product ISBN 9781587205804 and click Submit. simply register your product. go to www. you will find any available bonus content under Registered Products. . After the process is complete.com/register and log in or create an account*. *Be sure to check the box that you would like to hear from us to receive exclusive discounts on future editions of this product.

boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). ■ Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. ■ Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. .xxxiii Icons Used in This Book Printer PC Laptop Server Phone IP Phone Router Switch Frame Relay Switch Cable Modem Access Point ASA DSLAM WAN Switch CSU/DSU Hub PIX Firewall Bridge Layer 3 Switch Network Cloud Ethernet Connection Serial Line Virtual Circuit Ethernet WAN Wireless Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. ■ Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element. ■ Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element. mutually exclusive elements. ■ Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values.

Anyone who has user-level skills in . At the testing center. Cisco certification makes perfect sense. Types of Questions on the Exams The ICND1. and CCNA exams all follow the same general format. you need to know Cisco. and 200-125 CCNA exams. early in the year 2016. and registering for the test. using forums. the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam is the seventh separate version of the exam (which warrants a different exam number). the paths to certification are not quite obvious at first.Introduction About the Exams Congratulations! If you’re reading far enough to look at this book’s Introduction. However. dating back to 1998. you’ve probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification. with more than 80 percent market share in some markets. you sit in a quiet room with a PC. networking equals Cisco. you can take a sample quiz just to get accustomed to the PC and the testing engine. In many geographies and markets around the world. The Exams to Achieve CCENT and CCNA R&S Cisco announced changes to the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certifications. you have a chance to do a few other tasks on the PC. and the related 100-105 ICND1. the exams in Figure I-1 will likely be called version 3 (or v3 for short). Both paths cover the same exam topics. Most everyone new to Cisco certifications begins with either CCENT or CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S). You also pick up the CCENT certification by going through the two-exam path. or just pass the CCNA exam. as shown in Figure I-1: pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer. ICND2. If that form holds true. but the two-exam path does so spread over two exams rather than one. To make sure you reference the correct exam. The CCENT certification requires a single step: pass the ICND1 exam. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry at all. for instance. when looking for information. but you do not when working through the single-exam option. just make sure to use the correct exam number as shown in the figure. Cisco has a ridiculously high market share in the router and switch marketplace. 200-105 ICND2. Simple enough. Historically. 100-105 ICND1 CCENT 200-105 ICND2 200-125 CCNA Figure I-1 CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S) Cisco Entry-Level Certifications and Exams Note that Cisco has begun referencing some exams with a version number on some of their web pages. Before the exam timer begins. Cisco gives you two options to achieve CCNA R&S certification.

“What’s on the test?” Even in college. You can find out more about what’s on the exam from two primary sources: this book and from the Cisco website. and can access the devices.cisco.com. To find the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. the goal is to know what to study hard. In particular: Sim questions: You see a network topology. a lab scenario. Just go to www. However. single-answer ■ Multiple-choice.cisco. whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon. These two question styles with the simulator give Cisco the ability to test your configuration skills with sim questions. what to study a little.com/go/ certifications. Instead of changing/fixing the configuration. so that you control and use simulated Cisco devices. and your verification and troubleshooting skills with simlet questions. a lab scenario. Cisco wants the public to know both the variety of topics. and an idea about the kinds of knowledge and skills required for each topic. and can access the devices. learn the exam user interface by using the Cisco Exam Tutorial. This tool walks through each type of question Cisco may ask on the exam. people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams. Although the first four types of questions in the list should be somewhat familiar from other tests in school. someone would always ask. and what to not study at all. like a testlet. The Cisco Published Exam Topics First. and navigate until you see the exam topics in Appendix R. you answer questions about the current state of the network. Cisco tells the world the specific topics on each of their exams. the last two are more common to IT tests and Cisco exams in particular. “Exam Topic Cross Reference. Like a sim question. you also see multiple multiple-choice questions.Introduction getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment. multiple-answer ■ Testlet (one scenario with multiple multi-choice questions) ■ Drag-and-drop ■ Simulated lab (sim) ■ Simlet Before taking the test. The question types are ■ Multiple-choice. Simlet questions: This style combines sim and testlet question formats. for every Cisco certification exam. you see a network topology. Your job is to fix a problem with the configuration. Both use a network simulator to ask questions. What’s on the CCNA Exams—And What’s in the Book? Ever since I was in grade school. as well as the reverse: a list of chapters. with the exam topics included in each chapter. xxxv . search for “exam tutorial” at www.” This PDF appendix lists two cross references: one with a list of the exam topics and the chapters that include something about each topic. At heart. look for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching pages.

xxxvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Cisco does more than just list the topic (for example. It also highlights the most important topics in each chapter as key topics. part. and to troubleshoot problems when it is not working. so you know what to master first in your study. IPv4 addressing). you need to understand concepts. you should be able to not only configure IPv4 addresses and subnets. To do that. but read the short material above the exam topics as listed at the Cisco web page for each certification and exam. The scope of the book is based on the exam topics. and the similar CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide. So. For those of you thinking more specifically about the CCNA R&S certification and the CCNA 200-125 single-exam path to CCNA. You should take the time to not only read the exam topics. All the topics in this book either directly relate to some ICND1 exam topic or provide more basic background knowledge for some exam topic. The primary exam topics each list one or more verbs that describe the skill level required. Most of the book’s features tie in some way to the need to study beyond simply reading the “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter. CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. . this Introduction discusses the book features introduced by chapter. And if to do that. the ICND1 100-105 exam topic list has 41 primary exam topics (topics with verbs). those details are implied. in the technology chapters of the book. Look for notices about the use of unscored items. In short. about three-quarters of the chapter is about the technology. verify. and troubleshoot. and the fact that Cisco intends the exam topics to be a set of general guidelines for the exams. This section makes extensive use of figures. Note that the list of exam topics provides a certain level of depth. The exam questions will attempt to assess whether you can configure. but you should understand them well enough to verify that the configuration works. which describes one of the most important topics in both CCENT and CCNA R&S: Configure. and the ICND2 book (and the ICND2 200-105 exam topics) cover the other half. consider the following exam topic. verify. and about one-quarter is for the related study features. The rest of this section works through these book features. but they also list the depth to which you must master the topic. and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting Note that this one exam topic has three verbs (configure. and troubleshoot). The ICND1 book (and ICND1 100-105 exam topics) covers about half of the topics listed for the CCNA 200-125 exam. this book covers about one-half of the CCNA exam topics. And because the book organizes your study by chapter. and you need to have other knowledge. verify. with lists and tables for comparisons. go beyond what you would find in a simple technology book. This Book: About the Exam Topics This book provides a complete study system for the Cisco published exam topics for the ICND1 100-105 exam. and for final review. Book Features This book. and then by part (a part contains multiple chapters). and then a final review at the end of the book. For example. plus additional subtopics that further define that technology area. These books give you a study system designed to help you not only learn facts but also to develop the skills need to pass the exams. The “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter contains rich content to explain the topics on the exam and to show many examples. for content. For example.

You start with the DIKTA quiz. and then reveals the completed table. DIKTA Quiz Take Quiz Figure I-2 High Score Low Score Foundation Topics Chapter Review (Skim) Foundation Topics (Read) Foundation Topics 1) In-Chapter. the technology content in the chapter).. The chapter review lists the key terminology from the chapter. so these items are noted as key topics. verification. The Introduction’s upcoming section titled “About Building Hands-On Skills” discusses your options. 2) Companion Website 3) DVD Three Primary Tasks for a First Pass Through Each Chapter In addition to these three main chapter features. or. each “Chapter Review” section uses a variety of other book features. and troubleshooting. While all content matters. However. for the purpose of later review and mastery. organized for reading and study. and determine how to approach reading the Foundation Topics (that is. some is. and practice skills-based content in the chapter. scan the chapter for these items to review them. more important to learn.. all these refer to skills you should practice at the user interface (CLI) of a router or switch. Foundation Topics: This is the heading for the core content section of the chapter. The chapter review lists the key topics in a table. Chapter Review: This section includes a list of study tasks useful to help you remember concepts.Introduction Chapter Features and How to Use Each Chapter Each chapter of this book is a self-contained short course about one small topic area. as follows: “Do I Know This Already?” quizzes: Each chapter begins with a prechapter quiz.” and “troubleshoot”. including the following: ■ Review Key Topics: Inside the “Foundation Topics” section. ■ Key Terms You Should Know: You do not need to be able to write a formal definition of all terms from scratch. ■ Labs: Many exam topics use verbs list “configure. the Key Topic icon appears next to the most important items. connect ideas. Make sure you have a good understanding of each term. ■ Complete Tables from Memory: Instead of just rereading an important table of information. and use the DVD Glossary to cross-check your own mental definitions.” “verify. so you can work on memorizing the content. you do need to understand each term well enough to understand exam questions and answers. use the chapter review tasks to start working on mastering your memory of the facts and skills with configuration. of course. The chapter review refers you to these other tools. These tables exist in the Memory Table app that is available on the DVD and from the companion website. or not so much. xxxvii . or needs more review to master. Figure I-2 shows how each chapter uses these three key elements. You can use the score to determine whether you already know a lot. The app shows the table with some content removed. some tables have been marked as memory tables. When finished.

the part review includes some tasks meant to help pull the ideas together from this larger body of work. VLANs. ■ Subnetting and Other Process Exercises: Many chapters in the ICND1 book ask you to perform various tasks that use math or use a particular process. but using the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam software that comes with the book. re-answering those questions can prove a useful way to review facts. The following list explains the types of tasks added to part review beyond the types mentioned for chapter review: ■ Answer Part Review Questions: The books comes with exam software and databases on questions. and Troubleshooting (10-12) Network Fundamentals (1-5) The Book Parts (by Title).”) .xxxviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Command References: Some book chapters cover a large amount of router and switch commands. for extra practice in answering multiple choice questions on a computer. The part review suggests that you repeat the DIKTA questions. 8 IP Version 6 (28-32) 4 IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting (13-16) 2 1 Figure I-3 5 Implementing IPv4 (17-20) Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs (6-9) 9 Network Device Management (33-36) 6 IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting (21-24) 7 IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT (25-27) 3 Ethernet LANs: Design. Figure I-3 lists the titles of the parts and the chapters in those parts (by chapter number). However. ■ Review DIKTA Questions: Although you have already seen the DIKTA questions from the chapters in a part. to help you think about topics from multiple chapters. and Chapter Numbers in Each Part Each book part ends with a “Part Review” section that contains a list of activities for study and review. The chapter review includes reference tables for the command used in that chapter. to connect show commands and the related networking concepts. Each part contains a number of related chapters. Part Features and How to Use Part Review The book organizes the chapters into parts. but also use them for study—just cover one column of the table. Use these tables for reference. see the section “About Mind Maps. much like the “Chapter Review” section at the end of each chapter. because the part review takes place after completing a number of chapters. and even to connect terminology. (For more information about mind maps. ■ Mind Maps: Mind maps are graphical organizing tools that many people find useful when learning and processing how concepts fit together. One database holds questions written specifically for part review. and see how much you can remember and complete mentally. The part review elements make use of mind maps in several ways: to connect concepts and the related configuration commands. These questions tend to connect multiple ideas together. The process of creating mind maps helps you build mental connections. The chapter review asks you to do additional practice problems as found in DVD-only PDF appendixes. along with an explanation. and to build the skills needed for the more challenging analysis questions on the exams.

PDF (for reading on your computer). xxxix . No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. and uncovering your weak spots.) ■ CCENT ICND1 100-105 Network Simulator Lite: This lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson provides you with a means.) In addition to these tasks. ■ eBook: If you are interested in obtaining an eBook version of this title. this book. The “Final Review” chapter focuses on a three-part approach to helping you pass: practicing your skills. and doing more lab exercises. along with a much larger set of practice questions. many “Part Review” sections have you perform other tasks with book features mentioned in the “Chapter Review” section: repeating DIKTA quiz questions. you also receive additional practice test questions and enhanced practice test features. This is a great resource to practice building subnetting skills. has additional study resources. In addition to three versions of the eBook. You can take simulated ICND1 exams with the DVD and activation code included in this book. practicing answering exam questions. right now. Final Review The “Final Review” chapter at the end of this book lists a series of preparation tasks that you can best use for your final preparation before taking the exam. Other Features In addition to the features in each of the core chapters.Introduction ■ Labs: The “Part Review” section will direct you to the kinds of lab exercises you should do with your chosen lab product. labs that would be more appropriate for this stage of study and review. and Mobi (the native Kindle version). ■ Subnetting videos: The companion DVD contains a series of videos that show you how to calculate various facts about IP addressing and subnetting (in particular. we have included a special offer on a coupon card inserted in the DVD sleeve in the back of the book. to experience the Cisco command-line interface (CLI). the “Final Review” chapter uses the same familiar book features discussed for the chapter review and part review elements. (You can take simulated ICND2 and CCNA R&S exams with the DVD in the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide. EPUB (for reading on your tablet. reviewing key topics. or Nook or other eReader). ■ Subnetting practice: The companion DVD contains five appendixes (D–H) with a set of subnetting practice problems and answers. as a whole. (Check out the section “About Building Hands-On Skills” for information about lab options. mobile device. using the shortcuts described in this book). You can also do these same practice problems with applications that you can access from the DVD or the companion web site. including the following: ■ DVD-based practice exam: The companion DVD contains the powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam engine. This offer enables you to purchase the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test at a 70 percent discount off the list price. Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book. To that end.

pearsonitcertification. Start at www. you might want to consider purchasing the CCNA Network Simulator. but the content is static. In the past. all chapter review activities use the book chapter. ■ Author’s website and blogs: The author maintains a website that hosts tools and links useful when studying for CCENT and CCNA.xl CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Other practice: The companion DVD contains four other appendixes (I–K) that each contain other practice problems related to a particular chapter from the book. The advantages of using these apps are as follows: ■ Easier to use: Instead of having to print out copies of the appendixes and do the work on paper. Readers tell us they find that content useful.com for a page about the blogs in particular. You can also do these same practice problems with applications that you can access from the DVD or the companion website. ■ PearsonITCertification. . ■ Mentoring videos: The DVD included with this book includes four other instructional videos. and review content from one of your recently finished chapters. and other certification preparation tools from the industry’s best authors and trainers. with links to the pages with the labs related to this book. Use these for more practice on the particulars with some of the math. This book (and the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide) are the first Cisco Press Cert Guides with extensive interactive applications. go to the book’s website. The site lists information to help you build your own lab. Basically. CLI navigation. ■ CCNA Simulator: If you are looking for more hands-on practice. blogs. interactive experience that you can easily run over and over. these new apps provide you with an easy to use.and process-oriented activities in the chapters. router configuration. ■ Companion website: The website www. You can get this mapping guide for free on the Extras tab of the companion website. Check out the great CCNA articles.com/title/9781587205804 posts upto-the-minute materials that further clarify complex exam topics. about the following topics: switch basics. The applications can be found both on the DVD that comes with the book and on the book’s companion website.com/networksimulator or other retail outlets. or the chapter plus a DVD-only appendix. To help you with your studies.ciscopress. Check this site regularly for new and updated postings written by the author that provide further insight into the more troublesome topics on the exam. You can purchase a copy of this software from Pearson at http://pearsonitcertification.com: The website www. ■ Convenient: When you have a spare 5–10 minutes.certskills. study pages that correspond to each chapter of this book and the ICND1 book.certskills.com. and links to the author’s CCENT Skills blog and CCNA Skills blog. and VLANs. I have created a mapping guide that maps each of the labs in the simulator to the specific sections in these CCNA cert guides. A Big New Feature: Review Applications One of the single biggest additions to this edition of the book is the addition of study apps for many of the chapter review activities.com is a great resource for all things IT-certification related. most every activity that can be done at chapter review can now be done with an application. videos. look to blog.

click the Access Bonus Content link to get access to the book’s companion website. Tactile learners may do better by at least typing answers into an app.ciscopress. and have a DVD drive.Introduction ■ Untethered from Book/DVD: Because these apps are available on the book’s companion web page in addition to the DVD. But most of that content is static: useful. From there.com/ register and enter the ISBN of the print book: 9781587205804. So. xli . but static. you can access your review activities from anywhere—no need to have the book or DVD with you. all chapter review activities use the book chapter plus appendixes. with the Glossary in the back of the book Glossary Flash Cards app Subnetting Practice Appendixes D–H. If you buy the Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test from Cisco Press. If you buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. one per problem type How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book Traditionally. If you buy the print book. flip pages to find Key Topics Table app Config Checklist Just one of many types of key topics Config Checklist app Memory Table Two static PDF appendixes (one with sparse tables for you to complete. your book will automatically be registered on your account page. one with completed tables) Memory Table app Key Terms Listed in each “Chapter Review” section. to help keep you focused on the activity. but that not everyone uses the “Chapter Review” sections consistently. After you have registered your book. and make them both more useful and more interesting. you can get the DVD files by registering your book on the Cisco Press website. ■ Good for tactile learners: Sometimes looking at a static page after reading a chapter lets your mind wander. we want to increase the number of people using the review tools. with the appendixes often being located on the DVD. with practice problems and answers A variety of apps. or clicking inside an app to navigate. Table I-1 summarizes these new applications and the traditional book features that cover the same content. Table I-1 Book Features with Both Traditional and App Options Feature Traditional App Key Topic Table with list. and select Access Bonus Content to access the book’s companion website. one per problem type Other Practice Appendixes I–K with practice problems and answers A variety of apps. click the Registered Products tab. To do so. you have all the content on the DVD. Simply go to your account page. simply go to www. go to your account page and click the Registered Products tab. Our in-depth reader surveys show that readers who use the chapter review tools like them. Just spin the DVD and use the disk menu that should automatically start to explore all content.

xlii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide If you buy the eBook from some other bookseller. and contrasts the TCP/IP networking model with the OSI model.” covers the concepts and terms used for the data link layer for WANs. Book Organization. “Configuring Switch Interfaces. including duplex/speed and port security. The core chapters are organized into sections.” explains how to configure Cisco switches for basic management features.” examines various ways to design Ethernet LANs. This chapter introduces the basics of IPv4. The core chapters cover the following topics: ■ ■ ■ Part I: Networking Fundamentals ■ Chapter 1. with Chapter 37 as the “Final Review” chapter. and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 10. such as remote access using Telnet and SSH. ■ Chapter 5. VLANs. Part III: Ethernet LANs: Design. “Configuring Basic Switch Management. focusing on TCP and applications. ■ Chapter 8. including VLAN trunking. “Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications”: This chapter completes most of the detailed discussion of the upper two layers of the TCP/IP model (transport and application). ■ Chapter 2. “Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs. “Using the Command-Line Interface. “Fundamentals of WANs. and Appendixes This book contains 36 core chapters. ■ Chapter 12. ■ Chapter 7. Chapters. and explains common design terminology.” focuses on how to tell whether the switch is doing what it is supposed to be doing. “Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs.” introduces the concepts and terms used when building Ethernet LANs. Part II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs ■ Chapter 6. “Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs. ■ Chapter 9. ■ Chapter 11.” shows how to configure a variety of switch features that apply to interfaces.” shows how to use the Cisco CLI to verify the current status of an Ethernet LAN and how it switches Ethernet frames. Chapters 1 through 36. The steps are the same as noted earlier for those who buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. discussing the pros and cons. “Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching. “Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs”: This chapter explains the concepts and configuration surrounding virtual LANs. ■ Chapter 4. “Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing”: IP is the main network layer protocol for TCP/IP. “Introduction to TCP/IP Networking.” explains how to access the textbased user interface of Cisco Catalyst LAN switches. mainly through the use of show commands. including HDLC. ■ Chapter 3. the very last page of your eBook file will contain instructions for how to register the book and access the companion website. including IPv4 addressing and routing. . Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND1 exam.” introduces the central ideas and terms used by TCP/IP.

