CCENT/
CCNA
ICND1 100-105
Official Cert Guide
WENDELL ODOM, CCIE No. 1624

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA

ii

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Wendell Odom
Copyright© 2016 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Published by:
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage
and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief
quotations in a review.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing May 2016
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016933699
ISBN-13: 978-1-58720-580-4
ISBN-10: 1-58720-580-7

Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco ICND1 100-105 exam for CCENT
certification. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible,
but no warranty or fitness is implied.
The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc.
shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs
that may accompany it.
The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of
Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or
service mark.

Special Sales
For information about buying this title in bulk quantities, or for special sales opportunities (which
may include electronic versions; custom cover designs; and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, or branding interests), please contact our corporate sales department at
corpsales@pearsoned.com or (800) 382-3419.
For government sales inquiries, please contact governmentsales@pearsoned.com.
For questions about sales outside the U.S., please contact intlcs@pearson.com.

com. Chuck Hutchinson Technical Editors Aubrey Adams. Paula Lowell . We greatly appreciate your assistance. undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book. you can contact us through email at feedback@ciscopress. Each book is crafted with care and precision. our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value.iii Feedback Information At Cisco Press. Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Business Operation Manager. Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. Elan Beer Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Cover Designer Mark Shirar Composition Studio Galou Senior Indexer Erika Millen Proofreaders Kathy Ruiz. or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs. Cisco Press Jan Cornelssen Executive Editor Brett Bartow Managing Editor Sandra Schroeder Senior Development Editor Christopher Cleveland Senior Project Editor Tonya Simpson Copy Editors Keith Cline. Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process.

For the past 27 years. China. he currently works writing and creating certification study tools. has been in the networking industry since 1981. CCIE No. Elan has used his expertise to design and troubleshoot data centers and internetworks in Malaysia. About the Technical Reviewers Aubrey Adams is a Cisco Networking Academy instructor in Perth.com.and long-term design objectives. and switching. Africa. Australia. systems engineer. including video. CCNP QoS. He helped develop the popular Pearson Network Simulator. Elan has been instrumental in large-scale professional service efforts designing and troubleshooting internetworks. and he is the author of all editions of the CCNA R&S and CCENT Cert Guides from Cisco Press. He has written books about topics from networking basics. and troubleshooting as well as service provider technologies.iv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide About the Author Wendell Odom. graduate diplomas in computing and education. CCNA R&S. Elan has been focused on data center design. and the Middle East. and in 1996. CCNP ROUTE. simulation. and course developer. North America. He has taught across a broad range of both related vocational and education training areas and university courses. Since then. Most recently. Elan has a global perspective of network architectures via his international clientele. He maintains study tools. Elan has been involved in numerous large-scale data center and telecommunications networking projects worldwide. is a senior consultant and Cisco instructor specializing in data center architecture and multiprotocol network design. Elan was among the first to obtain the Cisco Certified System Instructor (CCSI) certification. and online products. CCIE No. performing data center and network audits. 1837. routing. Aubrey has technically reviewed several Pearson Education and Cisco Press publications. In 1993. and associated industry certifications. CCNA DC. certification guides throughout the years for CCENT. He has worked as a network engineer. Aubrey has qualifications in electronic engineering and management. Western Australia. links to his blogs. consultant. configuration. Elan Beer. Since 2007. This book is his 27th edition of some product for Pearson. he was among the first to attain the Cisco System highest technical certification. Europe. Elan has designed networks and trained thousands of industry experts in data center architecture. and other resources at www. With a background in telecommunications design. and assisting clients with their short. the Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert.certskills. . and CCIE R&S. 1624 (Emeritus). instructor.

precious girl. math homework—hooray!. Love you. . my wonderful daughter: Tomato softball. being Jesus’s hands and feet. wasabi. Underdog stories.v Dedications For Hannah Grace Odom. equiangular equilateral quadrilaterals. movies while other kids are at school. singing scat. smart brain and a bigger heart.