■ Chapter 16.” is like Chapter 8. ■ Chapter 14. Part V: Implementing IPv4 ■ Chapter 17. B. what subnet IDs exist.” moves away from the assumption of one subnet mask per network to multiple subnet masks per network—which makes subnetting math and processes much more challenging. “DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts.” walks you through the entire concept of subnetting. “Operating Cisco Routers. ■ Chapter 22.” explains how routers work together to find all the best routes to each subnet using a routing protocol. This chapter shows how to take those two facts and find key facts about the IP subnet in which that host resides. “Variable-Length Subnet Masks. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing. ■ Chapter 23. “IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools. ■ Chapter 15. “Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes. and how they can learn those settings with DHCP. Part VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT ■ Chapter 25. Part VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 21. This chapter explains those challenges. “Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks”: IPv4 addresses originally fell into several classes.” discusses how to add IPv4 address configuration to router interfaces and how to configure static IPv4 routes. This chapter explores all things related to address classes and the IP network concept created by those classes. “Analyzing Subnet Masks. ■ Chapter 19.” discusses how hosts can be configured with their IPv4 settings. “Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting. and asks why a particular mask might be chosen. “Analyzing Existing Subnets”: Most troubleshooting of IP connectivity problems starts with an IP address and mask. ■ Chapter 20. or C network to a completed subnetting design as implemented in an enterprise IPv4 network. xliii . and C. focusing on basic device management.” focuses on how to use two key troubleshooting tools to find routing problems: the ping and traceroute commands. and if chosen. ■ Chapter 18. but it focuses on routers instead of switches.” takes a design approach to subnetting.Introduction ■ ■ ■ ■ Part IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting ■ Chapter 13. “Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists”: This chapter examines how standard IP ACLs can filter packets based on the source IP address so that a router will not forward the packet. This chapter begins with a classful IPv4 network.” shows how an engineer can analyze the key facts about a subnetting design based on the subnet mask. “Subnet Design. with unicast IP addresses being in Class A. This chapter shows how to look at the mask and IP network to determine the size of each subnet and the number of subnets. ■ Chapter 24. “Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2. B. This chapter also shows how to configure the RIPv2 routing protocol for use with IPv4.” looks at the most common IPv4 problems and how to find the root causes of those problems when troubleshooting. from starting with a Class A.

and LLDP. while discussing a variety of special IPv6 addresses. and both standard and extended IP ACLs. Part VIII: IP Version 6 ■ Chapter 28. while adding details of how IPv6 uses Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC). and examines how to better secure devices through device hardening.” is a place for the author to add book content mid-edition. “Managing IOS Files. Part XI: Appendixes (In Print) ■ Appendix A. “Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers. focusing on key files like the IOS and configuration files.” works through the two branches of unicast IPv6 addresses—global unicast addresses and unique local addresses—that act somewhat like IPv4 public and private addresses. including how it helps conserve public IPv4 addresses. ■ Chapter 34. ■ Chapter 36. ■ Chapter 31. ■ Chapter 27. ■ Chapter 32. . “Device Management Protocols. CDP. focusing on the rules for writing and interpreting IPv6 addresses. Part IX: Network Device Management ■ Chapter 33.” shows how to add static routes to an IPv6 router’s routing table. “Device Security Features. NTP. ■ Chapter 29. “Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts. ■ Appendix B.” discusses the most basic concepts of IP version 6.” mirrors Chapter 20’s discussions of IPv4 on hosts. ■ Chapter 35.” discusses the Cisco per-device license management practices through the use of PAK licensing. verification. ■ The Glossary contains definitions for all the terms listed in the “Key Terms You Should Know” sections at the conclusion of Chapters 1 through 36.” works through the complete concept.” lists several tables of numeric information. The chapter shows how to upgrade IOS and to backup/restore the configuration file. “Network Address Translation.” explains the IOS file system.” shows how to configure IPv6 routing and addresses on routers. and troubleshooting sequence for the router NAT feature. “Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists”: This chapter examines both named and numbered ACLs. respectively. “Implementing IPv6 Routing. configuration. “IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting. Always check online for the latest PDF version of this appendix. “IOS License Management. “CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates. ■ Chapter 30.” discusses the concepts and configuration of some common network management tools: syslog. Part X: Final Review ■ ■ Chapter 37. including a binary-to-decimal conversion table and a list of powers of 2.xliv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ Chapter 26. “Final Review. the appendix lists download instructions.” takes the discussion of device passwords a step deeper.” suggests a plan for final preparation after you have finished the core parts of the book. “Fundamentals of IP Version 6. “Numeric Reference Tables.

■ Appendix Q. “Exam Topics Cross Reference. “Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers” ■ Appendix L.” is a spreadsheet with major study milestones. and math related to CIDR. “Implementing Point-to-Point WANs. “Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks” ■ Appendix I. including how to get in touch with Cisco Press.” is an extra chapter for anyone interested in reading more about the concepts. Reference Information This short section contains a few topics available for reference elsewhere in the book.” provides some tables to help you find where each exam objectives is covered in the book. which lists several contact details. “Mind Map Solutions. make sure to note the final page of this introduction. It is included here for anyone who has interest. “Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks” ■ Appendix F. I included this chapter for reference if you need a little more depth about serial links. and you may not have a copy of the ICND2 book. PCPT allows has many options. ■ Appendix R. In a lab environment. terminology.” is a copy of the ICND2 book’s chapter about serial WANs. “Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists” ■ Appendix J. ■ Appendix O. “Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets” ■ Appendix G. While no longer within this exam’s topics. where you can track your progress through your study.” is a copy of a chapter that was in the previous edition of this book. ■ Appendix M. “Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design” ■ Appendix H. but you may also skip these topics and refer back to them later. “Route Summarization. Install the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions This book. In particular. “Classless Inter-domain Routing. along with rights to use some exam questions related to this book. ■ Appendix P. “Topics from Previous Editions.” shows an image of sample answers for all the part-ending mind map exercises. ■ Appendix N. includes the rights to use the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) software. the concepts are still of interest to someone with the CCENT or CCNA certification. you may want to use serial WAN links.Introduction ■ Part XII: DVD Appendixes The following appendixes are available in digital format on the DVD that accompanies this book: ■ Appendix C. like many other Cisco Press books. ■ Appendix D.” includes the explanations to all the questions from Chapters 1 through 36.” is a collection of information about topics that have appeared on previous versions of the CCNA exams. “Answers to the ‘Do I Know This Already?’ Quizzes. You may read these when you first use the book. including the option to answer xlv . “Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks” ■ Appendix E. but was removed for this edition. “Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6” ■ Appendix K. and for instructors who may need the chapter for their existing course. “Study Planner.

the practice test is not included. use PCPT to review the DIKTA questions for that part. the PCPT software downloads the latest version of all these exam databases. as listed in Figure I-4.xlvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide questions in study mode. NOTE The right to use the exams associated with this book is based on an activation code. and you can even take the DIKTA chapter pre-quizzes using PCPT. using study mode. Note that if you purchase an eBook version from any other source. many people find it best to save some of the exams until exam review time. spelled out here: ■ During part review. For those who purchase a Kindle edition. Figure I-4 begins to suggest a plan. You should install PCPT so it is ready to use even for the earliest chapters. on the opposite side from the exam activation code. the code is in the DVD sleeve at the back of the book. For those with a print book. And with the ICND1 book alone. both in study mode and practice exam mode. where all the answers are stripped out. This book’s Part Review sections ask you specifically to use PCPT. so you can see the answers and explanations for each question as you go along. challenging you to answer questions from memory. using study mode. . The questions come in different exams or exam databases. Do not lose the activation code. However. NOTE Also on this same piece of paper. you will find a one-time-use coupon code that gives you 70 percent off the purchase of the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. ■ Save the remaining exams to use with the “Final Review” chapter at the end of the book. after you have finished reading the entire book. Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test. you get four different “exams. For those who purchase the Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test directly from the Cisco Press website. the access code will be supplied directly from Amazon. as other vendors are not able to vend the required unique access code. use the questions built specifically for part review (the part review questions) for that part of the book. or to take a simulated exam that mimics real exam conditions. or to view questions in flash card mode. the code will be populated on your account page after purchase. ■ During part review. When you install the PCPT software and type in the activation code. DIKTA (“Book”) ICND1 Exam #1 Part Review ICND1 Exam #2 Figure I-4 PCPT Exams/Exam Databases and When to Use Them You can choose to use any of these exam databases at any time. PCPT Exam Databases with This Book This book includes an activation code that allows you to load a set of practice questions.” or four different sets of questions.

This selects the “book” questions (that is. The book lists the questions. to help you determine whether you know the facts contained within the chapter. Then select the box beside each chapter in the part of the book you are reviewing. You can use the DIKTA quiz as printed in the book. It gives you a little more practice in how to read questions from testing software. on the DVD. Step 4. The top of the next window that appears should list some exams. Start the PCPT software. To view these DIKTA questions inside the PCPT software. DIKTA questions focus more on facts. take it again during chapter review for more practice. How to View Only DIKTA Questions by Chapter or Part Most chapters begin with a “Do I Know This Already?” (DIKTA) quiz. with a timed event. Select any other options on the right side of the window. you need to select Book Questions. you can see the answers immediately. as follows: Step 1. and the “Part Review” sections even suggest that you repeat the questions from all chapters in that part. The part review questions instead focus more on application of those facts to typical real scenarios. Step 2. It gives you a preset number of questions. the DIKTA questions from the beginning of each chapter). Step 3. you can view questions from only the chapters in one part of the book. with a name like CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. and then select one or more chapters. you might want to keep that PDF handy. From the main (home) menu. with the letter answers on the page following the quiz. and look more like real exam questions. Also. How to View Part Review Questions The exam databases you get with this book include a database of questions created solely for study during the part review process. which is the way PCPT references questions found inside the printed book. for instance. and click Open Exam. click at the bottom of the screen to deselect all objectives (chapters). PCPT practice mode lets you practice an exam event somewhat like the actual exam. Then you have to deselect all chapters (with a single click). so you can study the topics more easily. Step 5. Appendix C. from all chapters. you can choose a subset of the questions in an exam database. select the item for this product. and uncheck the other boxes.Introduction The two modes inside PCPT give you better options for study versus practicing a timed exam event. You can take the quiz to start a chapter. Practice exam mode also gives you a score for that timed event. check the ICND1 Book Questions box. or use the PCPT software. Using PCPT for these questions has some advantages. lists the answers along with an explanation. Also. the explanations to the questions are conveniently located in the PCPT software. xlvii . In study mode. On this same window. Click Start to start reviewing the questions. Step 6.

I personally find a huge improvement in learning new areas of study when I mind map. Any concepts that can be grouped should be put near each other.thinkbuzan. You can learn more about mind maps at his website. you can use mind maps as an alternative way to take notes. whatever idea needs to be represented. you strengthen existing mental connections and create new connections. and eventually reach the point where you believe the organization of ideas makes sense to you. NOTE Many books have been written about mind maps. When you spend time thinking about an area of study. Each mind map begins with a blank piece of paper or blank window in a mind mapping application. You can also use mind maps to improve how your brain organizes concepts. As need be. About Mind Maps Mind maps are a type of visual organization tool that you can use for many purposes. mind maps help you internalize what you learn. starting with the big topic of “IPv6 addressing. You then add a large central idea. .xlviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide To view these questions. but Tony Buzan often gets credit for formalizing and popularizing mind maps. follow the same process as you did with DIKTA/book questions. In short.” and then writing down random terms and ideas. For instance. www. PCPT has a clear name for this database: Part Review Questions. commands. I hope you will make the effort to try these tools and see if they work well for you too. with branches that move out in any direction. ideas. and organize your ideas into a mind map. reorganize them. you can create deeper and deeper branches. The branches contain smaller concepts. but select the Part Review database rather than the book database. although for this book’s purposes. most mind maps will not go beyond a couple of levels. you draw lines connecting the ideas. pictures.com. Figure I-5 Sample Mind Map Mind maps may be the least popular but most effective study tool suggested in this book. For example. As you start to organize them mentally. You might create this kind of mind map when reviewing IPv6 addressing concepts. Mind maps improve your brain’s connections and relationships between ideas. Figure I-5 shows a sample mind map that begins to output some of the IPv6 content from Part VIII of the ICND1 book. all into your own frame of reference.

and click from there. About Building Hands-On Skills You need skills in using Cisco routers and switches.certskills. and we build the sample mind maps with XMIND. so feel free to look around. you can start at my blog launch site (blog. or find and download a mind map application. which has free versions for Windows. which ones are required.com/ccent/ Wendell’s CCENT (ICND1): In the menus. typically on multiple devices. helps provide that practice. and the device (a router or switch) displays messages in response. in which combination. and which ones are optional. To answer sim and simlet questions on the exams. and you need to be able to navigate to the right place in the CLI to use those commands. and OS X. Note that the Config Lab posts should show an image like this in the summary: Figure I-6 Config Lab Logo in the Author’s Blogs xlix . The Config Labs feature.com/ccna/ Wendell’s CCNA (ICND2): In the menus. You job is to create the configuration. Part of the skill you need to learn is to remember which configuration commands work together. blog. You have to choose which commands to use. To reach my blog sites for ICND1 content or for ICND2 content (two different blogs). introduced as a new feature in this edition of the book. The Cisco CLI is a text-based command-and-response user interface. this edition places the content not only outside the book but also onto the author’s blog site. you can just draw them on a blank piece of paper. you need to know a lot of commands. specifically the Cisco command-line interface (CLI). I have used Mind Node Pro on a Mac. and then check your answer versus the supplied answer. This next section walks through the options of what is included in the book. Each lab presents a sample lab topology.certskills. you type a command.Introduction Finally. Linux. with some requirements. with a brief description of lab options outside the book. the challenge level goes beyond just picking the right parameters on one command.certskills. Config Lab Exercises Some router and switch features require multiple configuration commands. for mind mapping tools. Also for the first time. navigate to Hands On… Config Lab blog. So. The answer then shows a sample configuration. And getting good at that kind of task requires practice. and you have to decide what to configure on each device.com). navigate to Hands On… Config Lab Both blogs are geared toward helping you pass the exams.

This book comes with a lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson. Self-assessment: As part of final review. But more importantly. make sure and use the NetSim Lite to learn the basics of the CLI to get a good start. you are a step closer to being ready for the exam! Blog format: Allows easy adds and changes by me. Either way. with Part II being the first part with commands. one reason that NetSim Lite comes on the DVD is that the publisher hopes you will buy the full product. See the “Your Study Plan” element that follows the Introduction for more details about those review sections. from any web browser. untethered from the book or DVD. including the following: Untethered and responsive: Do them from anywhere. or if you get lost. it focuses on learning for the exam by providing a large number of useful lab exercises. Of course. which provides you with a means. No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. A Quick Start with Pearson Network Simulator Lite The decision of how to get hands-on skills can be a little scary at first. The Pearson Network Simulator The Config Labs and the Pearson Network Simulator Lite both fill specific needs. If you bought both books. However. make sure you install both Sim Lite products. and easy comments by you. without help. you should be able to do all the Config Labs. and they both come with the book. each with labs that match the book content. The single best option for lab work to do along with this book is the paid version of the Pearson Network Simulator. However. and with confidence. Part I includes concepts only. Designed for idle moments: Each lab is designed as a 5. Reader surveys tell us that those people who use the Simulator along with the book love the learning process. So. you have discovered a topic that you can now go back and reread to complete your knowledge. Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book.l CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide These Config Labs have several benefits. right now. Two outcomes.to 10-minute exercise if all you are doing is typing in a text editor or writing your answer on paper. NOTE The ICND1 and ICND2 books each contain a different version of the Sim Lite product. to experience the Cisco CLI. so you can easily use these at both chapter review and part review. . even if you do not use the full product. Note that the blog organizes these Config Lab posts by book chapter. you can still learn from the labs that come with NetSim Lite while deciding about what options to pursue. The good news: You have a free and simple first step to experience the CLI: Install and use the Pearson NetSim Lite that comes with this book. from your phone or tablet. This simulator product simulates Cisco routers and switches so that you can learn for the CCENT and CCNA R&S certifications. both good: Practice getting better and faster with basic configuration. and rave about how the book and Simulator work well together. The labs with this latest version of NetSim Lite includes labs associated with Part II of this book. you need more than those two tools.

Check out http://virl. Try the Lite version. and consider all the options.cisco. and CCNA 200-120).com/title/9781587205804. but with a different catch for each. and not for the general public. but the next two are generally free to the user. plus others for the ICND2 parts of the content). You should plan to use some lab environment to practice as much CLI as possible. That product includes approximately 80 percent of the CLI topics in the ICND1 100-105 and 200-105 books. during the months in 2016 for which the Simulator is the older edition listing the older exams in the title. So during that time. However. You can buy them. This tool. Cisco intends Packet Tracer for use by people currently enrolled in Cisco Networking Academy courses. the Simulator organizes the labs to match the book. Thankfully. when you want to do labs when reading a chapter or doing part review. you could even do the Config Lab exercises from my blog on that gear. definitely use Packet Tracer. and check out the full product. if you are part of a Cisco Academy. lets you create a lab topology. you will need to refer to a PDF that lists those labs versus this book’s organization. new or used. Note that the Simulator and the books work on a different release schedule.cisco. Just look for “Sort by Chapter” tab in the Simulator’s user interface. You can find that PDF on the book product page under the Downloads tab here: www. Both have the same base code and same user interface. There is a full product for CCENT only. but you should plan on getting some handson practice somehow. First. So. in an offering called Cisco Learning Labs (www. GNS3 is not a Cisco product. or borrow them at work. However.ciscopress. start the topology. The important thing to know is that most people need to practice using the Cisco CLI to be ready to pass these exams. If you have the right mix of gear. ICND2 200-101. Cisco offers a virtualization product that lets you run router and switch operating system (OS) images in a virtual environment. For a time in 2016. First.com for more information. you can use real Cisco routers and switches. and another for CCNA R&S (which includes all the labs in the CCENT product. and cannot provide you with the IOS images for legal reasons. and the same types of labs. the Simulator will be the Simulator created for the previous versions of the exams (ICND1 100-101. All these previously mentioned options cost some money. or try and re-create examples from the book. li .cisco. the Virtual Internet Routing Lab (VIRL. you still need hands-on experience.com/go/learninglabs). GNS3 works somewhat like VIRL. More Lab Options If you decide against using the full Pearson Network Simulator. On a practical note.Introduction Of course. you need to make a decision for yourself. However. you can get a great idea of how the full Simulator product works by using the Pearson Network Simulator Lite product include with the book. You can rent them for a fee. creating a virtual environment running real Cisco IOS. and connect to real router and switch OS images. the Simulator is still very useful. http://virl.com). You can even rent virtual Cisco router and switch lab pods from Cisco. This book does not tell you what option to use. Cisco also makes a simulator that works very well as a learning tool: Cisco Packet Tracer.

cisco. This is the CCNA ICND1 certification book from the only Cisco-authorized publisher. and type your message.lii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide For More Information If you have any comments about the book.com/go/ccent for the latest details. Just go to the website.ciscopress.cisco.com. We at Cisco Press believe that this book certainly can help you achieve CCNA certification. The CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide helps you attain CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certification.com/go/ccna and www. but the real work is up to you! I trust that your time will be well spent. submit them via www. You should always check www. select Contact Us. . Cisco might make changes that affect the CCNA certification from time to time.

This page intentionally left blank .

You are probably now wondering whether to start reading here or skip ahead to Chapter 1. and Ethernet LAN switching to the scenario in the question to come up with some of the other pieces of the puzzle. You must be able to configure Cisco devices to work correctly in those networks. Your study will go much better if you take time (maybe 15 minutes) to think about a few key points about how to study before starting on this journey. ICND2. And some pieces will just remain unknown for a given question. The more challenging questions on these exams work a lot like a jigsaw puzzle. as represented with the white pieces in Figure 1. For a given question. The question would supply some of the information. To do that. but with enough of the puzzle filled in. “Introduction to TCP/IP Networking. these Cisco exams also require deep skills. Most anyone can study and pass these exams. you must know each networking concept and remember how the concepts work together. and CCNA R&S exams. These skills require that you prepare by doing more than just reading and memorizing what you read. You have probably already read (or quickly skimmed) the Introduction. To solve the puzzle. For instance. the ICND1 exam includes many troubleshooting topics. and/or CCNA 200-125).Your Study Plan You just got this book. You must be able to analyze and predict what really happens in a network. Each of these exams covers a lot of concepts and many commands specific to Cisco devices. A Brief Perspective on Cisco Certification Exams Cisco sets the bar pretty high for passing the ICND1. but with four out of every five puzzle pieces not even in the room. but it takes more than just a quick read through the book and the cash to pay for the exam. . you need to read many pages in this book to learn many individual facts and how these facts relate to each other. And you must be ready to troubleshoot problems when the network does not work correctly. you have to mentally re-create the missing pieces. like some pieces of the jigsaw puzzle. exercises that help you build the skills to solve these networking puzzles. A simple question might ask you why a host cannot communicate with some server. Beyond knowledge. ICND2 200-105.” Stop to read this section about how to create your own study plan for the exam(s) you plan to take (ICND1 100-105. But a big part of this book lists exercises beyond reading. you should be able to answer the question. The challenge of these exams comes from many angles. Of course. You have to apply your knowledge of IPv4 routing. IP addressing. That is what this section will help you do. some pieces of the puzzle may remain a mystery.

as shown in Figure 2. Besides. visualize an average of 4 chapters. before you dive into this exciting but challenging world of learning networking on Cisco gear. You need to mentally link each idea with other related ideas. beyond reading and remembering all the facts? You need to develop skills. So you cannot think about the book as one huge task or you might get discouraged. Then. what do you need to do to be ready to pass. Your study plan has you working through the chapters in each part. but as 9 parts. within each part. So the first step in your study plan is to visualize the book not as one large book. The good news here is that the book is designed with obvious breakpoints and built-in extensive review activities. So. you never sit down to read 900 pages in one study session. the book is more of a study system than a book. but many people pass them every day. In short.Given: Output of show mac address-table Predict Output: show ip route Predict Configuration: RIPv2 on Routers Predict Output: show ip arp Given: Router Topology Drawing Figure 1 Calculate: IPv4 subnet IDs Filling In Puzzle Pieces with Your Analysis Skills Five Study Plan Steps These exams are challenging. the next few pages give you five key planning steps to take so that you can more effectively build those skills and make those connections. Doing that requires additional work. This is a large book. To help you along the way. . So break the task down into smaller tasks. Step 1: Think in Terms of Parts and Chapters The first step in your study plan is to get the right mindset about the size and nature of the task you have set out to accomplish. and then reviewing the material in that part before moving on.

4

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Part I

Part II

Chapter 1
Review

Chapter 2
Review

Chapter 3
Review

Chapter 4
Review

Chapter 5
Review

Chapter 6
P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Part VI

Chapter 21
Review

Chapter 22
Review

Chapter 23
Review

Chapter 24
Review

Review

Chapter 7
Review

Chapter 8
Review

Chapter 9
Review

Part III
P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Part VII

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Chapter 25
Review

Chapter 26
Review

Chapter 27
Review

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Chapter 10
Review

Chapter 11

Review

Chapter 12
Review

R
E
V
I
E
W

Part VIII

Chapter 28
Review

Chapter 29
Review

Chapter 30
Review

Chapter 31
Review

Chapter 32
Review

Figure 2

Part IV
P
A
R
T

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Chapter 13
Review

Chapter 14
Review

Chapter 15
Review

Chapter 16
Review

Part V
P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Part IV

Chapter 33
Review

Chapter 34
Review

Chapter 35
Review

Chapter 36
Review

Chapter 17
Review

Chapter 18
Review

Chapter 19
Review

Chapter 20
Review

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Final Review

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Practice Exams
Do Labs

Review Concepts
Practice Subnetting
.
.
.

9 Parts, with an Average of 4 Chapters Each, with Part Reviews

Now your plan has the following:
1 large task: Read and master all content in the book.
9 medium tasks/book: Read and master a part.
4 small tasks/part: Read and master a chapter.

Step 2: Build Your Study Habits Around the Chapter
For your second step, possibly the most important step, approach each chapter with the
same process: read it, and then study the chapter before moving on.
Each chapter follows the same design with three parts, as shown in Figure 3. The chapter
pre-quiz (called a DIKTA quiz, or Do I Know This Already? quiz) helps you decide how
much time to spend reading versus skimming the core of the chapter, called the Foundation
Topics. The Chapter Review section then gives you instructions about how to study and
review what you just read.
DIKTA Quiz
Take Quiz

Figure 3

High Score
Low Score

Foundation Topics

Chapter Review

(Skim) Foundation Topics
(Read) Foundation Topics

1) In-Chapter, or...
2) Companion Website
3) DVD

Suggested Approach to Each Chapter

The book has no long chapters, on purpose. They average just over 20 pages for the
Foundation Topics. By keeping the size reasonable, you can complete all of a chapter in one
or two short study sessions. Go into each study session that begins a new chapter thinking
that you have a chance to complete the chapter, or at least make a great start on it. And if
you do not have enough time, look for the major headings inside the chapter—each chapter

Your Study Plan
has two to three major headings, and those make a great place to stop reading when you
need to wait to complete the reading in the next study sessions.
The Chapter Review tasks are very important to your exam-day success. Doing these tasks
after you’ve read the chapter really does help you get ready. Do not put off using these
tasks until later! The chapter-ending review tasks help you with the first phase of deepening
your knowledge and skills of the key topics, remembering terms, and linking the concepts
together in your brain so that you can remember how it all fits together. The following list
describes most of the activities you will find in the “Chapter Review” sections:

Review key topics

Review key terms

Repeat the DIKTA questions

Review memory tables

Re-create config checklists

Review command tables

Do lab exercises

Do subnetting exercises

Check out the upcoming section titled “Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD?”
later in this planning section for more details.

Step 3: Use Book Parts for Major Milestones
Studies show that to master a concept and/or skill, you should plan to go through multiple
study sessions to review the concept and to practice the skill. The “Chapter Review” section
at the end of each chapter is the first such review, while the Part Review, at the end of each
part, acts as that second review.
Plan time to do the Part Review task at the end of each part, using the Part Review elements
found at the end of each Part. You should expect to spend about as much time on one Part
Review as you would on one entire chapter, or maybe a little more for some parts. So in
terms of planning your time, think of the Part Review itself as another chapter.
Figure 4 lists the names of the parts in this book, with some color coding. Note that Parts II
and III are related (Ethernet), and Parts IV through VII are also related (IP version 4). Each
part ends with a Part Review section of 2 to 4 pages, with notes about what tools and activities to use.
8

IP Version 6 (28-32)

4 IPv4 Addressing
and Subnetting (13-16)
2

1

Figure 4

5

Implementing
IPv4 (17-20)

Implementing Basic
Ethernet LANs (6-9)

9 Network Device Management (33-36)
6 IPv4 Design and
Troubleshooting (21-24)

3 Ethernet LANs: Design, VLANs,
and Troubleshooting (10-12)

Network Fundamentals (1-5)

Parts as Major Milestones

7 IPv4 Services:
ACLs and NAT (25-27)

5

6

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Chapter Review and Part Review differ in some ways. Chapter Review tasks tend to provide
a lot of context, so you can focus on mentally adding a specific piece of knowledge, or
practicing a specific skill. Part Review activities instead remove a lot of the context, more
like real life and the real exams. Removing that context means that you have to exercise
your own knowledge and skills. The result: You uncover your weaknesses. The better you
become at uncovering weaknesses, and then learning what you are missing in that area, the
better prepared you will be for the exam.
The Part Review sections use the following kinds of tools in additional to some of the same
tools used for Chapter Review:

Mind maps

Part Review questions with PCPT

Labs

Also, consider setting a goal date for finishing each part of the book (and a reward, as well).
Plan a break, some family time, some time out exercising, eating some good food, whatever
helps you get refreshed and motivated for the next part.

Step 4: Use the Final Review Chapter to Refine Skills and Uncover
Weaknesses
Your fourth step has one overall task: Follow the details outlined in Chapter 37, “Final
Review,” at the end of this book for what to do between finishing the book and taking
the exam.
The “Final Review” chapter has two major goals. First, it helps you further develop the
analytical skills you need to answer the more complicated questions on the exam. Many
questions require that you connect ideas about concepts, configuration, verification, and
troubleshooting. The closer you get to taking the exam, the less reading you should do, and
the more you should do other learning activities; this chapter’s tasks give you activities to
further develop these skills.
The tasks in the “Final Review” chapter also help you uncover your weak areas. This final
element gives you repetition with high-challenge exam questions, uncovering any gaps in
your knowledge. Many of the questions are purposefully designed to test your knowledge
of the most common mistakes and misconceptions, helping you avoid some of the common
pitfalls people experience with the actual exam.

Step 5: Set Goals and Track Your Progress
Your fifth study plan step spans the entire timeline of your study effort. Before you start
reading the book and doing the rest of these study tasks, take the time to make a plan, set
some goals, and be ready to track your progress.
While making lists of tasks may or may not appeal to you, depending on your personality,
goal setting can help everyone studying for these exams. And to do the goal setting, you
need to know what tasks you plan to do.
NOTE If you read this, and decide that you want to try to do better with goal setting
beyond your exam study, check out a blog series I wrote about planning your networking
career here: http://blog.certskills.com/ccna/tag/development-plan/.

to help make a good start in the book. Things to Do Before Starting the First Chapter Now that you understand the big ideas behind a good study plan for the book. If you miss a few dates. take a few more minutes for a few overhead actions that will help. move up the next few goal dates.Your Study Plan As for the list of tasks to do when studying. Table 1 shows a sample for Part I of this book. (You could list every single task in every chapter-ending Chapter Review section. Then. listing the major tasks can be enough.) However. Table 1 Sample Excerpt from a Planning Table Element Task Chapter 1 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 1 Do Chapter Review tasks Chapter 2 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 2 Do Chapter Review tasks Chapter 3 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 3 Do Chapter Review tasks Part I Review Do Part Review activities Goal Date First Date Completed Second Date Completed (Optional) NOTE Appendix M. look at some other tasks you should do either now. when you finish a task sooner than planned. Some activities also rely on the PCPT testing software. And.” on the DVD that comes with this book. 7 . and not as a way to get discouraged if you miss a date. do not start skipping the tasks listed at the ends of the chapters! Instead. Use your goal dates as a way to manage your study. think about what is impacting your schedule—real life. Before leaving this section. of course. you do not have to use a detailed task list. “Study Planner. Pick reasonable dates that you can meet. When setting your goals. You should track at least two tasks for each typical chapter: reading the “Foundation Topics” section and doing the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD The earlier editions of the book have used review activities that relied on the chapter. think about how fast you read and the length of each chapter’s “Foundation Topics” section. or around the time you are reading the first few chapters. as listed in the table of contents. every task in the Part Reviews. do not forget to list tasks for Part Reviews and Final Review. and so on— and either adjust your goals or work a little harder on your study. and every task in the “Final Review” chapter. commitment. contains a complete planning checklist like Table 1 for the tasks in this book. plus PDF appendixes found on the DVD. This spreadsheet allows you to update and save the file to note your goal dates and the tasks you have completed.

First. and the ICND2 book for the ICND2 exam. and CCNA. You can consider the one-exam path if ■ You already know about half the topics well.8 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide This edition is the first Cisco Press certification guide to offer a large set of apps to use instead of the traditional study features. which would you rather have done in school: take a final exam over a single semester’s material. but you can be mulling the decision while you study. Thankfully. the costs are identical. Assume you pass the tests on the first try: traditionally. so the two-exam path gain has an advantage. you do not have to decide now. Next. I encourage you to go ahead and access the book’s companion website to find the review apps and explore. ICND2. ■ You have already proven that you are excellent at learning through self-study. From a content perspective. in my opinion. the cost is identical for both the ICND1 + ICND2 path and the CCNA path. Should I Plan to Use the Two-Exam Path or One-Exam Path? You do not have to make this choice today. but those same exercises exist in DVD-only appendixes— you choose which works better for you. Otherwise. through prior experience or study. Both methods organize the review activities by chapter and by part. and matching PDF appendixes in some cases. and the exam experience teaches you things about the exam and yourself that no study tool can teach you. but it’s based on chatter and opinions from readers from many years. Or. you can study the entire ICND1 book and all the while ponder whether to use the one-exam or two-exam path to CCNA R&S. or a final exam covering the whole year? It is just harder to prepare for an exam that covers more material. and then make some comparisons. Check the exam prices in your country. with instructions in the book. and find the review apps there. CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. Study Options for Those Taking the 200-125 CCNA Exam Studying for the two-exam path has an obvious approach: just use the ICND1 book for the ICND1 exam. I hope you have a chance to pass many Cisco exams during your career. For instance. The two-exam path gets you to that first exam attempt sooner. you would be better off taking the two-exam path. Simple enough. In fact. Which should you use? The following is my opinion. Finally. consider the number of topics. you can make a better decision about which path works better for you. assume that you fail each exam once: again. Also. you choose either a one-exam or twoexam path. spin the DVD. there is no cost savings for most people with the one-exam path. So. To get a CCNA Routing and Switching certification. . all the subnetting exercises can be done in an app. Note that this book includes the traditional methods of review as well. for ICND1. both paths require learning the same content. the most compelling reason for the two-exam path is that you probably have no experience with Cisco exams yet. At that point. Next. The Introduction’s section titled “A Big New Feature: Review Applications” detailed some of the reasons.

Troubleshooting 1 I: Ethernet LANs IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting 2 V: Implementing IPV4 VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 3 II: IPv4 Routing Protocols III: Wide Area Networks IV: IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS 4 VIII: IP Version 6 V: IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting 5 6 VI: IP Version 6 IX: Network Device Management 7 Figure 5 VII: Miscellaneous Alternate Reading Plan for CCNA: Moving Between Books by Part Personally. ICND1 ICND2 I: Networking Fundamentals II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs III: Ethernet: Design. Similarly.Your Study Plan If you do plan to take the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam. ■ Move back and forth between the ICND1 and ICND2 books. based on topics. 9 . for those of you with a large amount of experience already. However. but the second one is less obvious. to be clear: The 200-125 CCNA exam covers the topics in the combined ICND1 and ICND2 books. then the Ethernet part in ICND2. The only question is when to read each part of the two books. you have a couple of study options. this alternate reading plan may work well. as shown in Figure 5. you complete the IPv4 parts in ICND1. then ICND2. and then moving on to the ICND2 book. You have two reasonable options when going with the one-exam option: ■ Complete all the ICND1 book. by part. and then the IPv6 part in both books. and then the final part in both books. I am a fan of completing the ICND1 book completely. VLANs. Figure 5 shows a study plan in which you complete the Ethernet parts in the ICND1. The first option is pretty obvious. So. using both the ICND1 and ICND2 books covers everything for the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam. then move on to the ICND2 book. First.

10

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide

Other Small Tasks Before Getting Started
You need to do a few overhead tasks to install software, find some PDFs, and so on. You
can do these tasks now or do them in your spare moments when you need a study break
during the first few chapters of the book. But do these early. That way, if you do stumble
upon an installation problem, you have time to work through it before you need a particular
tool.
Register (for free) at the Cisco Learning Network (CLN, http://learningnetwork.cisco.com)
and join the CCENT/CCNA R&S study group. This group allows you to both lurk and participate in discussions about topics related to the ICND1 exam, ICND2 exam, and CCNA
R&S exam. Register (for free), join the groups, and set up an email filter to redirect the
messages to a separate folder. Even if you do not spend time reading all the posts yet, later,
when you have time to read, you can browse through the posts to find interesting topics (or
just search the posts from the CLN website).
Explore the electronic elements of this book, as detailed in the Introduction’s section titled
“How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book.” That includes the installation of the
PCPT and Sim Lite software.
Also find my blog site as listed in the Introduction, and bookmark the pages that list the
config labs, to have those handy for later study. (The URL is
http://blog.certskills.com/ccent/category/hands-on/config-lab.)

Getting Started: Now
Now dive in to your first of many short, manageable tasks: reading the relatively short
Chapter 1. Enjoy!

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 22

Variable-Length Subnet Masks
This chapter covers the following exam topics:
1.0 Network Fundamentals
1.8 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting

IPv4 addressing and subnetting use a lot of terms, a lot of small math steps, and a lot of
concepts that fit together. While learning those concepts, it helps to keep things as simple
as possible. One way this book has kept the discussion simpler so far was to show examples
that use one mask only inside a single Class A, B, or C network.
This chapter removes that restriction by introducing variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).
VLSM simply means that the subnet design uses more than one mask in the same classful
network. VLSM has some advantages and disadvantages, but when learning, the main challenge is that a subnetting design that uses VLSM requires more math, and it requires that
you think about some other issues as well. This chapter walks you through the concepts, the
issues, and the math.

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
Take the quiz (either here, or use the PCPT software) if you want to use the score to help
you decide how much time to spend on this chapter. The answers are at the bottom of the
page following the quiz, and the explanations are in DVD Appendix C and in the PCPT
software.
Table 22-1

“Do I Know This Already?” Foundation Topics Section-to-Question Mapping

Foundation Topics Section

Questions

VLSM Concepts and Configuration

1–2

Finding VLSM Overlaps

3–4

Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design

5

1. Which of the following routing protocols support VLSM? (Choose three answers.)
a.

RIPv1

b.

RIPv2

c.

EIGRP

d.

OSPF

4. What does the acronym VLSM stand for? a.8.255.0 d.254.0.168.16.1 255.16. 172.0 c. 10.168. 192. 10.0.1.16. and 192. Very long subnet mask c.0 255.1.6. Which of the following subnets is the numerically lowest subnet ID that could be added to the design. Vector-length subnet mask e.0 4.16.0/23 c.5.128/30.0 255.0 255.224.255.96/28 .0 255.1.0/25 5.0/21 b.1.5.64/28 d.168. 192.168. 192. Vector loop subnet mask 3.16. would not be considered an overlapping VLSM subnet? a.240.0 command.128. 10.0/22.32.0.11.255.16. 172. if you wanted to add a subnet that uses a /28 mask? a.144/28 b. R1 has configured interface Fa0/0 with the ip address 10.255.1.48.0 b. Which of the following answers lists a subnet that overlaps with this subnet? a.168. 172. 192.1.2.0.5. 172. 192.5. Which of the following subnets. Vociferous longitudinal subnet mask d.240. 192. when configured on another interface on R1.112/28 c.0/26. 10. Variable-length subnet mask b.1.0.168. A design already includes subnets 192.0/20 d. R4 has a connected route for 172.168.168.1.80/28 e.160/29.