and an important part of deciding what the entire Official Cert Guide series direction should be. Greg Cote. Tonya Simpson. and he’s been involved with the series ever since. Lisa! I love the magic wand that is production. Lisa Matthews. It is truly abnormal to find one person who can do all aspects of technical editing in the same pass. Mike Tanamachi. crummy word choices. word docs with gobs of queries and comments feed into the machine. This book has more moving parts than most. Elan Beer did his usual amazing job. with Mike drawing new figures as soon as I outline a new section or chapter. once again getting the “opportunity” to manage two books with many elements at the same timeline. the juggling act continues. It’s always great to work with Chris. A special thanks goes out to various people on the Cisco team who work with Pearson to create Cisco Press books. Mandie Frank. Lisa handled all the practice app development: taking various appendixes. Thanks to Sandra Schroeder. Chris. and then pulling the design and layout together. Elan. to noticing phrasing that might mislead.vi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Acknowledgments Brett Bartow again served as executive editor on the book. and especially for keeping us on track with the new features. Elan does it all. thanks for putting it all together and making it look easy. Joe Stralo. thanks. and he also provided some excellent feedback. Thanks for guiding us through the process. once again. In particular. From fixing all my grammar. he was the driving force behind adding all the new apps to the DVD/web. for the many late-night hours working through the different elements. even though I’m jealous of his office setup. Besides the usual wisdom and good decision making to guide the project. because he knows of the common mistakes that students make when learning these same topics. Thanks. illustrator and mind reader. Aubrey! Welcome and thanks to a new team member. Presto. Aubrey Adams tech edited the book. did a great job on the figures again. and out pops these beautiful books. We’ve worked together on probably 20+ titles now. huh Lisa?). And Tonya. and Phil Vancil were a great help while we worked on these titles. with excellence. I use a different process with the figures than most authors. objective. useful comments all around. ho hum. and all the production team for making the magic happen. As for technical editors. his first time tech editing one of my books. learning some subnetting (fun. passive-voice sentences. and done well. Diligent. they do it all. Thanks for managing the whole production process again. Chris Cleveland did the development editing for the very first Cisco Press exam certification guide way back in 1998. we work in concert with Cisco. new at least in terms of someone I interact with during the writing process. and building apps to make the practice experience more interactive. As part of writing these books. a pleasure to work with. From finding small technical errors. It means more edits when I change my mind. Aubrey’s experience teaching the material was a big help in particular. for jumping into the fray to keep the schedule moving. Fantastic job as usual. As always. to suggesting where an extra thought or two rounds out a topic. . thanks. and Chris’s part of the work happened on a challenging timeline.

Thanks to my wonderful wife. A longtime co-collaborator with Pearson’s CCNA Simulator. the comments I receive directly and overhear by participating at CLN made this edition a better book. I love walking this journey with you. doll. Sean! A special thanks you to you readers who write in with suggestions and possible errors.vii and lots of mind reading of what Wendell really wanted versus what I drew poorly on my Wacom tablet. Kris. owns big parts of the lab development process for the associated labs added to my blogs. Sean did a lot of technology work behind the scenes. No way the books are out on time without Sean’s efforts. Chris owns the mind map process now. I could not have made the timeline for this book without Chris Burns of Certskills Professional. Thanks to my daughter Hannah (see dedication). Chris. thanks for the great job. And a thanks goes out to Laura Robbins for working on helping make sure all the figures follow our color standards—standards she helped develop over several other editions of other books. who helps make this sometimes challenging work lifestyle a breeze. Without question. And thanks to Jesus Christ. Lord of everything in my life. . does various tasks related to specific chapters. and especially those of you who post online at the Cisco Learning Network. and then catches anything I need to toss over my shoulder so I can focus on the books. you are the man! Sean Wilkins played the largest role he’s played so far with one of my books. Mike came through again with some beautiful finished products.

VLANs.viii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Contents at a Glance Introduction xxxiv Your Study Plan 2 Part I: Networking Fundamentals 13 Chapter 1 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications Part I Review 14 38 60 78 102 120 Part II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces Part II Review 125 126 146 166 190 212 Part III: Ethernet LANs: Design. and Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs Part III Review 218 242 270 298 Part IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets Part IV Review 378 340 356 302 326 301 217 .

ix Part V: Implementing IPv4 383 Chapter 17 Operating Cisco Routers Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts Part V Review 384 434 470 498 Part VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting Chapter 21 Subnet Design Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part VI Review 503 504 528 542 564 586 Part VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 591 Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 27 Network Address Translation Part VII Review 592 614 642 666 Part VIII: IP Version 6 671 Chapter 28 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing Part VIII Review 672 688 750 772 Part IX: Network Device Management Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802 777 778 704 728 402 .

x CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820 Chapter 36 IOS License Management Part IX Review 864 Part X: Final Review Chapter 37 848 867 Final Review Part XI: Appendixes 868 887 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates Glossary Index 889 895 897 928 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Appendix E Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks Appendix F Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets Appendix G Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design Appendix H Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Appendix I Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix J Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Appendix K Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Appendix L Mind Map Solutions Appendix M Study Planner Appendix N Classless Inter-domain Routing Appendix O Route Summarization Appendix P Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Appendix Q Topics from Previous Editions Appendix R Exam Topics Cross Reference .

xi Contents Introduction xxxiv Your Study Plan Part I 2 Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 13 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking 14 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 14 Foundation Topics 17 Perspectives on Networking 17 TCP/IP Networking Model 18 History Leading to TCP/IP 19 Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 20 TCP/IP Application Layer 22 HTTP Overview 22 HTTP Protocol Mechanisms 22 TCP/IP Transport Layer 23 TCP Error Recovery Basics 23 Same-Layer and Adjacent-Layer Interactions 24 TCP/IP Network Layer 25 Internet Protocol and the Postal Service 25 Internet Protocol Addressing Basics 27 IP Routing Basics 27 TCP/IP Link Layer (Data Link Plus Physical) 28 TCP/IP Model and Terminology 30 Comparing the Original and Modern TCP/IP Models Data Encapsulation Terminology 30 Names of TCP/IP Messages 31 OSI Networking Model 32 Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32 Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 33 OSI Layers and Their Functions 33 OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35 OSI Encapsulation Terminology 35 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs 30 38 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 38 Foundation Topics 40 An Overview of LANs 40 Typical SOHO LANs 41 Typical Enterprise LANs 42 The Variety of Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 43 Consistent Behavior over All Links Using the Ethernet Data Link Layer 44 .

xii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Building Physical Ethernet Networks with UTP 45 Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 45 Breaking Down a UTP Ethernet Link 46 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T 48 Straight-Through Cable Pinout 48 Choosing the Right Cable Pinouts 50 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T 51 Sending Data in Ethernet Networks 51 Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 51 Ethernet Addressing 52 Identifying Network Layer Protocols with the Ethernet Type Field Error Detection with FCS 55 Sending Ethernet Frames with Switches and Hubs 55 Sending in Modern Ethernet LANs Using Full Duplex 55 Using Half Duplex with LAN Hubs 56 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs 60 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 60 Foundation Topics 62 Leased-Line WANs 62 Positioning Leased Lines with LANs and Routers 62 Physical Details of Leased Lines 63 Leased-Line Cabling 64 Building a WAN Link in a Lab 66 Data-Link Details of Leased Lines 66 HDLC Basics 67 How Routers Use a WAN Data Link 68 Ethernet as a WAN Technology 69 Ethernet WANs that Create a Layer 2 Service 70 How Routers Route IP Packets Using Ethernet Emulation Accessing the Internet 72 The Internet as a Large WAN 72 Internet Access (WAN) Links 73 Digital Subscriber Line 74 Cable Internet 76 Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 71 78 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 78 Foundation Topics 81 Overview of Network Layer Functions 81 Network Layer Routing (Forwarding) Logic 81 Host Forwarding Logic: Send the Packet to the Default Router R1 and R2’s Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 83 R3’s Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 83 82 54 .