0 /30 S0/1 Yosemite Albuquerque S0/0 10. VLSM allows engineers to better match the need for addresses with the size of the subnet. This flexibility reduces the number of wasted IP addresses in each subnet. However. VLSM provides many benefits for real networks.3.3. With private networks. the router receiving the update would be confused.255.255.2.240.255. all subnets of network 10.” For example.252) on point-topoint serial links.2. the routing protocol must advertise the mask along with each subnet.0 use a 255. if in one internetwork diagram.4. Oddly enough. Because a mask defines the size of the subnet (the number of host addresses in the subnet).530 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Foundation Topics VLSM Concepts and Configuration VLSM occurs when an internetwork uses more than one mask for different subnets of a single Class A. with mask /24 (255.0.0 /24 10.0: Masks /24 and /30 Figure 22-1 shows a typical choice of using a /30 prefix (mask 255.0 /24 10.3.2.4.0. the address savings help engineers avoid having to obtain another registered IP network number from regional IP address assignment authorities. so the subnet has fewer host IP addresses. because you can always grab another private network from RFC 1918 if you run out.1. With public networks. Class A network 10.0 use a 255.255.0 /24 10. the design uses two different masks.6.0 uses only one mask. For example.0 mask.0 /30 S0/1 S0/0 Seville 10. and all subnets of network 11.3.0. with two masks being used. a common mistake occurs when people think that VLSM means “using more than one mask in some internetwork” rather than “using more than one mask in a single classful network.2. more space remains to allocate more subnets.0.0. the engineer uses a mask with fewer host bits. therefore meeting the definition of VLSM.0.0.255.1. mainly related to how you allocate and use your IP address space.0 /24 10.0. for subnets that need fewer addresses. In that case.0) on the LAN subnets.4. running out of addresses is not as big a negative. All subnets are of Class A network 10. C.6.0. and Class A network 11. Figure 22-1 shows an example of VLSM used in Class A network 10.1.3.0.1.0 /24 10.0 /24 10.5. or C network.0. 10.0 /24 10. but the benefits are more dramatic with public networks. By wasting fewer addresses.2. VLSM can be helpful for both public and private IP addresses. Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” quiz: 1 B. D 2 A 3 A 4 D 5 C . Without mask information. Classless and Classful Routing Protocols Before you can deploy a VLSM design. the design does not use VLSM.255. you must first use a routing protocol that supports VLSM.0.0.0 /24 10. B.1.255. as defined in RFC 1918.0.0 uses only one mask.0. To support VLSM.0 /24 Figure 22-1 VLSM in Network 10.0 mask.0.7.

0.0 happens to be a valid subnet number with a variety of masks.8. From a configuration perspective.1.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 531 For example. The classless routing protocols.8. VLSM is simply a side effect of using the ip address interface subcommand.255.1. To effectively support VLSM. more advanced routing protocols. by classful network.4. Example 22-1 Configuring Two Interfaces on Yosemite. the routing protocol needs to advertise the correct mask along with each subnet so that the receiving router knows the exact subnet that is being advertised.1.0.1. Table 22-2 Classless and Classful Interior IP Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Is It Classless? Sends Mask in Updates? Supports VLSM? Supports Manual Route Summarization? RIPv1 No No No No RIPv2 Yes Yes Yes Yes EIGRP Yes Yes Yes Yes OSPF Yes Yes Yes Yes Beyond VLSM itself.0/23? 10.0.1.255. and because multiple masks can be used with VLSM. classless routing protocols advertise the mask with each advertised route.255. what does that mean? Is that subnet 10. By definition. The only configuration choice you must make is to use a classless routing protocol. The example shows the IP address assignments on two interfaces. as noted in Table 22-2. or C network all in a row. which allows a routing protocol to advertise one route for a larger subnet instead of multiple routes for smaller subnets. Routers collectively configure VLSM by virtue of having IP addresses in the same classful network but with different masks. both with IP addresses in Class A network 10. the routing protocols do not have to be configured to support VLSM or to be classless. or need any configuration to use it. Example 22-1 shows two of the interfaces from router Yosemite from Figure 22-1.8. are the newer. if a router learned a route for 10. and 22 .2. For example.255. so that you see all the subnets of a single Class A.1. enable or disable it. This command lists routes in groups.8.1. There is no command to enable or disable the fact that classless routing protocols include the mask with each route. one with a /24 mask and one with a /30 mask.252 The use of VLSM can also be detected by a detailed look at the output of the show ip route command.1 255. but with no mask information.0/30? The dotted-decimal number 10.0.0 Yosemite(config-if)# interface S0/1 Yosemite(config-if)# ip address 10. Resulting in VLSM Yosemite# configure terminal Yosemite(config)# interface Fa0/0 Yosemite(config-if)# ip address 10. the router has no good way to make an educated guess.8. Just look down the list. and classful routing protocols do not. VLSM Configuration and Verification Cisco routers do not configure VLSM. Not only do these more advanced classless routing protocols support VLSM.0/24? 10.1 255. but they also support manual route summarization. B.

Albuquerque uses masks /24 and /30 inside network 10. As a result.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. 3 masks D 10.1. For example.3.3. FastEthernet0/0 L 10.1.6. Serial0/1 C 10.6. 00:00:56. When subnets in different locations overlap their addresses. Serial0/0 L 10. 00:00:34.5. to work with VLSM. Serial0/0 D 10.4.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.1.3.3.2. if any. and to design using VLSM from scratch—in other words.0.1.0.4.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.7. Routers clearly cannot route packets correctly in these cases.1.1. .532 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide look to see.2. Serial0/1 D 10. FastEthernet0/0 C 10. Example 22-2 lists the routing table on Albuquerque from Figure 22-1. In short.2.2.1.6.1. 00:00:34. 00:00:56.6. 00:00:56. Serial0/1 D 10.2.2.4.1. 14 subnets.1.1.0.1.4.4.1. but it took a mere three to four pages to fully describe it.1.6. 00:00:34.1.3.1. a design that uses overlapping subnets is considered to be an incorrect design and should not be used.1.0/24 is directly connected.6. Why the entire VLSM chapter? Well. Serial0/0 D 10. Serial0/1 L 10. Serial0/1 D 10. to find problems with it.2. the subnets used in any IP internetwork design should not overlap their address ranges. So ends the discussion of VLSM as an end to itself.1/32 is directly connected.1. The rest of this chapter examines the skills to apply VLSM and provides some practice for these two key areas: ■ Finding VLSM overlaps ■ Adding new VLSM subnets without overlaps Finding VLSM Overlaps Regardless of whether a design uses VLSM.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. Serial0/1 C 10. Example 22-2 Albuquerque Routing Table with VLSM Albuquerque# show ip route ! Legend omitted for brevity 10.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. Serial0/0 NOTE For the purposes of understanding whether a design uses VLSM.2.4.0/30 is directly connected.1.1.4.1. a router’s routing table entries overlap.1/32 is directly connected.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. To do these same tasks on the exam requires skill and practice.6.0. 00:00:56. ignore the /32 “local” routes that a router automatically creates for its own interface IP addresses.1/32 is directly connected.4. to apply VLSM to real networks—takes skill and practice. hosts in different locations can be assigned the same IP address. 00:00:34.2.0/8 is variably subnetted.0.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. how many different masks are listed. This chapter is devoted to VLSM.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. Serial0/0 D 10. to add subnets to an existing design. as noted in the highlighted line in the example.0/30 is directly connected. Serial0/0 D 10.

4.0 /23 172.0 /24 172.6. up through 172.16.16.0 /24 Possible Subnet IDs of Network 172. and so on.16. 172. For instance. 172.0.0 /22 . “Analyzing Existing Subnets”: In binary. and /24 Masks The drawing shows the first few subnet IDs available with each mask.0.16.0. imagine you start with a brand-new VLSM design. Figure 22-2 List of /23 Subnets List of /24 Subnets 172. /23.0. Chapter 21. then 172. you would decide that you need some subnets with one mask. with Class B network 172.16.16. .4.3. NOTE Subnet IDs must always follow this important binary rule as noted back in Chapter 16. each subnet ID has a host field of all binary 0s. If you use the math and processes to find all subnet IDs per Chapter 21.1.0.0 /23 172. you remove some subnets from the other lists because subnets cannot overlap.16. and so on.0. with something like Figure 22-2.0 /23 172. It then gets into an operational and troubleshooting approach to the topic.0. but you cannot use all subnets from all three lists in a design. .0 /23 172.1.0.0 /24 172. First. with /22. Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM When creating a subnetting plan using VLSM.16. by looking at existing designs and trying to find any existing overlaps.” discusses how to find those subnets in depth.0 (the zero subnet).2. As soon as you choose to use one subnet from any column. to drive home the ideas behind VLSM overlaps. Overlapping subnets are subnets whose range of addresses include some of the same addresses.2. some with /23.5.16. the possible subnet IDs should be easy to calculate by now: 172. to meet the requirements for different sizes of different subnets.4. 22 .16.0.2.0 /24 .4.16. other subnets with another mask.0. To create a subnet with a /24 mask. you have to be much more careful in choosing what subnets to use.0 /22 172.16. You might develop then a planning diagram.16.255.16. .16.16. 172.16. consider a subnet plan for Class B network 172.0 /24 172. . each subnet ID must be a valid subnet ID given the mask that you use for that subnet.6. 172.16.0. all those subnet IDs happen to have binary 0s in the host fields.16. List of /22 Subnets 172. “Subnet Design. or at least draw the ideas.0 /24 172. and some with /24.3. You plan to have some subnets with /22 masks. Now expand your thinking about subnet IDs to a VLSM design.16. whatever masks you use in a VLSM design. but with a Class B network and a /24 mask. .16. the subnet ID must be a subnet ID that you could choose if you subnetted the whole Class B network with that same mask. To begin.0 /24 172. For example.7.16.0 /24 172.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 533 This section begins with a short discussion about VLSM design. .0.0.16. .0.0.

0 through the subnet broadcast address of 172.16. Figure 22-3 shows the same list of the first few possible /22.0/22 includes the range from 172.0 /24 172. with VLSM. .0 /24 172.16.16.3.0–172.0–172.534 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide As an example. and /24 subnets of Class B network 172.0.0 /24 .16.255. that is.0.0.0/22).16.0 /24 172.16.0 /22 . should not allow subnets whose address ranges overlap. However.0 /23 172.0.3.3.0 /23 172. To find these overlaps. from subnet ID to subnet broadcast address.0. That subnet overlaps with the two subnets referenced to the left.16. If overlapping subnets are implemented.16. As you can see just by looking at the subnet IDs to the right.1.4.0 on the lower left. because: A subnetting design. 172.2. .0.16.3.0/23 and 172. whether using VLSM or not. first look at subnet 172. overlapped subnets may not have the same subnet ID.0.16.2.0 /23 172.16. you just have to look at the subnet IDs.16.0/24 subnet. /24.0 /24 Selecting Two Subnets Disallows Other Subnets in Different Columns Just to complete the example. routing problems occur and some hosts simply cannot communicate outside their subnets.16. These address overlaps are easier to see when not using VLSM. The subnet has a range of 172.16. With VLSM. .0 /24 172.7. imagine that a practice question for the CCENT exam shows Figure 22-4.3.3.16.7. List of /22 Subnets 172. When not using VLSM.16.4.0 /24 172. on paper. . That subnet includes addresses from the subnet ID of 172. For instance.16. it shows a check mark beside two subnets that have been allocated for use. Now look to the upper right of the figure.16.6. Figure 22-3 List of /23 Subnets List of /24 Subnets 172. the 172. and /30. It uses a single Class B network (172. .16.0.16.0).4. and compare the range to the other subnets in the design.16. once the design has allocated the 172. subnet 172.16.16.0 /24 172.0/22 subnets could not be used without causing problems.4. to subnet 172.16. so to find overlaps.6. But because there is some overlap. . the person making the subnetting plan has decided to use these two subnets somewhere in the network. .16.2.0/24.16. The subnets with a dark gray shading and an X in them can no longer be used because they have some overlapping addresses with the subnets that have check marks (172.0. you have to look at the entire range of addresses in each subnet.16.0/24 and 172.4. /23.5.255.4. overlapped subnets have identical subnet IDs.16.16. . because it uses three different masks: /23.16.0 /22 172. as was the case in this most recent example with the subnets across the top of Figure 22-3.0 /23 172.255 including the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address. all the subnets referenced with the arrowed lines are within that same range of addresses. An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap For example.3.

Step 2. and either directly or indirectly asks whether overlapping subnets exist.16.5 /30 172. Table 22-3 completes the first two steps based on Figure 22-4. For example.16. from Figure 22-4 Subnet Number Broadcast Address R1 LAN 172.255 R3 LAN 172. As far as the three-step process works. This type of question might simply tell you that some hosts cannot ping each other.16. note that if two adjacent entries in the list overlap. Step 3 states the somewhat obvious step of comparing the address ranges to see whether any overlaps occur.16.9.4.16. in Numerical Order.1 /30 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 172.2.16.9.1 /23 Address Range? Address Range? 172. but two entries (highlighted) do overlap.2.3 R1-R3 serial 172. the three subnets in the following list overlap in that the first subnet overlaps with the second and third subnets in the list. As for the process.0 172.255 R2 LAN 172.16.9. Step 3. Scan the list from top to bottom.0 172. Table 22-3 Subnet Subnet IDs and Broadcast Addresses.16.1 /24 VLSM Design with Possible Overlap Now imagine that the exam question shows you the figure.9. or it might not even mention that the root cause could be that some of the subnets overlap. Note that.7 The VLSM design is invalid in this case because of the overlap between R2’s LAN subnet and R3’s LAN subnet. compare three entries at the next step. The design is invalid because of the overlap. in numerical order based on the subnet IDs.6 /30 S0/0/1 Address Range? Figure 22-4 535 R2 Fa0/0 Address Range? Address Range? R3 Fa0/0 172. none of the subnet numbers are identical.16.16.0 172.4 172.255 R1-R2 serial 172. listing the subnet IDs and subnet broadcast addresses.1 /23 Fa0/0 R1 172.2 /30 S0/1/0 172. comparing each pair of adjacent entries.16.5.4. The two subnets already marked as overlapped can overlap with the next subnet in the list. If you 22 .16. you could follow this simple but possibly laborious process: Step 1. in this case. which gives you the range of addresses in that subnet.5.9.0 172. To answer such a question.5.16. For example.9.16.3.9.9. to see whether their range of addresses overlaps. Calculate the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address of each subnet.16.16. List the subnet IDs in numerical order (along with their subnet broadcast addresses).5. and one of these two subnets would need to be changed.16.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 172.

In real life.4. 10. “Pick the numerically lowest subnet number that can be used for the new subnet.125/30 10.0. rule out the ones that would cause an overlap.1. and then check to see whether the question guides you to pick either the numerically lowest (or highest) subnet ID. .122. so you would then also need to check the next subnet in the list to find out if it overlapped. you need to be ready to do the mental process and math of choosing a subnet that does not create an overlapped VLSM subnet condition.1.1.” In other words.16. consider the internetwork shown earlier in Figure 22-2.250.1.” Table 22-4 VLSM Overlap Practice Problems Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 10.57/27 192.126.253/30 10.16.0.1. in the section “Answers to Earlier Practice Problems.0.16.1/30 192.0. So.0.1. broadcast 10. along with the subnet broadcast addresses. broadcast 10.29. In other words.1. This list outlines the specific steps: Step 1.1/20 172.128. However.1. and then follow the three-step process outlined in the previous section to find any VLSM overlaps.101/23 172.1.1/21 172. The answers can be found near the end of this chapter.255) 10.1.250. you would have first noticed the overlap between the first two subnets in the list.16. you can use IP Address Management (IPAM) tools that help you choose a new subnet so that you do not cause an overlap.0/24 (subnet ID 10. you really have a couple of tasks: To find all the subnet IDs that could be used.16.255) Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps As typical of anything to with applying IP addressing and subnetting. Calculate all possible subnet numbers of the classful network using the mask from Step 1.1.1.168. The question might also say.17.0. Step 2.0/24 (subnet ID 10.1. for both real life and for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching exams.33/30 192.250.1.0.168. use 172.536 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide followed the process shown here.113/28 10. with classful network 172.168.1.1. broadcast 10.16.1.16. Just start with the five IP addresses listed in a single column.0/16 (subnet ID 10.1.245/29 10.16.23.168.0.6.254/22 172.200.200.151/20 192. An exam question might suggest that a new subnet.122.200.34.0 would work. needs to be added to the design.255.9/22 172.151/22 192. if both 172. based on the design requirements (if not already listed as part of the question).1.1. To that end.255) 10.168.16.4.0 and 172. Pick the subnet mask (prefix length) for the new subnet.122/30 Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design The task described in this section happens frequently in real networks: choosing new subnets to add to an existing design. Table 22-4 lists three practice problems. with a /23 prefix length. practice helps.122. you need to pick a new subnet and not make a mistake! For example.

9.1. but with R3’s LAN IP address changed to fix the VLSM overlap shown in Figure 22-4.0 172. you need to list all the subnet numbers and broadcast addresses of 172.16.16.2.255 Third 172. (The figure uses the same IP addresses as shown in Figure 22-4. which gives you 9 host bits.16. Figure 22-5 shows an existing internetwork that uses VLSM. 172.5.5.0 172.8.0 172.16.16.16. Imagine that the question tells you to use the smallest subnet (least number of hosts) to meet that requirement. 22 . Network 172. For Step 2.6. Table 22-5 shows the results.9.1 /24 Internetwork to Which You Need to Add a /23 Subnet. you need to add a new subnet to support 300 hosts.4.7.5 /30 172. You will not use all these subnets.16.16.1 /23 172.9. Choose the new subnet ID from the remaining subnets identified at Step 4. Table 22-5 Subnet First Five Possible /23 Subnets Subnet Number Subnet Broadcast Address First (zero) 172.16. at least for the first five possible /23 subnets. Step 5. and subnet broadcast addresses. assuming the /23 mask. for 29 – 2 = 510 hosts in the subnet. To do so.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Step 3. list the existing subnet numbers and broadcast addresses. Compare the existing subnets to the candidate new subnets to rule out overlapping new subnets.255 Fourth 172.) In this case.0. For Step 1. do the usual math to take an IP address/mask to then find the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address.16. as shown earlier in Figure 22-5. Table 22-6 summarizes that information. Make a list of existing subnet IDs and matching subnet broadcast addresses.16.16.9.16.16.1 /23 Fa0/0 R1 172.16.9.6 /30 S0/0/1 R2 R3 Figure 22-5 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 172.16.0 172. subnet numbers. including the locations.3.16. at Step 3.16. but you need the list for comparison to the existing subnets.0.2 /30 S0/1/0 172. Step 4.2. You use some math and logic you learned earlier in your study to choose mask /23. 537 An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet For example.0 172.1 /30 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 172. just follow the steps listed before Figure 22-5.255 Next.4.255 Second 172. paying attention to whether the question asks for the numerically lowest or numerically highest subnet ID.0. you have already been given the mask (/23).0.255 Fifth 172.16.0 At this point.