xiii How Network Layer Routing Uses LANs and WANs 83 IP Addressing and How Addressing Helps IP Routing 84 Routing Protocols 85 IPv4 Addressing 86 Rules for IP Addresses 86 Rules for Grouping IP Addresses 87 Class A. B. and C IP Networks 88 The Actual Class A. B. and C IP Networks 90 IP Subnetting 91 IPv4 Routing 93 IPv4 Host Routing 93 Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table A Summary of Router Forwarding Logic 94 A Detailed Routing Example 94 IPv4 Routing Protocols 96 Other Network Layer Features 98 Using Names and the Domain Name System 98 The Address Resolution Protocol 99 ICMP Echo and the ping Command 100 Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications 94 102 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 102 Foundation Topics 104 TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 104 Transmission Control Protocol 105 Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 106 Popular TCP/IP Applications 108 Connection Establishment and Termination 110 Error Recovery and Reliability 111 Flow Control Using Windowing 112 User Datagram Protocol 113 TCP/IP Applications 114 Uniform Resource Identifiers 114 Finding the Web Server Using DNS 115 Transferring Files with HTTP 117 How the Receiving Host Identifies the Correct Receiving Application Part I Review Part II 120 Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Foundation Topics 128 126 125 126 118 .

Clearing) 161 MAC Address Tables with Multiple Switches 162 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management 166 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 166 Foundation Topics 168 Securing the Switch CLI 168 Securing User Mode and Privileged Mode with Simple Passwords 169 Securing User Mode Access with Local Usernames and Passwords 173 Securing User Mode Access with External Authentication Servers 175 Securing Remote Access with Secure Shell 176 Enabling IPv4 for Remote Access 179 Host and Switch IP Settings 179 Configuring IPv4 on a Switch 181 .xiv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Accessing the Cisco Catalyst Switch CLI 128 Cisco Catalyst Switches 128 Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 129 Cabling the Console Connection 130 Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 133 User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 133 Password Security for CLI Access from the Console CLI Help Features 136 The debug and show Commands 137 Configuring Cisco IOS Software 138 Configuration Submodes and Contexts 139 Storing Switch Configuration Files 141 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching 135 143 146 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 146 Foundation Topics 148 LAN Switching Concepts 148 Overview of Switching Logic 149 Forwarding Known Unicast Frames 150 Learning MAC Addresses 153 Flooding Unknown Unicast and Broadcast Frames 154 Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 154 LAN Switching Summary 155 Verifying and Analyzing Ethernet Switching 156 Demonstrating MAC Learning 156 Switch Interfaces 158 Finding Entries in the MAC Address Table 159 Managing the MAC Address Table (Aging.

VLANs. Duplex. and no ip domain-lookup Commands 184 Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces 190 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 190 Foundation Topics 192 Configuring Switch Interfaces 192 Configuring Speed.xv Configuring a Switch to Learn Its IP Address with DHCP 182 Verifying IPv4 on a Switch 183 Miscellaneous Settings Useful in Lab 184 History Buffer Commands 184 The logging synchronous. and Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs 217 218 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 218 Foundation Topics 220 Analyzing Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 220 Ethernet Collision Domains 220 10BASE-T with Hub 220 Ethernet Transparent Bridges 221 Ethernet Switches and Collision Domains 222 The Impact of Collisions on LAN Design 223 Ethernet Broadcast Domains 224 Virtual LANs 225 The Impact of Broadcast Domains on LAN Design Analyzing Campus LAN Topologies 227 Two-Tier Campus Design (Collapsed Core) 227 226 . and Description 193 Configuring Multiple Interfaces with the interface range Command 195 Administratively Controlling Interface State with shutdown 195 Removing Configuration with the no Command 197 Autonegotiation 198 Autonegotiation Under Working Conditions 198 Autonegotiation Results When Only One Node Uses Autonegotiation 200 Autonegotiation and LAN Hubs 201 Port Security 202 Configuring Port Security 203 Verifying Port Security 205 Port Security Violation Actions 207 Port Security MAC Addresses as Static and Secure but Not Dynamic 207 Part II Review Part III 212 Ethernet LANs: Design. exec-timeout.

xvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide The Two-Tier Campus Design 227 Topology Terminology Seen Within a Two-Tier Design 228 Three-Tier Campus Design (Core) 230 Topology Design Terminology 232 Analyzing LAN Physical Standard Choices 233 Ethernet Standards 234 Choosing the Right Ethernet Standard for Each Link 235 Wireless LANs Combined with Wired Ethernet 236 Home Office Wireless LANs 236 Enterprise Wireless LANs and Wireless LAN Controllers 238 Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 242 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 242 Foundation Topics 244 Virtual LAN Concepts 244 Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 246 VLAN Tagging Concepts 246 The 802.1Q and ISL VLAN Trunking Protocols 248 Forwarding Data Between VLANs 249 Routing Packets Between VLANs with a Router 249 Routing Packets with a Layer 3 Switch 251 VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 252 Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 252 VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration 253 VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration 256 VLAN Trunking Protocol 257 VLAN Trunking Configuration 258 Implementing Interfaces Connected to Phones 262 Data and Voice VLAN Concepts 262 Data and Voice VLAN Configuration and Verification 264 Summary: IP Telephony Ports on Switches 266 Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs 270 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 271 Foundation Topics 274 Perspectives on Applying Troubleshooting Methodologies 274 Troubleshooting on the Exams 275 A Deeper Look at Problem Isolation 275 Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 277 Analyzing Switch Interface Status and Statistics 278 Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 279 Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 282 278 .

xvii Predicting Where Switches Will Forward Frames 284 Predicting the Contents of the MAC Address Table 284 Analyzing the Forwarding Path 286 Analyzing Port Security Operations on an Interface 287 Troubleshooting Shutdown Mode and Err-disabled Recovery 288 Troubleshooting Restrict and Protect Modes 289 Analyzing VLANs and VLAN Trunks 292 Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 292 Access VLANs Not Being Defined 293 Access VLANs Being Disabled 294 Mismatched Trunking Operational States 294 Part III Review Part IV 298 IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 301 302 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 302 Foundation Topics 304 Introduction to Subnetting 304 Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 305 Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 306 Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 306 Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 306 Determining the Number of Subnets 308 Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 309 One Size Subnet Fits All—Or Not 310 Defining the Size of a Subnet 310 One-Size Subnet Fits All 311 Multiple Subnet Sizes (Variable-Length Subnet Masks) 312 This Book: One-Size Subnet Fits All (Mostly) 312 Make Design Choices 313 Choose a Classful Network 313 Public IP Networks 313 Growth Exhausts the Public IP Address Space 314 Private IP Networks 315 Choosing an IP Network During the Design Phase 316 Choose the Mask 316 Classful IP Networks Before Subnetting 316 Borrowing Host Bits to Create Subnet Bits 317 Choosing Enough Subnet and Host Bits 318 Example Design: 172.0. 200 Subnets.0.16. 200 Hosts 319 Masks and Mask Formats 319 Build a List of All Subnets 320 .

xviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Plan the Implementation 321 Assigning Subnets to Different Locations 322 Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 323 Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 326 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 326 Foundation Topics 328 Classful Network Concepts 328 IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 328 The Number and Size of the Class A. B. and C Networks Address Formats 330 Default Masks 331 Number of Hosts per Network 331 Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 332 Unusual Network IDs and Network Broadcast Addresses 334 Practice with Classful Networks 334 Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 335 Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 335 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 337 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 337 Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks 340 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 340 Foundation Topics 342 Subnet Mask Conversion 342 Three Mask Formats 342 Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 343 Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 344 Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 346 Practice Converting Subnet Masks 346 Identifying Subnet Design Choices Using Masks 347 Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 348 Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 349 Classless and Classful Addressing 350 Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 350 Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 352 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 354 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 354 Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets 356 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 356 329 .