16. Which of the possible new /23 subnets (Table 22-5) overlap with the existing subnets (Table 22-6)? In this case.3.0. Table 22-7 outlines the key review elements and where you can find them. the zero subnet should be avoided if (a) the question implies the use of classful routing protocols or (b) the routers are configured with the no ip subnet-zero global configuration command.16. so rule those out as candidates to be used. This particular example asks for the numerically lowest subnet number.16. which in this case is 172.0 172.0 172.9. but it is still worth listing as a separate step.0. To better track your study progress. (Table 22-5 denotes those subnets with gray highlights. DVD/website Repeat DIKTA questions Book. DVD/website .3 R1-R3 serial 172. DVD.9.) Step 5 has more to do with the exam than with real network design.4.16.16.0 172.16. record when you completed these activities in the second column. NOTE The answer. Review this chapter’s material using either the tools in the book.255 R3 LAN 172.16.6. For the exam.255 R1-R2 serial 172.5.6. and asking for the numerically lowest or highest subnet does that.9. Simply compare the range of numbers for the subnets in the previous two tables.4 172.16. DVD/website Practice finding VLSM overlaps DVD Appendix H. the second through fifth subnets in Table 22-5 overlap.0/23. Refer to the “Your Study Plan” element for more details. 172. Multiple-choice questions sometimes need to force you into a single answer.16.16.16. DVD/website Review key terms Book.7 At this point. or interactive tools for the same material found on the book’s companion website. you have all the information you need to look for the overlap at Step 4. PCPT Review memory tables Book. Otherwise. Table 22-7 Chapter Review Tracking Review Element Review Date(s) Resource Used Review key topics Book. Chapter Review One key to doing well on the exams is to perform repetitive spaced review sessions.2.16. DVD/website Practice adding new VLSM subnets DVD Appendix H.0 172.0/23. happens to be a zero subnet.9.255 R2 LAN 172. assume that the zero subnet can be used.538 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Table 22-6 Existing Subnet IDs and Broadcast Addresses from Figure 22-5 Subnet Subnet Number Subnet Broadcast Address R1 LAN 172.

the second and third subnet IDs listed in Table 22-9 happen to overlap. classless routing protocol.255 2 10. you may do the same set of practice problems using your choice of tools: Application: Use the Variable-Length Subnet Masks application on the DVD or companion website.28.1/20 10.1.35. In Problem 1.” as listed earlier in Table 22-4. Table 22-9 VLSM Overlap Problem 1 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 10. practice the same problems found in both these apps using DVD Appendix H. Note that the tables that list details of the answer reordered the subnets as part of the process.255 4 10.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 539 Review All the Key Topics Table 22-8 Key Topics for Chapter 22 Key Topic Element Description Page Number Table 22-2 Classless and classful routing protocols listed and compared 531 Text Rule about subnetting designs cannot allow subnets to overlap 532 List Steps to analyze an existing design to discover any VLSM overlaps 535 List Steps to follow when adding a new subnet to an existing VLSM design 536 Key Terms You Should Know classful routing protocol.255 5 10.1.1.101/23 10.1.0 10.1.” Answers to Earlier Practice Problems Answers to Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps This section lists the answers to the three practice problems in the section “Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps.0 10. The second subnet’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the third subnet.23.1.23. PDF: Alternatively.1.254/22 10.1.0 10.9/22 10.1.1. variable-length subnet masks (VLSM) Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes For additional practice with finding VLSM overlaps and adding a new subnet to a VLSM design.255 3 10.1. “Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks.1.32.23.0 10.17.29.1/21 10.29.0.16.15.34.1.255 22 .0 10.1.1. overlapping subnets.1.20.

125/30 192.16.1.168.168.168.16.16.1. three subnets overlap. again the second and third subnet IDs (listed in Table 22-10) happen to overlap.1.1.0 172.128.122.1.168.16.168.1.16.255 In Problem 3.168. and again.128.1.168.112 192. the second subnet’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the third subnet.32 172.168.122.1.255 5 172.245/29 192.255 .122.16.33/30 172.57/27 172. so for the process in this book to find all the overlaps.124 192.168.0 172.3 2 172. Also.16.1. Table 22-11 VLSM Overlap Problem 3 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 192.122.1.16.1.1.143.1. after you find that the first two subnets overlap.1/30 172. Table 22-10 VLSM Overlap Problem 2 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 172.168.247 5 192. you should compare the next entry in the table (3) with both of the two known-to-overlap entries (1 and 2).16.168.122.123 3 192.0 172.168. Note that the second and third subnets do not overlap with each other. as shown in Table 22-11.151/20 172.32 172.63 3 172.1. the second and third subnet IDs are the same value.122.1.127. Subnet 1’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the second and third subnets.253/30 192.113/28 192.240 192.120 192.122.122/30 192.16. so the overlap is more obvious.122.127 2 192.168.127 4 192.126.168.16.252 192.16.16.151/22 172.35 4 172.168.122.16.16.124.540 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide In Problem 2.

This page intentionally left blank .

252. 232 1000BASE-LX. 48-50 extended numbered ACL configuration commands. 618 100BASE-T. 293-294 1000BASE-T. 594 :: (double colon). 596-597 controlling Telnet and SSH access with. 162-163 log keyword. 681-682 access-class command. 608 matching any/all addresses. 629-630 access-list command. 292-293 access-list command. 602 list logic. 813-814. 600-601 . 621 upd keyword. 41 802. 599. 616-621 implementation considerations. 602-603 3-tier campus design. 608 command syntax. and accounting) servers. 598-599 building ACLs with. 608-610 10GBASE-T. 175-176 abbreviating IPv6 addresses. 617-620. 599.1A. authorization. 819 access control lists. 594-595 matching packets. 625-629 standard numbered ACLs. 228. 618 802. 640 comparison of. 43. 602 deny keyword. 43 access VLANs (virtual LANs). 602-606 any keyword. 51 ACK flags. 110 ? command.Index Symbols examples and logic explanations. 602-603 matching exact IP address.1Q. See ACLs access interfaces. 602. 606 2-tier campus design. 43. 220-221 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 136-137 ACLs (access control lists). 599-600 matching subset of address. 599 configuration examples. 43 tcp keyword. 681 A AAA (authentication. 595-596 named ACLs. 611. 248-249 access switches. 640. 416-419 access points (APs). 584. 48-50. 228-230 permit keyword. 597. 630-631 location and direction. 230-232 10BASE-T. 813-814 extended numbered ACLs. 621 2-switch topology.

449-450 bandwidth setting. 841 Boolean OR. 602 binary practice problems. 454. 810-812. 635 auxiliary ports (routers). 22-23 blocks (CIDR). 362-363 APs (access points).reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 634-635 troubleshooting commands. 398 Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewall. 51 ACL behavior in network. 840-842 activating software. 491 Boolean math. 845-846 Boolean math. 343-344 all-hosts broadcast addresses (IPv4). 397-400 AD (administrative distance). 99-100. 468 B backups. 398-399 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. 892 OSI. 631-633 autonegotiation. 681 binary masks. 465. 810-812 binary/hexadecimal conversion chart (IPv6). 367 any/all IP addresses. Tim. 490. See IPv4 addresses. 367 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). 198-202 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. converting adjacent-layer interaction. 84. 22 addresses. 606-607 wildcard masks. 41 application layer shortcut for binary process. 491 binary subnet analysis all IP addresses. 364 anycast addresses (IPv6). 367 archiving configuration files. 367 any keyword. 602 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 602 finding range of addresses. 415. 637-639 autosummarization (RIPv2). 175-176 auto-mdix. 606-607 verification. 18 Boolean AND. 24-25 binary wildcard masks. 364-366 all-subnets broadcast addresses (IPv4). 84. 490 boot sequence (IOS). 367 archive command. 99-100 Berners-Lee. See software activation bandwidth command. authorization. 841. 155 TCP/IP. 633-634 auto-summary command. 57 to/from prefix masks. matching. 601 administrative distance (AD). 631 arp -a command. 830-833 . and accounting (AAA) servers. matching. CSMA/CD. 635-636 reversed source/destination IP address. 34 blocking. login. 819 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). 497 ASA (Adaptive Security Appliance) firewall. 454-455 common syntax mistakes. 608-610 troubleshooting. 600-602 troubleshooting. IPv6 addresses banners. 814 authentication. 722-723 finding subnet IDs. 449-450 to/from DDN masks. 344-345 algorithms. 646 architecture (networking). 814 banner command. 366-367 binary-to-hexadecimal conversion.

88-91 CAM (Content-Addressable Memory) tables. 331-332 topology design terminology. 64-65 Cisco Learning Network (CLN). 114. See exam tips cables. 232-233 dividing addresses into three parts. 793-796 broadcast domains. See IOS (Internetwork Operating System) leased-line cabling. 230-232 carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD). 854 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 51 Cisco Unified Communication Manager (CUCM). 100 Class A networks. 796-797 broadcast flags. 53-54. 227-230 first octet values. 855-857 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 114 channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU). 387-388 DTE (data terminal equipment) cables. 46-47 cache (ARP). 334 unusual addresses. 263 UTP Ethernet links. 344 Cisco Catalyst switches. 329. See MAC address table address formats. 349-350 two-tier campus design. 328 three-tier campus design. 474 cdp enable command. 845 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) bridges. 57. 331 calculating hosts per network. 801 browsers. 854-855 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair). 224-227 verification. 65 browsing web DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 330 campus LANs default masks. 130-132 Cisco License Manager. 329-330 reserved networks. 41 Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. 334 . 76-77 Cisco Discovery Protocol. 114-115 CIDR (classless inter-domain routing). 645-646 circuits. 518 cdp run command. 814 Cisco Binary Game. 221 number and size. 128-129 C Cisco Certification Exam tips. 43-46 Cisco ONE Licensing. 831-833. 343. 66 Cisco IOS. 796-797 bridging table.930 boot system command boot system command. 491-492 discovering information about neighbors. See CDP DCE (data communications equipment) cables. 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). See MAC address table broadcast addresses. See leased-line WANs Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewall. 801 broadcast subnet. 117-118 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 66 Cisco integrated services routers. 48-50 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 221-222 configuration. 344 physical console connection. 868-869 cable Internet.

651. 329-330 simple password configuration. 329 unusual addresses. 135-136 calculating hosts per network. 133-135 subnet masks. 331-332 default masks. 126-128 privileged EXEC mode. 136-137 overview. 332-333 number and size. 328 clear ipv6 neighbor command. 390-391 password security. 330 classless inter-domain routing (CIDR). 328-329 default masks. 316 external authentication servers. 133-135 security. 88-91 address formats. 334 Class D networks. 173-175 network number and related numbers. 530-531 default masks. 139-141 help. 88-91 address formats. 316-317 calculating hosts per network. 659. 785 reserved networks. 331 physical console connection. 175-176 classes in. 789-791 classless addressing. 138-139 configuration submodes and contexts. 349-350 SSH (Secure Shell). 141-143 configuration mode. 334 Class C networks. 133 first octet values. 329-330 clear logging command. 168-169 choosing. 176-179 public IP networks. 486. 497 dividing addresses into three parts. 140 configuration files. 329-330 reserved networks. 137 common command prompts. 331 clear ip dhcp conflict command. 328 Class E networks. 88-91 address formats. 133 931 . 328 number and size. 315-316 SSH (Secure Shell). 328 classful IP addresses. 340 CLI skills. 879-881 unusual addresses. 169-173 private IP networks. 530-531 NTP (Network Time Protocol). practicing. 334 clients classful routing protocols.clients Class B networks. 329 clear mac address-table dynamic command. 130132 dividing addresses into three parts. 645-646 calculating hosts per network. 349-350 classful IP networks. 350 Telnet clients. 454. 331-332 classless routing protocols. 128-129 command edit and recall. 331-332 Telnet. 162-164 unusual addresses. 330 CLI (command-line interface) accessing. 330 before subnetting. 313-315 user EXEC mode. 331 local username/password configuration. 133 Cisco Catalyst switches. 129-130. 745 number and size. 349-350 clear ip nat translation command. 343. 665 first octet values.

400 clock set command. 478-480 dynamic unicast addresses (IPv6). 193-194 configuration mode. 220 10BASE-T with hub. 735-741 port security. 221-222 command-line interface. 202-208 removing configuration. 197-198 speed. 223-224 switches. 621-624 IOS software common command prompts. 138-139 enabling/disabling interfaces. 717-718 ACLs (access control lists). 422-428 static unicast addresses. access-list command) config-register command. 397. 220-221 impact on LAN design. 711-714 verifying. 66. 629-630 overlapping VLSM subnets. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. See CLI commands. 796-797 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 143 initial configuration. 258-262 . 800 clocking. 582-583 passwords local passwords. 626 trunking. See individual commands (for example. 810-812 shorter VLAN configuration example. 843 storing configuration files. 789. 443-447 static routes. 723-724 host settings. 227-230 collision domains. 660-662 clock summer-time command. 420-422 login banners. 193-194 duplex. 831. 198-202 description. 396-397 collapsed core design. 195-197 configuration submodes and contexts. 715 extended numbered ACLs. 264-266 full VLAN configuration example. 139-141 multiple interfaces. 143 erasing configuration files.932 CLM (Cisco License Manager) CLM (Cisco License Manager). 789-791 numbered ACLs (access control lists). 222-223 transparent bridges. 845 configuration. 655-657 clock rate command. 141-143 IPv4. 181-183 IPv6 address configuration summary. 344 dynamic NAT. 253-256 routing. 708 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 66. 252-253 data and voice VLANs. 784-786 VLANs (virtual LANs). 602-606 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). 182-183. 140 NTP (Network Time Protocol) client/ server. 256-257 named ACLs (access control lists). 709-711 switch interfaces. 654-655 clock timezone command. 195 copying configuration files. 169-173 RIPv2. 854-855 NAT (Network Address Translation) CLN (Cisco Learning Network). 789. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 788-789 PAT (Port Address Translation). 800 static NAT. 173-175 simple passwords. 190-192 autonegotiation. 193-194 Syslog.

843 crosstalk. 786-787. 141-143 configuration mode (CLI). 818 startup-config. 142 storing. 65 configure restore command. 665 debug ip rip command. 44. 205. 35 TCP/IP terminology. 187. See MAC address table context-setting commands. 34 copy ftp flash command. 111 DAD (Duplicate Address Detection). 66 console passwords. 143-145. 753-755 connection establishment and termination (TCP). 455 copy command. 413-414. 143. 841-842 crypto key command. 403. 841 CPE (customer premises equipment). 143 core design. showing. 177 running-config. 734-735 connectionless protocols. 130-132 data communications equipment (DCE) cables. 138. 171. 831 configure replace command. 731. 531-532 configuration files IOS images. 839. 148 console connection cabling. 138-139 configuration register.debug ip rip command VLSM (variable length subnet masks). 841 CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager). 143. 841. 139. 825. 263 configure terminal command. 65 D connection-oriented protocols. 839-841 crossover cable pinout. 828 data-link protocols. 846 data terminal equipment (DTE) cables. 87. 66 copy startup-config running-config command. 51-52 OSI. 342-346 debug command. 801 debug ip nat command. 66 DDN (dotted-decimal notation). 230-232 archiving. 825 copy tftp startup-config command. 857-859 conflicts (DHCP). 786 933 . 143-145. 840 copying configuration files. 57. 783. 846 CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection). 50 erasing. 30-32 data link layer Ethernet. 139 contiguous networks. 831. 841-842. 485-486 confreg command. 27. 828. 176-178. 841 current license status. 111 data centers. 659. 836-837 connected routes. 839-841 DCE (data communications equipment) cables. 838. 46 replacing. 256. 142 crypto key generate rsa command. 846 copy tftp flash command. 66-67 copy running-config startup-config command. 846 data encapsulation OSI terminology. 839-840. 110-111 customer premises equipment (CPE). 221 CSU/DSU (channel service unit/data service unit). 169 Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) tables. 65 copying. 391. 145. 825-830 switch configuration files.

93. 370-372 predictability in interesting octet. 736-737 relay agents. 814-817 broadcast flags. 406 default masks. 783 sending messages to users. 476-477 . 331 default-router command. 489-490 controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 323. 780-781 storing log messages for review. 787-788 client/server configuration. 810-812 denial of service (DoS) attack. 781-782 verification. 182-183. matching. 368-369 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 475-476 troubleshooting. 793-796 verification. 889-891 decimal wildcard masks. 596. 626-628. 813-814 default VLANs. 406. 815 unused switch interface security. 481-482 DHCPv6. 782 log message security levels. 788-789 Syslog configuration. 193. 374 decimal-to-binary conversion. 797-799 DHCP Relay. 816 login banner configuration.934 decimal masks decimal masks. 478 device management protocols CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) configuration. 814-817 demilitarized zone (DMZ). 372-374 finding subnet IDs. 810 advantages of. 478-480 unused switch interface security. 400 encoding with hashes. 810 controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 602-603. 600-601 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 812-813 DHCP pools. 804 description command. 496 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 83. 796-797 discovering information about neighbors. 474 login banner configuration. 786-787 log message format. 369-370 reference table: DDN mask values and binary equivalent. 784-786 device security device hardening default routers. 810-812 configuration. 210.dat command. 253 definition of. 796-797 LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol). 806-809 destination IP. 784-786 debug command. 791-793 setting time and timezone. 641 IOS passwords. 473 firewalls. 410 default gateways. 789-791 loopback interfaces. 617-618 destination port numbers. 736 compared to DHCPv4. 737-739 information stored at DHCP server. 805-806 device hardening hiding for local usernames. 810 delete vlan. 83. 812-813 deny command. 813-814 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 571 supporting. 93. See DDN (dotted-decimal notation) decimal subnet analysis analysis with easy masks. 471-475 definition of. 107 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 156 firewalls.

294 discontiguous classful networks.enable secret command pools. 228. 731. 141 DNS (Domain Name System). 569 dynamic unicast address configuration. 145. 133-135 configuring on switch interfaces. 29 combining with NDP and DHCP. 863 directed broadcast addresses. 201 enable passwords. 655-657 verification. 193-194 enable password command. 109. 739-740 summary. 454-455 disk file systems. 819 duplex mismatch. 279-281. 715 DoS (denial of service) attack. 115-117. 193-194. 679 dual stack. 18. 824 distance vector. 98-99. 679 enable command. 169 troubleshooting. 171. 480-481 troubleshooting. 107 DMZ (demilitarized zone). 734-735 duplicate addresses. 481-482 DHCP server configuration. 66 EIGRPv6 (EIGRP for IPv6). 478 server verification. 482-484 IP connectivity. 323-324 dns-server command. 74-76 dir command. 816 dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). 826. network. 76 echo replies (ICMP). 496. 491 direction (ACLs). 650-651 configuration. 182-183 dynamic NAT (Network Address Translation). 133. 481. 736-739 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration) building IPv6 addresses with. 145 disabled VLANs. 27. 87. 297. 391. 488-489. 74-76 DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM). 735 DHCPv6. 141 E DSL (digital subscriber line). 485 diagrams. 806-809. 188. 571-572 conflicts. 209. 485-486 DHCP Relay agent configuration. 734-735 dynamic configuration of IPv6 host settings. 76 echo requests (ICMP). 100 DTE (data terminal equipment) cables. 484 LAN connectivity. 100 DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer). 342-346 dynamic windows. 232 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. 594-595 disable command. 279-282 enable secret command. 171. 657-659 dynamic port numbers. 169-170 duplex enable mode. 320. 400 Duplicate Address Detection (DAD). choosing. 112-113 DRAM (dynamic random-access memory). 484-485 duplex command. See DHCP dynamic IP address configuration. 819 935 . 740-741 digital subscriber line (DSL). 439-440 distribution switches. 569-570 dynamic ranges per subnet. 846. 815 dotted-decimal notation (DDN). 806.

145. 846 erase startup-config command. 158-159 err-disabling recovery. 51-52 IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). 235 campus LANs history of. 44. 411-412 Ethernet addressing. 38-40 broadcast domains. 146-149 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS). 35 Ethernet physical layer standards. 230-232 home office wireless LANs. 83-84 Ethernet frames. 220 10BASE-T with hub. 453 summary. 70-72 enterprise wireless LANs. 153-163 enterprise wireless LANs. 156 error detection. media. 44 OSI terminology. 29. 453-454 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 220 LAN switching. 54 encoding schemes.936 enable secret love command enable secret love command. 55 encryption. 145. 235-236 Ethernet emulation. 222-223 transparent bridges. 155-156 equal-cost routes. 45 FCS (Frame Check Sequence) field. 220-221 impact on LAN design. 42-43 analyzing. 232-233 table of. 221-222 port security. 227-230 collision domains. 238-240 Ethernet LANs. 56-58 end-user perspectives on networking. 150-153 erase nvram command. 236-237 topology design terminology. 17. 156 enterprise networks. 846 switch interfaces. 149-150 physical standards. 205-206 violation actions. 70-71 eq 21 parameters. 17-18 hubs. 843. 55. 207 SOHO (small office/home office) LANs. 43 TCP/IP terminology. 136 enterprise LANs. 111-112 choosing. 104 switching logic. 224-227 Ethernet types. 207-208 verifying. and segment lengths. 156. 223-224 switches. 46 encapsulation command. 410 Ethernet data link protocols. 203-205 MAC addresses. 843. 154 enterprise routers. 386-388 MAC address table. 30-32 Ethernet ports. 42-43 encapsulation. 418 Ethernet Type field. 234 two-tier campus design. 202-203 configuration. 52-54 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 288-289 verifying. 619 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 238-240 overview. 55-56 end command. 104. 307 flooding. 145 half-duplex logic. 41 enterprise LANs. 805-806 full-duplex logic. 41-42 . 233-234 error recovery. 154-155 equal-cost load balancing. 234 three-tier campus design.