xix Foundation Topics 358 Defining a Subnet 358 An Example with Network 172.0 and Four Subnets Subnet ID Concepts 360 Subnet Broadcast Address 361 Range of Usable Addresses 361 Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 362 Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 362 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 364 Binary Practice Problems 364 Shortcut for the Binary Process 366 358 Brief Note About Boolean Math 367 Finding the Range of Addresses 367 Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 368 Analysis with Easy Masks 368 Predictability in the Interesting Octet 369 Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 370 Resident Subnet Example 1 370 Resident Subnet Example 2 371 Resident Subnet Practice Problems 372 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 372 Subnet Broadcast Example 1 372 Subnet Broadcast Example 2 373 Subnet Broadcast Address Practice Problems 374 Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 374 A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 374 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 375 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 376 Part IV Review Part V 378 Implementing IPv4 Chapter 17 383 Operating Cisco Routers 384 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 384 Foundation Topics 386 Installing Cisco Routers 386 Installing Enterprise Routers 386 Cisco Integrated Services Routers 387 Physical Installation 388 Installing Internet Access Routers 389 Enabling IPv4 Support on Cisco Router Interfaces 390 Accessing the Router CLI 390 .16.0.

1Q on Routers 416 Configuring Routing to VLANs Using a Layer 3 Switch 420 Configuring Static Routes 422 Static Route Configuration 422 Static Host Routes 424 Static Routes with No Competing Routes 425 Static Routes with Competing Routes 425 Static Default Routes 427 Troubleshooting Static Routes 428 Troubleshooting Incorrect Static Routes that Appear in the IP Routing Table 429 The Static Route Does Not Appear in the IP Routing Table 429 The Correct Static Route Appears but Works Poorly 429 Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 434 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 435 Foundation Topics 437 RIP and Routing Protocol Concepts 437 History of Interior Gateway Protocols Comparing IGPs 438 Distance Vector Basics 439 437 .xx CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Router Interfaces 391 Interface Status Codes 393 Router Interface IP Addresses 394 Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces Router Auxiliary Port 398 Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes 396 402 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 403 Foundation Topics 405 IP Routing 405 IPv4 Routing Process Reference 405 An Example of IP Routing 408 Host Forwards the IP Packet to the Default Router (Gateway) 409 Routing Step 1: Decide Whether to Process the Incoming Frame 409 Routing Step 2: De-encapsulation of the IP Packet 410 Routing Step 3: Choosing Where to Forward the Packet 410 Routing Step 4: Encapsulating the Packet in a New Frame 411 Routing Step 5: Transmitting the Frame 412 Configuring IP Addresses and Connected Routes 412 Connected Routes and the ip address Command 413 The ARP Table on a Cisco Router 415 Routing Between Subnets on VLANs 415 Configuring Routing to VLANs Using 802.

xxi The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 439 Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 440 Split Horizon 441 Route Poisoning 441 Summarizing RIPv2 Features 442 Core RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 443 Configuring Core RIPv2 Features 443 Understanding the RIP network Command 444 RIP Configuration Example. with One IP Network 446 RIPv2 Verification 447 Examining RIP Routes in the IP Routing Table 447 Comparing Routing Sources with Administrative Distance 449 Revealing RIP Configuration with the show ip protocols Command 450 Examining the Best RIP Routes Using RIP Database 451 Optional RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 452 Controlling RIP Updates with the passive-interface Command 452 Supporting Multiple Equal-Cost Routes with Maximum Paths 453 Understanding Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 454 Verifying Optional RIP Features 456 RIPv2 Default Routes 458 Learning Default Routes Using Static Routes and RIPv2 458 Learning a Default Route Using DHCP 460 Troubleshooting RIPv2 461 Symptoms with Missing and Incorrect network Commands 463 Issues Related to Passive Interfaces 464 Issues Related to auto-summary 465 RIP Issues Caused by Other Router Features 466 Summary of RIP Troubleshooting Issues 466 Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts 470 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 471 Foundation Topics 473 Implementing and Troubleshooting DHCP 473 DHCP Concepts 473 Supporting DHCP for Remote Subnets with DHCP Relay 475 Information Stored at the DHCP Server 476 DHCP Server Configuration on Routers 478 IOS DHCP Server Verification 480 Troubleshooting DHCP Services 481 DHCP Relay Agent Configuration Mistakes and Symptoms 481 . with Many IP Networks 445 RIP Configuration Example.

168.255.0.1.0.240.0. and C) IP Addresses 491 IP Broadcast Addresses 491 IPv4 Multicast Addresses (Class D Addresses) 492 Comparing and Contrasting IP Address Types 494 Part V Review Part VI 498 IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting Chapter 21 Subnet Design 503 504 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 504 Foundation Topics 506 Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 506 Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 507 No Masks Meet Requirements 508 One Mask Meets Requirements 509 Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 510 Finding All the Masks: Concepts 510 Finding All the Masks: Math 511 Choosing the Best Mask 512 The Formal Process 512 Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 513 Practice Problems for Choosing a Subnet Mask 513 Finding All Subnet IDs 513 First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 514 Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 515 A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 515 Example 1: Network 172.0 517 Example 2: Network 192. B.255. Mask 255. Mask 255.xxii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide IOS DHCP Server Configuration Mistakes and Symptoms 482 IP Connectivity from DHCP Relay Agent to DHCP Server 484 LAN Connectivity Between the DHCP Client and Relay Agent 484 Summary of DHCP Troubleshooting 485 Detecting Conflicts with Offered Versus Used Addresses 485 Verifying Host IPv4 Settings 486 IP Address and Mask Configuration 487 Name Resolution with DNS 488 Default Routers 489 IPv4 Address Types 490 Review of Unicast (Class A.255.224 518 Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 519 Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 520 Process with 9–16 Subnet Bits 520 Process with 17 or More Subnet Bits 522 .16.

xxiii Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 523 Practice Problems for Finding All Subnet IDs Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 524 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 524 Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks 523 528 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 528 Foundation Topics 530 VLSM Concepts and Configuration 530 Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 530 VLSM Configuration and Verification 531 Finding VLSM Overlaps 532 Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM 533 An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap 534 Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps 536 Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design 536 An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet 537 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 539 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 539 Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools 542 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 543 Foundation Topics 543 Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 543 Ping Command Basics 543 Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 544 Testing Longer Routes from Near the Source of the Problem 545 Using Extended Ping to Test the Reverse Route 547 Testing LAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 549 Testing LAN Neighbors with Extended Ping 550 Testing WAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 551 Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 552 Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 553 traceroute Basics 553 How the traceroute Command Works 554 Standard and Extended traceroute 556 Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 557 .

xxiv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Telnet and SSH 559 Common Reasons to Use the IOS Telnet and SSH Client IOS Telnet and SSH Examples 560 Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing 559 564 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 565 Foundation Topics 565 Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 565 Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 566 Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 566 Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 569 567 Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 570 Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 570 DHCP Issues 571 Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 573 Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 574 IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 575 Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 577 show ip route Reference 577 Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 579 Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 579 Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 579 Overlaps When Using VLSM 581 Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 582 Pointers to Related Troubleshooting Topics 583 Router WAN Interface Status 583 Filtering Packets with Access Lists 584 Part VI Review Part VII 586 IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists 591 592 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 592 Foundation Topics 594 IPv4 Access Control List Basics 594 ACL Location and Direction 594 Matching Packets 595 Taking Action When a Match Occurs 596 Types of IP ACLs 596 Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 597 List Logic with IP ACLs 598 Matching Logic and Command Syntax 599 575 .