883-884 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 72 multiple interfaces. 246-248 exit command. 275-277 finding knowledge gaps. 573-574 analyzing forwarding paths. 282-284 methodologies. 257-262 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs. 72-73 EtherType. 253 time management. 193-194 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 621-624 937 . 286-287 definition of. 871 exam review. 185. 74-76 speed. 43-46 practice exams. 54 EUI-64 (extended unique identifier). 252-257 default VLANs. 193-194 Ethernet emulation. 190-192 autonegotiation. 70-72 enabling/disabling interfaces. 711-714 exact IP address matching. 868-869 exam-day advice. 248 user EXEC. 292-296 hands-on CLI skills. 328 trunking. 70-71 Ethernet WANs (wide area networks). 262-267 privileged EXEC. 869-870 EXEC modes. 287-292 predicting contents of MAC address table. 143-145 troubleshooting. 195 cable Internet. 874-877 subnetting and other math-related skills. 279-282 interface status codes. 246-249. 46-47 study suggestions after failing to pass. 73-74 troubleshooting. 133-135 native VLANs. 882-883 VLANs (virtual LANs). 271 interface speed and duplex issues. 198-202 description. 133-135 routing between. 871-872. 599-600 exam tips assessing whether you are ready to pass. 188 tagging. 244-246 configuration. 197-198 DSL (digital subscriber line). 292-296 experimental addresses. 51 pre-exam suggestions. 616 VLAN IDs. 284-286 Internet as a large WAN. 139. 877-879 VLANs (virtual LANs). 879-881 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables. 872-873 problem isolation.extended numbered IPv4 ACLs switch interface configuration. 193-194 Internet access links. 246 configuration. 69-70 duplex. 195-197 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 873-874 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 169-173 IP telephony. 881-882 Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. 870-871 UTP Ethernet links. 274-275 port security. 278-279 Layer 1 problems. 76-77 removing configuration. 249-252 exec-timeout command. 70-71 Internet access. 48-50 other study tasks.

828-829 full addresses (IPv6). 409-410 flooding. 110 IPv6 static routes with. 55-56 files configuration files. IPv6 routing forwarding path. 696-699 first octet values. 141-143 G0/0 status code. 823 flooding. 29-31. 693-695 global unicast addresses password recovery/reset. 820-822 G0/1 status code. 233 full update messages. 839 archiving. 843 replacing. 111 forward-versus-filter decisions. 286-287 Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field. 44 deciding to process incoming frames. 700-701 transferring. 229. 824-830 assigning to hosts. 141. 550-551 testing reverse routes with. 758-759 firewalls. 142 full mesh topology. 762-763 extended ping testing LAN neighbors with. 814-817 subnetting with. 55 feature sets. 328 group addresses. 53 groupings (IP address). 175-176 F flash memory. 43 IOS software boot sequence. 839-842 GET requests. 839-841 erasing. 692-693 FIN bits. 412 FTP (File Transfer Protocol). 835-838 address ranges for. 142 storing. source IP. 112-113 forward acknowledgment. 394 management. 618-621 floating static routes.938 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs matching protocol. 841-842 running-config. 680 full-duplex logic. 152 forwarding packets. 851 fiber-optic cabling. 43 file system. See IPv4 routing. 154 transmitting. 55 failed exam attempts. 841 copying. 83. 332-333 matching TCP and UDP port numbers. 830-835 global routing prefix (IPv6). 822-824 Gigabit Ethernet. 143. 547-549 external authentication servers. 253-256 G startup-config. 87-88 . 822-824 File Transfer Protocol. See FTP frames. 440-441 full VLAN configuration example. 695 upgrading IOS images. 117 IOS file system. 43 FCS (Frame Check Sequence) field. 23. 426. 617-618 first usable IP addresses. 117-118 definition of. 882-883 Fast Ethernet. 143. and destination IP. 871-872. 154 flow control (TCP). 394 configuration files.

23 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 306-309 10BASE-T. 19 DNS name resolution. 52 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 310 IPv4 settings. 100 troubleshooting. 141-145. 733 RA (Router Advertisement). 179-181. 688 IBM SNA (Systems Network Architecture). 732-733 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 487-488 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). 56-58 discovering duplicate addresses. 731 history buffer commands. 139 hostnames. 734-735 hands-on CLI skills. 220-221 autonegotiation and. 229. 188 hostname Fred command. 681. 676 939 . 806 discovering neighbor link addresses. 236-237 host addresses. 488-489 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). 489-490 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). 184 verifying host connectivity history size command. 233 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). 22-23. 688 IP address and mask configuration. 566-570 icmp keyword. IPv6 dynamic configuration. 178. 635 hosts. practicing. 733 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion. IPv4. 114-118 hubs host part (of IP addresses).ICMPv6 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 735 DHCPv6. 82. 340. 86. 645. 733-734 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 675 hybrid topology. 67 headers (HTTP). 93-94 from nearby routers. 744-747 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 741-744 home office wireless LANs. 188 from hosts. 736-739 ICMPv6. 700-701 calculating per subnet. 81 analyzing subnet needs. Geoff. 892 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 879-881 hashes. 350-352 host bits. 67 headers discovering routers. 731 High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). 27. 114-118 I assigning addresses to. 406 hostname command. 184. 22-23. 156. 330. 331-332 host bits. 201-202 Huston. 348-349 host routing logic. 310 host forwarding logic. 98 hosts. 730-731 half-duplex logic. 67 RS (Router Solicitation). 739-741 H NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 731-732 Ethernet. 486 default routers.

398 upgrading. 195. 207-208 copying err-disabled recovery. 742. 139 interface vlan command. 400 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 190-192 inside local addresses. 850 violation actions. 139. 487. 827. 829-830 verifying. 851-853 bandwidth. 392 interface IDs. 409-410 interface status codes. 698 Cisco integrated services routers. 282-284 port security. 198-202 description. 193-194 . 392 finding with binary math. 289-292 with FTP. 828-829 restrict mode. 278-279. 265. 253. 292-293 Layer 1 problems. 386-388 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 369-370. 851 one image per model/series. 391-393 incoming frames. 20 interesting octet. 392 interface gigabitethernet command. 145. 824-830 clock rate. 515-519 interface ethernet command. 513 enterprise routers. 698 Interface loopback command. 566. 514 IPv6 subnet IDs. 20 ifconfig command. 209. 393-394 inside global addresses. 362-363 finding with decimal math. 288-289 protect mode. 748 IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 515 zero subnet.940 IDs IDs installation of routers interface IDs. 288-289 with SCP. 370-372 finding with magic number. 187 interface vlan vlan_id. 515 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 360-361. 437-438 interface fastethernet command. 389-390 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). 207 router interfaces universal images. 519-520 interface command. 497. 205-206 one image per feature set. 649-650 switch interface configuration. 202-203. 320. 441 speed and duplex issues. 203-205 images (IOS) MAC addresses. 393-396 infinity. 522 Internet access routers. 396-397 verifying. 520-522 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 391. 209. 649-650 autonegotiation. 279-282 input errors. 698-699 VLAN IDs. 310. 246 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). 825-827 shutdown mode. 437 configuration. 289-292 to local file system. 387-388 IPv4 subnet IDs. 833-835 displaying. 255 interface subcommands. 282 status codes. 421 interfaces access interfaces. 287-288 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). 800 interface range command.

748 configuration register. 421. 688 software activation Internetwork Operating System. 182. 19 Internet access. 854-855 internetworks. 496 941 . 839-842 ip access-list command. 139-141 copying configuration files. 805-806 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). 566. 72 DSL (digital subscriber line). 195-197 password recovery/reset. 418. 141-143 file management. 810 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 640 IP ACLs (access control lists). 307 manual activation. 182. 806-809 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). 195 initial configuration. 833-835 configuration common command prompts. 415 ip default-gateway command. 855-860 software activation with Cisco License Manager. 400. 852-853 versions versus releases. 831 ip access-group command. 645. See ACLs (access control lists) ip address command. 140 configuration mode. 850 choosing IOS to load. 193-194 interior gateway protocols (IGPs). 848 speed. 854-855 software activation with universal images. 822-824 enabling/disabling interfaces. 413-414. 187. 851-853 password security. 604. 74-76 Internet access links. 861-862 IOS (Internetwork Operating System) boot sequence. 85. 424. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 830-831 with universal images. 478-479. 621. 73-74 Internet access routers. 631. 843 removing configuration. 437 International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 851 universal images. 820-822 configuration files. 831-833 ip -6 neighbor show command. 640 verifying IOS image. 478. 835-838 upgrading IOS images. 100 hiding passwords for local usernames. 143 erasing configuration files. 197-198 license management. 437-438 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). 582-583 IP ARP table. 804 encoding with hashes. See IOS with Cisco License Manager. 193-194 IOS file system. 248-249 with right-to-use licenses. 531. 855-860 Inter-Switch Link (ISL). 734. 611. 394. 626-627. 72-73 manual software activation. 496 ip dhcp pool command. 852-853 packaging one image per model/series. 138-139 configuration submodes and contexts. 187 ip dhcp excluded-address command. 143 storing configuration files. 824-830 multiple interfaces. 389-390 Internet as a large WAN.ip dhcp pool command duplex. 688 encrypting with service passwordencryption command.

398 CLI access. See also subnet masks. 78. 653. 648-650. 413. 566. See ACLs (access control lists) unicast addresses. subnets address exhaustion. 662-664 ip subnet-zero command. 264-266 public addresses. 656. 98-99 enabling IPv4 support on router interfaces bandwidth. 487. 642. 181-182 DNS (Domain Name System). 390-391 classes in. 328-329 clock rate. 829 ip ssh version 2 command.942 ip domain-lookup command ip domain-lookup command. 656. 600-601 multicast addresses. 187. 99-100 configuring on switch. 514 network number and related numbers. 486-490 ip nat command. 497. 334 IPv4 routing. 647-648 dynamic NAT. 178 troubleshooting. 742. 570 unusual addresses within classes. 473-476. 81. 480-483. 331 ip ftp password command. 86-87 router interface IP addresses. 663 ip nat inside source static command. 570 comparison of address types. 653. 491 IPv4 addresses. 403. 690-692 summary. 262 number and size of networks. 652-653. 845 dynamic IP address configuration. 602 ip nat inside command. 662 subset of address. 660-662 PAT (Port Address Translation). 329-330 data and voice VLAN concepts. 655. 571-572 grouping. 660-662 ip nat pool command. 665 source NAT. 331-332 CIDR (classless inter-domain routing). 657. 599-600 ip nat inside source command. 660-662 exact IP address. 660. 405-407. 654-655 ip scp server enable command. 748 scalability. 650-651. 845 ip helper-address command. 646-647. 665 any/all addresses. 394-396 ipconfig command. 25-28. 350-352 calculating hosts per network. See also subnets ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). 648 ip route. 182. 645 IPv4 ACLs (access control lists). 492-494 NAT (Network Address Translation). 396-397 classless versus classful addressing. 665 ip nat inside source list command. 497. 675 address formats. 655. 84-85. 87-88 ip name-server command. 690-692 data and voice VLAN configuration and verification. 494-495 ip domain-name command. 182-183 ip ftp username command. 266-267 rules for. 391-393 . 84. 655-659 ip nat outside command. 350 displaying interfaces. 178 default masks. 653-655. 332-333 IP telephony. 645-646 troubleshooting. 330 broadcast addresses. 262-264 private addresses. 570 matching addresses host settings. 422-424 static NAT. 491-492 calculating hosts and subnets in network.

96-98 routing logic. 94-95 DNS problems. 440-441 DHCPv6. 437-438 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 86 IP networks. 715-717. 82. 453-454 abbreviating. 394-396 router auxiliary ports. 441 global routing prefix. 81-83 data link layer encapsulation. 88-91 IP packet encapsulation. 735 full update messages. 718 comparison of IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 693-695 943 . 438 IPv6 addresses. 583 SSH (Secure Shell). 94-95 ipv6 address dhcp command. 723-724 assigning subnets to internetwork topology. 452-453 dynamic unicast address configuration. 442-443 RIP updates. 412 host and switch IP settings. 682 split horizon. 570 deciding whether to process incoming frames. 753 routing tables. 439-440 equal-cost routes. 559-561 traceroute command. 739-741 key features. 579-583 encapsulating packets in frames.IPv6 addresses interface status codes. 711. 553-559 verifying on switch. 714 autosummarization. 699-700 dynamic configuration of host settings. 564 choosing where to forward packets. 409 mismatched IPv4 settings. 706-707 configuration. 569-570 LAN issues. 83. 443-447 discontiguous classful networks. 410 incorrect addressing plans. 454-455 distance vector. 85. 674. 454-455 ipv6 address link-local command. 183-184 ipv6 address command. 437 ipv6 address eui-64 command. 83. 726 RIPv2. 461-466 verification. 93-94 IP routing tables. 571-572 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 398-399 examples of. 584 ping command. 441-442 expanding addresses. 736-739 history of IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 566-567 transmitting frames. 409-410 DHCP issues. 715 route poisoning. 681-682 address configuration summary. 85-86. 408 protocols. 575-578 hosts forward IP packets to default routers (gateway). 411-412 IP forwarding issues. 559-561 Telnet. 726. 707. 100 troubleshooting. 410-411 default router IP address setting. 573-574 mismatched masks. 543-553 router WAN interface status. 567-569 packet filtering with access lists. 408 troubleshooting. 447-451. 456-458 testing connectivity. 83-84 host forwarding logic. 179-181 IP hosts. controlling. 27. 393-394 IP addresses.

696-699 subnetting with global unicast addresses. 702-703 subnetting with. 762 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 753. 748 ipv6 enable command. 733 outgoing interface. 734-735 discovering neighbor link addresses. 744-747 unique local addresses definition of. 708 static default routes. 741-744 verifying host connectivity from nearby routers. 707-708 link-local next-hop address. 695 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 756. 674-676 interface IDs. 761-762 troubleshooting. 676-677 local routes. 731 static host routes. 741 verifying host connectivity from hosts. 753-755 protocols. 759 IPv6 routing. 701-702 troubleshooting. 726 ipv6 route command. 761 RS (Router Solicitation). 765-768 summary. 732-733 global unicast next-hop address. 738-739 ipv6 dhcp relay destination command. 718. 735 link-local next-hop address. 677-680 floating static routes. 683-685 connected routes. 759-760 enabling IPv6 routing. 733 static default routes. 769 discovering routers. 765-768 . 731 troubleshooting. 701-702 unknown addresses. 711-714 assigning to hosts. 709-711 definition of. 719-720 solicited-node multicast addresses. 723 multicast addresses anycast addresses. 762-763 site local addresses. 733-734 subnetting with unique local addresses. 758-759 static unicast address configuration. 752 prefix length. 699 subnetting with. 756-757 static host routes. 692-693 importance of. 720-721 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 700-701 verifying. 680 static routes. 722-723 local scope multicast addresses. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. 696-699 hexadecimal/binary conversion chart.944 IPv6 addresses global unicast addresses address ranges for. 760-761 outgoing interface. 723 ipv6 dhcp relay command. 731-732 floating static routes. 692-693 subnet router anycast addresses. 756 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 755-756 representing full IPv6 addresses. 761 RA (Router Advertisement). 758 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 756 routing. 716-718 loopback addresses. 681 history of. 693 global unicast next-hop address. 730-731 discovering duplicate addresses. 698 link-local addresses.

181. 549-551 LAN switching. 84 Layer 3 switches. 156 L3 PDU (Layer 3 protocol data units). 207 TCP/IP adjacent-layer interaction. See Ethernet LANs. 207-208 protect mode. 159-160 physical layer standards. 198-202 isolating problems with traceroute. 30 same-layer interaction. 195 description. 106 LANs (local-area networks). 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. finding. 289-292 shutdown mode. 726 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 202-203. 193-194 J-K-L multiple interfaces. 193-194 knowledge gaps. 24-25 application layer. 44. 162-163 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). 195-197 removing configuration. 155-156 network layer. 420-422 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 25-28 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 154-155 link layer. 149-150 verifying. 158-159. 416 configuring routing to VLANs. 553-559 duplex. 248-249 switch interface configuration. 43 multiple switches. 249. 251-252 flooding. 22-23 compared to OSI. 877-879 known unicast frames. 30-32 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 282-284 Layer 2 switches. 19 autonegotiation. 275-277. 288-289 MAC addresses. 51-52 finding entries in. 193-194 enabling/disabling interfaces. 708. 106 MAC address table. 162 data link. 203-205 err-disabled recovery. WLANs LAN neighbors. 181. testing. 153-154 layers aging.layers ipv6 unicast-routing command. 22-23 IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). 33-35 showing. 150-153 switching logic. 150-153 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 25-28 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 156 last usable IP addresses. 24-25 945 . 332-333 Layer 1 problems. 289-292 restrict mode. 146-149 analyzing. 197-198 speed. 190-192 ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 28-30 summary. 205-206 violation actions. 161 Ethernet clearing. 154 Layer 4 PDU. 287-288 configuration. 156-157 port security. 249 Layer 3 protocol data units (L3 PDU). 84 L4PDU. 288-289 verifying.

786-787 right-to-use licenses. 66-67 LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol). 800 line aux 0 command. 784-786 universal images. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 799-801 license boot module command. 861-862 log message security levels. 491 local routes (IPv6). 797-799 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 854-855 storing log messages for review. 594-595 log keyword. 780 one IOS image per model/series. 863 license management. 855-857 IOS packaging. 187. 62-63 list of subnets. 818 login banners. 606 logging with Syslog. 136. 800 with universal images. 64-65 list logic (IP ACLs). 854-855 Cisco ONE Licensing. 399 logging synchronous command. 852-853 logging command. 719-720 local usernames. 797-799 lease command. 799-801 leased line terminology. 850 configuration. 187. 598-599 connecting LANs via. 818 login local command. 723 . See Ethernet LANs. 334. 185. 857. 818 loopback addresses. 187. 851 local-area networks. 66 data-link protocols. 782 debug command. 23-24 transport layer. 67 lldp receive command. 68-69 lldp transmit command. 63-64 lldp run command. wireless LANs local broadcast addresses (IPv4). 391 login command. 28-30 Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). 115 cabling. 145. 188. 800 line console command. 185. 818 line vty command. 170-171 logging trap command. 753-756 local scope multicast addresses.946 layers TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 785. 145. 187. 239 logging console command. 781. 171. 810-812 line console 0 command. 861-862 license install command. 784-786 Lightweight AP (LWAP). 497 link-local addresses (IPv6). 139-140. 23-25 link layer (TCP/IP). 781. 781-782 manual activation. 800 limited broadcast addresses (IPv4). 855-860 logging buffered command. 780. 759-760 leased-line WANs (wide area networks) links. 851-853 log message format. 170-171. 810 location (ACLs). 800 License Manager (Cisco). 780-781 with Cisco License Manager. 854 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. See leased-line WANs link-local next-hop address. building. 716-718 leased circuits. 799-801 routing. 854-855 verification. 848 Cisco License Manager. 783 software activation sending messages to users. 491 logging monitor command. 320-321 creating in lab. hiding passwords for. 188 line con 0 command.

153-154 predicting contents of. 162 finding entries in. 599 sending to users. 24 transport layer. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 294-296 models. 515 manual software activation Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 203 macrobending. See MAC address table LWAP (Lightweight AP). 458. 28-30 network layer. adding. 857-859 permanent technology package licenses. 19-20 OSI model. 156-157 MAC addresses port security. 617-621 standard numbered ACLs any/all addresses. 20-21 same-layer interaction. 30 overview. 566-567 mismatched masks. 791-793 MD5 verification. 492-494 IPv6. 161 clearing. 18-19 history of. See subnet masks matching packets.multicast addresses loopback interfaces. 20-21 adjacent-layer interaction. 602 command syntax. 370. 207-208 sticky secure MAC addresses. 859-861 masks. 24-25 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 153-154 aging. 600-601 MTU (maximum transmission unit). 154-155 Media Access Control. 52 wildcard masks. 162-163 overview. 239 memory. avoiding with STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 25-28 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 328. 567-569 mismatched trunking operational states. 440-441 log messages. 32-35 TCP/IP. 468 maximum transmission unit (MTU). 855-857 current license status. 780-781 mismatched IPv4 settings. 827 loops. 679 subset of address. 52 IPv4. 453-454. showing. 141. 781-783 MAC address table. 53-54. networking definition of. 159-160 multiple switches. 711-714 exact IP address. 279 magic number. 24-25 application layer. 22-23 compared to OSI. 599-600 MP BGP-4 (Multiprotocol BGP version 4). 23-24 modified EUI-64 (extended unique identifier). 52-54. 823 messages M full update messages. 600-602 multicast addresses maximum-paths command. 30-32 link layer. 595-596 matching parameters extended numbered ACLs. 284-286 showing. 719 947 .

See NTP networking architecture. 732-733 NICs (network interface cards). 652-653. 758-760 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 748 netstat -rn command. 491 name resolution. 660-662 source NAT. 332-334. See link layer (TCP/IP) Network Address Translation. 480-483. 819 RA (Router Advertisement). 734-735 networking blueprint. 312 multiplexing. 655-659 PAT (Port Address Translation). 62 next-hop IPv6 address. 650-651. 444-447. 824 network IDs. 248 network routes. configuring. 18 discovering duplicate addresses. 722-723 ndp -an command. 679 N Neighbor Discovery Protocol. 29 discovering routers. 625-629 NAT (Network Address Translation). 720-721 neighbor link addresses. 731-732 next-server command. 733 no cdp enable command.948 multicast addresses anycast addresses. 733-734 multilayer switches. 468. 676. 489. 465 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 733 network addresses. 18. 733 no auto-summary command. 648 static NAT. 458. 332-334 network interface cards (NICs). See NDP Neighbor Solicitation (NS). 731 . 647-648. See NAT NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 463-464. 106-108 Multiprotocol BGP version 4 (MP BGP-4). 424 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). See network numbers name command. 719-720 Neighbor Advertisement (NA). 249-252 multiple interfaces. 654-655 troubleshooting. 662-664 network command. 62 network interface layer. 497 network access layer. 496 network file systems. 332-334 native VLANs. 748 local scope multicast addresses. See PAT (Port Address Translation) network numbers. 642. 796. 731 no cdp run command. See link layer (TCP/IP) network layer OSI. 34 TCP/IP. 551-552 netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors command. testing LAN neighbors. 480 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 181. 25-28 NAT Overload. 549-551 WAN neighbors. 648-650. 734. 18 discovering neighbor link addresses. 734. 733-734 networking diagrams. 268 network broadcast addresses. 733 solicited-node multicast addresses. 253. 730-731 Network Time Protocol. 690 dynamic NAT. 488-489 named ACLs. 454-455. 733 neighbors. 819 RS (Router Solicitation). 195 multiple subnet sizes.

145 sequence numbers. 514 numeric reference table binary-to-hexadecimal conversion. IPv6 static routes with. 819 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 649-650 SEQ (sequence number). 733 ONE Licensing (Cisco). 824 no speed command. 94 OSPFv3. 819 no ip access-group command. 791-793 setting time and timezone. 515 no logging monitor command. 785. 468 no password command. 570 no ip http server command. 627-629 no description command. 311-312 opaque file systems.overlapping routes no debug all command. 800 ntp server command. 210 no enable password command. 889-891 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion. 197-198. 320. 629-630 numbers DDN (dotted-decimal notation). 391. 515-519 no ip subnet-zero command. 278-279 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 360-361. 679 network numbers. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 173 no service password-encryption command. 514 finding with binary math. 195-198. 188. 892 no shutdown command. 107-108 outside global addresses. 27. 783 finding with decimal math. 800 numbered ACLs. 32-35 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). 788-789 ntp master command. 209. 630 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 370-372 finding with magic number. 306 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). 400. 141. 19. 522 no enable secret command. 733 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 197-198. 370 objects. 649-650 overlapping routes. 421. 185. 824 nonworking states. 197-198. 94 Open Systems Interconnection. 268. 141. 24 outside local addresses. 297. 756-757 port numbers. 288-289. 362-363 no logging console command. 117 octets. 182. troubleshooting. 791. 519-520 no ip directed-broadcast command. 520-522 no duplex command. 575-578 949 . 892 decimal-to-binary conversion. 789-791 loopback interfaces. 332-334 outgoing interfaces. 676. 838 NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM). 806 zero subnet. 87 magic number. 787-788 client/server configuration. 210 O nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). 819 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 492 no ip domain-lookup command. 185. 210 subnet numbers. 800 ntp source command. 310. See OSI operational view of subnetting. 783 no passive-interface command. 824 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). 87 on-link. 854 one-size subnets. 457.

173-175 simple password configuration. 169 security. 235-236 enterprise wireless LANs. 234 home office wireless LANs. 874 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 93-94 enable passwords. 468 passive interfaces. 170-171. 430 permanent technology package licenses. 854-855 permit command.950 overlapping subnets overlapping subnets with VLSM. 452-453. 859-861 with Cisco License Manager. 464-465 password command. 641 manual software activation. 851-853 packet filtering. 806-809 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. and segment lengths. 169 IP routing tables. 581-583 without VLSM. 83. 238-240 Ethernet types. 235 history of. 596. 81-83 data link layer encapsulation. 855 . 848 Cisco License Manager. 82 PBX (private branch exchange). 810 recovery/reset. 652-653. 851 one IOS image per model/series. 229. 187. 169 packaging (IOS). 457. 464. 145. 136 passwords CLI (command-line interface). 34 physical standards (Ethernet LANs). 82. 113 partial mesh topology. 660-663 routing protocols. 35 IOS packaging. 625-628. 855-860 physical console connection. 169-173 P console passwords. 805-806 hiding passwords for local usernames. 532-536. 835-838 shared passwords. 855-857 PDUs (protocol data units). 804 encoding with hashes. 169 Telnet passwords. 139. 818 physical layer (OSI). media. 854 PCPT (Pearson IT Certification Practice Test) exam software. 262 Cisco ONE Licensing. 852-853 PAR (Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission). 234 PID (product ID). 130-132 with universal images. 85-86. See ACLs (access control lists) packet forwarding (IPv4). 457. 602-603. 425. 805. 236-237 table of. 135-136 local username/password configuration. 96-98 path command. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 233-234 choosing. 660-662 password faith command. 94-95 PAT (Port Address Translation). 468 passive-interface default command. 579-581 overloading NAT (Network Address Translation). 845 PAK (product authorization key) licensing. 850-853 software activation permanent keyword. 850 universal images. 83-84 host forwarding logic. 854-855 path selection. 233 passive-interface command.

647 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 618-621 Product License Registration Portal (Cisco). 646-647. 748 IPv6. 109 powers of 2 numeric reference table. 109 problem isolation with traceroute. 275-277. 150 951 . 637. 398-399 security. 369-370 prefix length (IPv6). 202-203. 830 Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3). 48-50 private internets. 340. 874-877 testing longer routes from near source of problem. 100.quit command ping command. 829 private IP networks. 276. See leased-line WANs privileged EXEC mode. 881 testing LAN neighbors with standard ping. 894 practice exams self-ping. 569-572. 637-639 additional test questions. 547-549 testing WAN neighbors with standard ping. 683-685 prefix masks. 289-292 restrict mode. See leased-line WANs definition of. 877-879 violation actions. 205 ports Ethernet ports. 877-879 predictability in interesting octet. 554-559 Port Address Translation (PAT). 207-208 protect mode. 35 public addresses (IPv4). 877 testing LAN neighbors with extended ping. 543-544. 287-288 configuration. 551-552 question review. 49 privilege level 15. 313-315 Q-R shutdown mode. 545-547 testing reverse routes with extended ping. 107-108. 549-550 test-taking tips. 347-350 presentation layer (OSI). 51 private line. 660-663 product authorization key (PAK) licensing. 203-205 err-disabling recovery. 288-289 MAC addresses. 690-692 pinouts private branch exchange (PBX). 262 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 315-316 point-to-point line. 690-692 public IP networks. 34 ping6 command. 855 port numbers. 855-857 router auxiliary ports. 743-744. 46 product ID (PID). 207 quit command. 205-206 question review. 145 switch ports. 550-551 exam scores. 343-346 prefix part of IP addresses. 133-135 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3). 552-553 POST (power-on self-test). 748 private addresses. 330. 289-292 protocol data units (PDUs). 288-289 verifying. 744-745 ping with names and IP addresses. See PAK (product authorization key) licensing port-security command. 289-292 protect mode.

441-442 Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). 468 reverse routes. 334 resetting passwords. 100 reserved networks. 850 auto-summary issues. 141 distance vector. 634-635 router VLAN trunking. 441 registered public IP networks. 416 ROM (read-only memory). 835-838 route poisoning. 830. 626. 141 IGPs (interior gateway protocols). testing. 434. 313-315 troubleshooting. 442-443 err-disabling recovery. 41. 466 remote subnets. 641 other router issues. 608-610 summary. 840. 675 RJ-45 ports. 450-451. 731 reversed source/destination IP address. 452-453 password recovery/reset. 390-391 autosummarization. 46 ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 447 AD (administrative distance). 439-440 ranges equal-cost routes. 440-441 of usable addresses. 447-449 RIRs (Regional Internet Registries). 411 passive interfaces. 861-862 ARP table. 489-490 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) configuration. 100 requests ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) requests. 456-458 show ip route command. 23 ICMP echo replies. 731 discontiguous classful networks. 466 verification. 679 auxiliary ports. 143-145. 99 HTTP. 361-362 read-only memory (ROM). 443-447 default routers. 156. 99 HTTP GET requests. 358 restrict mode. 463-464 remark command. 846 missing/incorrect network commands. 251. 835-838 resident subnets. 83. 695 full update messages. 416 routers. 437-438 recovery key features. 117 ICMP echo requests. 675 split horizon. 834. 836 route poisoning. 415 RIPng (RIP next generation). 461-462 releases (IOS). 453-454 for global unicast addresses. 449-450 show ip protocols command. 441-442 router-on-a-stick (ROAS). 454-455 RAM (random access memory). 437 CLI (command-line interface). 384 right-to-use licenses. 465 reload command. 464-465 replies ARP. 329. 133-134. 478-480 . 547-549 Router Solicitation (RS). 251. controlling. 289-292 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 93. 288-289 RIP updates. 416 router rip command. 454-455 configuration. 398-399 RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2).952 RA (Router Advertisement) RA (Router Advertisement). 141 ROMMON.

830 scp command. 288-289 MAC addresses.security discovering with NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 289-292 restrict mode. 289-292 shutdown mode. 812-813 IOS passwords. 806-809 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 731 running-config file. 176-179. 386-388 sdm prefer lanbase-routing. 583 static unicast address configuration configuring full 128-bit address. 416 router interfaces bandwidth. See RIPv2 routing tables. 202-203. 708 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 813-814 definition of. 249-251 wireless routers. 571-572 LAN issues. 393-394 IP addresses. 810 firewalls. 203-205 err-disabling recovery. 814-816 login banner configuration. 805-806 hiding for local usernames. 175-176 local username/password configuration. 287-288 configuration. 829 CLI (command-line interface). 835-838 port security. 731-732 S dynamic unicast address configuration. IPv6 routing Routing Information Protocol Version 2. 251. 559-561. 447-449 RS (Router Solicitation). 176-179 device hardening controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 810-812 unused switch interface security. 391-393 interface status codes. 288-289 953 . 207-208 protect mode. 711-714 verifying. 173-175 password security. 717-718 security ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 398 clock rate. 573-574 verifying IPv6 host connectivity from. 407 Secure Shell (SSH). 168-169 external authentication servers. 804 encoding with hashes. 387-388 SCP (SSH Copy Protocol). 394 installation same-layer interaction. 813-814 link-local address configuration. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 142 RXBOOT. 389-390 IPv4. 236 routing. 133. 421 Internet access routers. 829-830 enterprise routers. 396-397 displaying. 403. See IPv4 routing. 135-136 simple password configuration. 394-396 router WAN interface status. 709-711 troubleshooting DHCP issues. 169-173 SSH (Secure Shell). 715 S0/0/0 status code. 24-25 Cisco integrated services routers. 744-747 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 810 password recovery/reset.

and accounting) servers. 805-806. 611. 480. 800 show ip access-lists command. 397. 401. 188 service sequence-numbers command. 627-629 show interface switchport command. 789-791 Telnet servers. 604. 183. authorization. 392 show interfaces status command. 797 show cdp neighbors command. 188 segments. 297 show interfaces switchport command. 183. 633 show ip nat statistics command. 183. 497. 846 self-ping. 627. 497 show ip interface brief command. 846 Setup mode (IOS). 396. 283. 392-393. 114 service password-encryption command. 184. 570 show cdp command. 490. 211. 604. 480. 193-194. 413. 278-280. 266. 293 serial line. 794-796 show cdp traffic command. 497 shorter VLAN configuration example. 637-639 show history command. 843. 269. 175-176 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers. 819 service providers. 611. 188 security zones (firewall). 456-458. 401. 665 show ip nat translations command. 207 security levels (log messages). 843 show ip default-gateway command. 260-262. 396. 31. 801 show interfaces serial command. 604. 278. 259-262. 655-662. 797. 497 show ip dhcp server statistics command. 611. 641 session layer (OSI). 64 show interfaces description command. 169 show ip dhcp binding command. 574 show interfaces loopback command. 188 shared passwords. 801 show command. 783 show crypto key mypubkey rsa command. 468 show ip interface command. 159. 296-297 show interfaces vlan command. 468 . 567. 297. 164. 855 servers AAA (authentication.954 security verifying. 815-817 show dhcp lease command. 801 show cdp entry command. 265. 482. 175-176 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 133 web servers. 655-665 show ip protocols command. 137 show ip dhcp pool command. 797 show clock command. 269. 794 show cdp neighbors detail command. 466. 24. 401 violation actions. 497 setup command. 466. 34 show ip arp command. 794-796 show cdp interface command. 278-281. 753 serial number (SN). 158. 450-451. 633. 297. 392. 256-257 show ip dhcp conflict command. 205-206 show controllers command. 486. 480-481. 824-827. 188 SEQ (sequence number). 641 show arp command. 293-297 show interfaces trunk command. 478-484 external authentication servers. 196-197. 106 show flash command. 497 show access-lists command. 633. See leased-line WANs show interfaces command. 628-630.

726 show ntp associations command. 293. 709-710. 791. 211. 195-196. 426-428. 161. 297 show ipv6 neighbors command. 137. 160. 824 show ipv6 route local command. 423. 311-312 site local addresses. 293. 188. 575-576 show ip route static. 255. 722. 785. 798 show vlan id command. 627-629. 211. 754. 207. 424 show ip ssh command. 754. 164. 755 show ip route ospf command. 693 size of subnets. 254-257. 531-532. 739-741 955 . 710. 257. 142-145. 575-578. 757. 268. 179. 858. 297 show lldp neighbors command. 755 show license feature command. 293. 172-173. 726. 716. 391. 179. 801 show version command. 756 show ntp status command. 787 show protocols command. 360. 269. 717. 401 show ipv6 route static command. 288-291 show ipv6 route command. 784. 164 single-size subnets. 863 show lldp commands. 781. 745. 447-449. 857-863 show startup-config command. 164 show vtp status command. 109 show mac address-table dynamic command. 748 show port-security interface command. 159. 717. 419 show mac address-table aging-time command. 162-164. 188 show license command. 720. 183. 846 show ipv6 routers command. 207-210. 731. 757-763 show running-config command. 288-289. 164 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). 205-206. 819. 164 shutdown mode. 161. 209. 801 show vlans. 297 show mac address-table command. 145. 156-157. 855-856. 791. 813. 709-710. 210 show mac address-table vlan command. 297 show logging command. 801 show process cpu command. 160 show ipv6 interface brief command. 798 show vlan brief command. 297 show lldp interface command. 297. 135. 770 show ipv6 route connected command. 746-748 show ssh command. 738-739 show port-security command. 310-312 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 863 show license udi command. 142. 833-835. 858863 show lldp entry command. 269. 195. 297. 413-414. 468. 799 show vlan command. 210. 182. 293-294. 801 show ipv6 interface command. 288. 395-396. 207-210 show mac address-table static command. 819 show mac address-table count command. 164 show mac address-table dynamic vlan command. 400. 188 show mac address-table secure command. 285-286 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 824. 788. 288-289 show mac address-table dynamic address command. 711. 391.SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration) show ip route command. 391 shutdown command. 603. 726. 109 show mac address-table dynamic interface command. 293.

showing. 855-857 troubleshooting. 154-155 link-local next-hop address. 761-762 troubleshooting. 574 outgoing interface. 559-561. 813-814 small office/home office (SOHO) LANs. 140 configuration files. 648-650. 109 matching any/all addresses. 857-859 permanent technology package licenses. 41-42 SMARTnet. 617-618 IPv4. 19 list logic. 133. 17. 854-855 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 861-862 with universal images. 279-281. 141-143 verification. 600-602 star topology. 852-853 software configuration common command prompts. 343 split horizon. 741 static NAT (Network Address Translation). 756. 229. 756-757 static default routes. 139-141. 413. 602 sockets. 731. 608-610 manual activation. adding. 391. 855-857 current license status. 606-607 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 758-759 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). 815 Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC). 424-428 configuring. 648 global unicast next-hop address. 41-42 solicited-node multicast addresses. 855 configuration examples. 428-430 IPv6. 297. 739-741 stateless DHCPv6. 138-139 static ranges per subnet. 193-194. 859-861 with right-to-use licenses. 759-760 speed command. 606-607 wildcard masks. 209. 109 access-list command.956 slash masks slash masks. 17. 441 sliding windows. 760-762 source MAC addresses. 400. 597 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). 599-600 matching subset of address. matching. See SCP standard numbered IPv4 ACLs. 112-113 SSH (Secure Shell). 600-601 with Cisco License Manager. 233 startup-config file. 107 software activation command syntax. 602-606 SNA (Systems Network Architecture). 139-141 static routes SOHO (small office/home office) LANs. 426 troubleshooting. 765-768 . 711. 153 floating static routes. choosing. 608 SN (serial number). 422-428 floating static routes. 654-655 configuration mode. 760-761 static host routes. 720-721 source IP. 142 stateful inspection. 323-324 configuration submodes and contexts. 852 SSH Copy Protocol. 403. 599 matching exact IP address. 762-763 source NAT (Network Address Translation). 176-179. 598-599 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

367 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 514 subnet part of IP addresses. 320. 418 overlapping subnets. 317-318 calculating hosts and subnets in network. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 581-583 verification. 350-352 choosing. 530-531 classless routing protocols. 531-532 subnet numbers. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. 536-538 classful routing protocols. 278-279 sticky secure MAC addresses. 515-519 subnet blocks. 567-569 prefix part. 368-369 finding subnet broadcast addresses.subnets static unicast address configuration (IPv6). 521 finding with binary math. 203 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 711-714 finding VLSM overlaps. 510-512 formats for. 533-534 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 342-343 mask formats. 723 subnet zero. 514 subnets. 506-512 classful IP networks before subnetting. 366-367 analyzing with decimal math analysis with easy masks. See also subnet masks analyzing with binary math. 349-350 subnet router anycast addresses. 319 VLSM (variable length subnet masking). 519-520 subinterfaces. 316-318. 532-536 verifying. 709-711 recognizing when VLSM is used. 83. 340 finding with decimal math. 360-361. 579 status codes interface status codes. 520-522 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 310. 91-93. 393-394 troubleshooting. See subnets subinterface numbers. 319-320 mismatched masks. 528 designing subnet plans with. 343-346 finding. 372-374 957 . 370-372 borrowing host bits to create subnet bits. 304. 139 subdivided networks. 310. 515 zero subnet. 530 adding new subnets to existing VLSM design. 699. 522 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 708 configuration. 362-363 shortcut for binary process. 364-366 Boolean math. 531-532 definition of. 316-317 converting between formats. 154-155 straight-through cable pinout. 347-350 sample design. 362 binary practice problems. 340. 48-49 subcommands. 367 finding range of addresses. 530-531 finding with magic number. 362-363 subnet masks. 416 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 364 finding subnet IDs. 312.

310-312 reference table: DDN mask values and binary equivalent. 282-284 with unique local addresses. 361 analyzing subnet needs subnet blocks. 370-372 design choices finding with magic number. 320. 415-419 verifying on switch. 182-183 assigning to internetwork topology. 305. 228. 358 finding with decimal math. 310. 278-284 IPv4 configuring on switch. 320-321 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 475-476. 181. 515 broadcast addresses. 506-512 auto-mdix. 310-313 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. See also LAN switching public IP networks. 278-279 operational versus design view of. 358 routing between VLANs. 361-362 host and switch IP settings. 411 resident subnets. 316-320. 128-129 example of network with four subnets. 306-308 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 179-181 remote subnets. 362-363 definition of. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 232 history buffer commands. 308-309 size of subnets. 696-699 configuration files. 358-359 collision domains and. 41. 370-372 simple example. 222-223 IPv6 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 181-182 planning implementation. 310. 316 classful networks. 581-583 troubleshooting. 184 interfaces interface IDs.958 subnets finding subnet IDs. 141-143 distribution switches. 699-700 with global unicast addresses. 228. 183-184 Layer 2 switches. 320-321 switches. 698 Layer 1 problems. 520-522 number of hosts per subnet. 481-482 Cisco Catalyst switches. 579-581 with VLSM. 374 subnet broadcast. 306 overlapping subnets without VLSM. 350-352 finding with binary math. 522 which hosts are in which subnet. 360-361. 519-520 building list of. 701-702 speed and duplex issues. 182-183 range of usable addresses. 315-316 subset of IP address. 279-282 status codes. 600-601 list of all subnets. 518 zero subnet. 321-324 dynamic IP address configuration with DHCP. 514 choosing IP network. 369-370 size. 521 subnet numbers. 313-315 access switches. 305 predictability in interesting octet. 515-519 calculating per network. 249 . 51 DHCP Relay. 309 number of subnets. 232 subnet masks. matching. 320.

262 verification. 210. 210. 268. 150-153 switchport trunk native vlan command. 195 log message format. 289-292 shutdown mode. 169-173 SSH (Secure Shell). 203. 284-287 switchport port-security mac-address sticky command. 268 switchport mode dynamic auto command. 181. 226 switchport access vlan command. 264-266. 287-288 configuration. 253. 205-206 violation actions. 110 Syslog. 203-205 switchport port-security mac-address command. 168-169 switchport port-security maximum command. 786-787 multiple interfaces. 294 Systems Network Architecture (SNA). 193-194 duplex. 417 switchport nonegotiate command. 176-179 switchport port-security violation command. 190-192 switchport voice vlan command. 193-194 enabling/disabling interfaces. 256. 173-175 simple password configuration. 268. 295.tables Layer 3 switches. 268 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 258. 819 switchport mode command. 207 switchport mode dynamic desirable command. See leased-line WANs tables ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) tables. 203. 784-786 switching table. 203-205 err-disabled recovery. 258. 297 switchport trunk allowed vlan command. 195-197 SYN flags. 207-208 restrict mode. 490 959 . 813. 197-198 log message security levels. 780-781 switch interfaces. 249-252 port security. 287. 210 predicting where switches will forward frames. 204-206. 256-257. 258. 19 T T1. 288-289 verifying. 782 removing configuration. 253. 288-289 MAC addresses. 265-268. 783 speed. 158-159 storing log messages for review. 784-786 debug command. 415. 202-203. 269 switchport trunk encapsulation command. 100. 262. 293. 781-782 voice switches. 819 switchport mode access command. 203. 265-266. 813. 193-194 sending messages to users. 210 security. 204-205. 819 switch interface configuration. See MAC address table switchport access command. 260 switchport mode trunk command. 198-202 description. 203-205. 780 configuration. 210 external authentication servers. 207. 295 switchport port-security command. 813. 269 autonegotiation. 175-176 local username/password configuration.

781. 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 235 time. 114-115 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). 112-113 multiplexing. 230-232 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association). 133. 30-32 examples. 107-108 segments. 114. 230-232 topology design terminology.960 tables IP routing tables. 111-112 passwords. 105-106 compared to UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 23-25 MAC address table. 117-118 identifying receiving application. 108-109 port numbers. 109. 23. 788-789 time management for Cisco Certification Exam. 559 connection establishment and termination. 159-160 multiple switches. 104-105. 554 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 107 supported features. 447-449 tagging (VLAN). 20-21. 94-95 transport layer. 246-248 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 110-111 controlling access with ACLs. See troubleshooting TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol). 22-23 compared to OSI. 156-157 routing tables. 560-561 when to use. 22-23 timezone. See also IPv4 addresses. 478. 14. 284-286 showing. 787. 161 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 554 history of. 801 terminal no monitor command. 788-789 link layer. 162-163 predicting contents of. 25-28 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 618 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol). 106 sockets. 83. 153-154 aging. 118-119 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 801 testing. 23-24. 19-20 Time-to-Live Exceeded (TTL Exceeded). 232-233 two-tier campus design. 30 RFCs (Requests for Comments). 227-230 . 235 Telnet. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 20 topologies of campus LANs three-tier campus design. 113-114 clearing. 188 terminal monitor command. 104-105 tcp keyword. 28-30 network layer. setting. 162 web browsing finding entries in. 104 DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 106-108 popular applications. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) application layer. 828 three-tier campus design. IPv6 addresses. 184. 169 flow control. 813-814 error recovery and reliability. 869-870 time-period command. 559-560 terminal history size command. 845 Time To Live (TTL).

111-112 LAN issues. 274-275 with ping command. 584 popular applications. 566-567 router WAN interface status. 573-574 flow control. 748 traceroute6 command. 23 adjacent-layer interaction. 570 DHCP issues. 741-744 verifying host connectivity from nearby routers. 178 transport layer (OSI). 24-25 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).troubleshooting traceroute command. 818 transport input none command. 412 status codes. 178. 748 troubleshooting definition of. 478. 23-24. 481-485 trailer fields (Ethernet). 635-636 reversed source/destination IP address. 178 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 637-639 transport input command. 271 tracert command. 634-635 troubleshooting commands. 105-106 compared to UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 178 transport input telnet ssh command. 391. 278-279 IPv4 ACLs (access control lists) transparent bridges. 744-745. 571-572 DNS problems. 748 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 569-570 connection establishment and termination. 635 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. See TCP Layer 1 problems. 282-284 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 52 Ethernet LANs. 106 sockets. 543-544 ping with names and IP addresses. 744-747 methodologies. 564 default router IP address setting. See TCP/IP speed and duplex issues. 178 transport input ssh command. 104 common syntax mistakes. 828 IP forwarding issues. 113-114 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 104-105. 279-282 transmitting frames. 24-25 same-layer interaction. 552-553 961 . 110-111 incorrect addressing plans. 112-113 mismatched masks. 553-559. 633634 IPv4 routing. 107-108 segments. 117-118 interfaces Transmission Control Protocol. 104-105 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 282-284 transferring files. 108-109 port numbers. 743-744. 106-108 packet filtering with access lists. 575-578 mismatched IPv4 settings. 221-222 ACL behavior in network. 109. 572. 583 IPv6 addressing verifying host connectivity from hosts. 631-633 transport input all command. 567-569 multiplexing. 34 transport layer (TCP/IP). 579-583 error recovery and reliability. 187. 107 supported features.

855 mismatched trunking operational states. 618-621 supported features. 553-559 VLANs (virtual LANs). 328. 113-114 testing reverse routes with extended ping. 491 802. 554-559 unicast addresses. 723 two-switch topology. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 248-249 unique device identifier (UDI). 708-711 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 428-430. 765-768 with Telnet. 702-703 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 851-853 tutorials for Cisco Certification Exam.1Q. 104 testing WAN neighbors with standard ping. 257 subnetting with. 114-115 configuration. 547-549 compared to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 293 dynamic unicast address configuration (IPv6). 23. 692-693 VLAN tagging. 248-249 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). 855 testing longer routes from near source of problem. 715 static unicast address configuration (IPv6) configuring full 128-bit address. 559-561 with traceroute command. matching. 145 problem isolation with traceroute. 551-552 port numbers. 559-561 standard numbered ACLs (access control lists). 416-417 undefined VLANs. 452-453 . 275-277. 812-813 updates (RIP). 22 unknown unicast frames. 53. 606-607 static IPv4 routes. 701-702 TTL (Time To Live). 258-262 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). 868-869 unknown addresses (IPv6). 554 universal images (IOS). 711-714 unicast IP addresses. 284-287 undebug all command. 287-292 unabbreviated addresses (IPv6). 461-466 with SSH (Secure Shell). 701 definition of. 550-551 U testing LAN neighbors with standard ping. 294-296 unique local addresses. 554 universal addresses. flooding. 154 unshielded twisted-pair. 22 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 246. 292-296 trunking. 358.962 troubleshooting testing LAN neighbors with extended ping. 162-163 two-tier campus design. See UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables unused switch interface security. 545-547 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 680 predicting where switches will forward frames. 53 TTL Exceeded (Time-to-Live Exceeded). 549-550 UDI (unique device identifier). 246-248 importance of. 688 RIPv2. 227-230 Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs). 104-105 port security.

43-46 VLSM (variable length subnet masks). 829 show ip protocols command. 22 IOS images. 827. 292-293 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). 824-830 Ethernet switching. 175. 846 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 606-607 static unicast address configuration. 271 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers. 46-47 virtual LANs. 486-490 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). 264-266 variable-length subnet masks. 244-246 V configuration. 258-262 default VLANs. 133-135 user mode external authentication servers. 829. 253-256 Layer 3 switches. 657-659 static NAT. 447-449 usernames hiding passwords for. 225-226. 741-744 from nearby routers. 264-266 definition of. 173-175 standard numbered ACLs (access control lists). See UDP IPv6 host connectivity user EXEC mode. 256-257 trunking. 169-173 username command. 48-50 verify command. 480-481 full VLAN configuration example. 173-175 simple password configuration. 827 from hosts. 51 versions (IOS). 22. 827. 709-711 users. 780-781 Syslog. 420-422 shorter VLAN configuration example. 850 UTP Ethernet links. 114-115 host IPv4 settings. 833-835 usbflash file systems. 449-450 username privilege 15 command. 845 username password command.VLANs (virtual LANs) upgrading IOS images. 744-747 NAT (Network Address Translation) dynamic NAT. 824 IPv4 on switch. 846 VLANs (virtual LANs). 810 show ip route command. sending messages to. 531-532 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 175-176 passwords local password configuration. 262-267 963 . 456-458 username secret command. 796-797 data and voice VLANs. 187. 450-451. 174-175. 810 IOS code integrity. 810 local username configuration. 655 port security. 205-206 RIPv2. 156 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 784-786 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables. 183-184 User Datagram Protocol. 447 AD (administrative distance). See VLANs verify /md5 command. 252-253 data and voice VLANs. 173. 253 IP telephony. See VLSM verification access interfaces. 818.

68-69 WAN neighbors. 257 VLAN IDs. 70-71 Internet access. 114 web pages. 293 verifying access interfaces. 237 . 530-531 classless routing protocols. 69-70 Ethernet emulation. 246 802. 114 wide-area networks. 415-419 with Layer 3 switch. 66 data-link protocols. 581-583 recognizing when VLSM is used. See WANs wildcard masks. 312. 294-296 undefined VLANs. 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 249. 114. 268 enterprise wireless LANs. 249-251 tagging. 64-65 connecting LANs via. 532-536 verification. 257 VLSM (variable length subnet mask). 530 adding new subnets to existing VLSM design. 239. 112-113 voice switches. 114-115 web clients. 292-293 trunking. 531-532 overlapping subnets. 265. 66-67 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 294-296 VLAN tagging. 248 routing. See wildcard masks web browsers. 533-534 finding VLSM overlaps. 63-64 routing. testing. 246 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). 60 compared to LANs. 257 wireless LANs. See Ethernet LANs (localarea networks) VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 238. 536-538 classful routing protocols. 240 home office wireless LANs. 236. 118-119 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 257. 268 VLAN IDs. 579 W-X-Y-Z WANs (wide-area networks). 246-248 troubleshooting. 246 vlan command. 117-118 identifying receiving application. 294 mismatched trunking operational states. 114 web servers.964 VLANs (virtual LANs) native VLANs. 530-531 configuration. 62-63 creating in lab. 38. 528 designing subnet plans with. 253. 70-72 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 114 web browsing DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 251-252 with routers. 551-552 WC masks. 258-262 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 248-249 configuration.1Q. 262 wired LANs. 248-249 troubleshooting. 600-602 windowing. 292 disabled VLANs. 38 vtp mode command. 246-248 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 72-77 leased-line WANs cabling. 60 Ethernet WANs. 531-532 definition of. 67 leased line terminology.

239 wireless routers. 109 zero subnet. 236-237 WLCs (Wireless LAN Controllers). 238-240 home office wireless LANs. 145. 843. 846 write-memory command. 236 WLANs (wireless LANs) enterprise wireless LANs. 239 World Wide Web (WWW). 845 WWW (World Wide Web).zero subnet 965 Wireless LAN Controllers (WLCs). 109 write erase command. 514 . 841.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.
ciscoexam-online-sale-200-125-exam    | udemy-newccnax-sale-200-125-exam    | whats-new-with-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | ccna-practice-quiz-sale-200-125-exam    | What-is-the-difference-sale-200-125-exam-cert    | boson-practice-sale-200-125-exam-practice    | measureup-Cisco-Certified-Network-Associate-sale-200-125-exam    | globed-cisco-new-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-standard    | exam-labs-sale-200-125-exam-cert    | streaming-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-technologies    | caring-charts-blood-pressure-sale-200-125-exam    | pluralsight-courses-networking-cisco-sale-200-125-exam    | pearsonitcertification-articles-sale-200-125-exam    | safaribooksonline-library-sale-200-125-exam-routing    | learncisco-ccna.php-sale-200-125-exam-tast    | protechgurus-fees-syllabus-sale-200-125-exam    | certificationkits-cisco-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-standard-kit    | zeqr-lazaro-diaz-course-sale-200-125-exam    | 9tut-faqs-tips-sale-200-125-exam    | scribd-document-CCNA-sale-200-125-exam    | itunes-ccnax-sale-200-125-exam    | linkedin-cisco-sale-200-125-exam-questions-details    | teachertube-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-practice    | killexams-detail-sale-200-125-exam    | examsboost-test-sale-200-125-exam    | ccnav6-online-full-collections-sale-200-125-exam    | spiceworks-topic-sale-200-125-exam    | behance-gallery-sale-200-125-exam    | vceguide-share-experience-sale-200-125-exam    | techexams-forums-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | free4arab-sale-200-125-exam    | openlearning-courses-sale-200-125-exam    | mindhub-Cisco-Certified-Network-sale-200-125-exam    | vceplus-ccna-exam-sale-200-125-exam    | examsforall-cisco-sale-200-125-exam    | how2pass-ccna-practice-tests-sale-200-125-exam    | simulationexams-details-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | teksystems-sale-200-125-exam-routing-switching    | cram-flashcards-sale-200-125-exam    | pass4cert-cisco-new-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | snatpedia-ccnaa-sale-200-125-exam    | cert4sure-free-download-sale-200-125-exam    | logicindia-ccnarouting-switching-sale-200-125-exam    | justcerts-practice-questions-sale-200-125-exam    | isc2-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | infosecinstitute-cissp-boot-camp-sale-CISSP-exam    | tomsitpro-security-certifications-sale-CISSP-125-exam    | infoworld-cissp-certification-sale-CISSP-exam    | welivesecurity.com-cissp-certified-sale-CISSP-exam    | searchsecurity-definition-sale-CISSP-exam    | simplilearn-cyber-security-training-sale-CISSP-exam    | arstechnica-security-sale-CISSP-exam    | cybrary-course-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | skillset-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | transcender-certprep-sale-CISSP-exam    | pearsonvue-sale-CISSP-exam-cert    | gocertify-isc2-issp-sale-CISSP-exam    | trainingcamp-training-bootcamp-sale-CISSP-exam    | cbtnuggets-security-sale-CISSP-exam    | cglobalknowledge.com-us-en-sale-CISSP-exam    | itgovernance-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | boson-certification-sale-CISSP-exam    | firebrandnordic-training-sale-CISSP-exam    | firebrandnordic-sale-CISSP-exam-123    | cybervista-sale-CISSP-exam-cert    | becker-sale-CISSP-exam-pdf    | youracclaim-certified-information-sale-CISSP-exam    | techexams-forums-sale-CISSP-exam    | munitechacademy-courses-sale-CISSP-exam    | hot-topics-cyber-security-courses-sale-CISSP-exam    | pearsonitcertification-sale-CISSP-exam    | sybextestbanks-wiley-sale-CISSP-exam    | lifewire-preparing-sale-CISSP-exam    | villanovau.com-resources-iss-sale-CISSP-exam    | intenseschool-boot-sale-CISSP-exam    | phoenixts-training-sale-CISSP-exam    | infosecisland-blogview-sale-CISSP-exam    | centralohioissa-member-sale-CISSP-exam    | learningtree-courses-certified-information-sale-CISSP-exam    | udallas.edu-executive-education-sale-CISSP-exam    | umbctraining-Courses-catalog-sale-CISSP-exam    | skyhighnetworks-cloud-security-sale-CISSP-exam    | helpnetsecurity-cert-sale-CISSP-exam    | secureninja-certification-bootcamp-sale-CISSP-exam    | mercurysolutions-information-sale-CISSP-exam    | exam-labs-info-sale-100-105-exam-pdf    | cbtnuggets-training-ccna-icnd1-sale-100-105-exam    | gocertify-ccent-practice-quiz-sale-100-105-exam    | ciscopress.com-ccna-icnd1-sale-100-105-exam    | boson-practice-sale-100-105-exam    | examcollectionuk-vce-download-sale-100-105-exam    | pearsonitcertification-articles-sale-100-105-exam    | transcender-practice-sale-100-105-exam-test    | techexams-forums-ccna-ccent-sale-100-105-exam    | shop-oreilly-sale-100-105-exam    | safaribooksonline-library-view-sale-100-105-exam    | subnetting-download-ccent-sale-100-105-exam    | 2cram-icnd1-online-quiz-sale-100-105-exam    | networklessons-routing-sale-100-105-exam    | centriq-123-ccna-certification-sale-100-105-exam    | ituonline-interconnecting-sale-100-105-exam    | transcender-introducing-the-new-sale-100-105-exam    | measureup-Networking-Devices-Part-sale-100-105-exam    | vceguide-icnd1-experience-sale-100-105-exam    | dumpscollection-dumps-sale-100-105-exam    | computerminds-business-sale-100-105-exam    | globed-ccent-or-icnd1-sale-100-105-exam    | ucertify-load-course-sale-100-105-exam    | academy-gns3-sale-100-105-exam    | visiontrainingsystems-product-sale-100-105-exam    | pearsonhighered-program-Wilkins-CCENT-sale-100-105-exam    | vceplus-ccent-sale-100-105-exam    | mindhub-Interconnecting-sale-100-105-exam    | sale-70-410-exam    | we-sale-70-410-exam    |
http://mleb.net/    | http://mleb.net/    |