and Destination IP 617 Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 618 Extended IP ACL Configuration 621 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 622 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 623 Practice Building access-list Commands 624 Named ACLs and ACL Editing 625 Named IP Access Lists 625 Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 627 Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 629 ACL Implementation Considerations 630 Troubleshooting with IPv4 ACLs 631 Analyzing ACL Behavior in a Network 631 ACL Troubleshooting Commands 633 Example Issue: Reversed Source/Destination IP Addresses 634 Steps 3D and 3E: Common Syntax Mistakes 635 Example Issue: Inbound ACL Filters Routing Protocol Packets 635 ACL Interactions with Router-Generated Packets 637 Local ACLs and a Ping from a Router 637 Router Self-Ping of a Serial Interface IPv4 Address 637 Router Self-Ping of an Ethernet Interface IPv4 Address 638 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 641 .xxv Matching the Exact IP Address 599 Matching a Subset of the Address with Wildcards 600 Binary Wildcard Masks 601 Finding the Right Wildcard Mask to Match a Subnet 602 Matching Any/All Addresses 602 Implementing Standard IP ACLs 602 Standard Numbered ACL Example 1 603 Standard Numbered ACL Example 2 604 Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 606 Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 607 Practice Building access-list Commands 608 Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 611 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 612 Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists 608 614 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 615 Foundation Topics 616 Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 616 Matching the Protocol. Source IP.

xxvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 27 Network Address Translation 642 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 642 Foundation Topics 645 Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability 645 CIDR 645 Private Addressing 646 Network Address Translation Concepts 647 Static NAT 648 Dynamic NAT 650 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting 653 Static NAT Configuration 653 Dynamic NAT Configuration 655 Dynamic NAT Verification 657 NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration 660 NAT Troubleshooting 662 Part VII Review Part VIII Chapter 28 652 666 IP Version 6 671 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 672 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 672 Foundation Topics 674 Introduction to IPv6 674 The Historical Reasons for IPv6 674 The IPv6 Protocols 676 IPv6 Routing 677 IPv6 Routing Protocols 679 IPv6 Addressing Formats and Conventions 680 Representing Full (Unabbreviated) IPv6 Addresses 680 Abbreviating and Expanding IPv6 Addresses 681 Representing the Prefix Length of an Address 683 Calculating the IPv6 Prefix (Subnet ID) 683 Finding the IPv6 Prefix 683 Working with More-Difficult IPv6 Prefix Lengths 685 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 686 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 687 Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting 688 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 688 Foundation Topics 690 Global Unicast Addressing Concepts 690 A Brief Review of Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 690 .

xxvii Review of Public IPv4 Addressing Concepts 690 Review of Private IPv4 Addressing Concepts 692 Public and Private IPv6 Addresses 692 The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix 693 Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses 695 IPv6 Subnetting Using Global Unicast Addresses 696 Deciding Where IPv6 Subnets Are Needed 696 The Mechanics of Subnetting IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses Listing the IPv6 Subnet Identifier 698 List All IPv6 Subnets 699 Assign Subnets to the Internetwork Topology 699 696 Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet 700 Unique Local Unicast Addresses 701 Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses 701 The Need for Globally Unique Local Addresses 702 Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers 704 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 705 Foundation Topics 706 Implementing Unicast IPv6 Addresses on Routers 706 Static Unicast Address Configuration 707 Configuring the Full 128-Bit Address 707 Enabling IPv6 Routing 708 Verifying the IPv6 Address Configuration 709 Generating a Unique Interface ID Using Modified EUI-64 711 Dynamic Unicast Address Configuration 715 Special Addresses Used by Routers 715 Link-Local Addresses 716 Link-Local Address Concepts 716 Creating Link-Local Addresses on Routers 717 Routing IPv6 with Only Link-Local Addresses on an Interface 718 IPv6 Multicast Addresses 719 Local Scope Multicast Addresses 719 Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 720 Anycast Addresses 722 Miscellaneous IPv6 Addresses 723 IPv6 Addressing Configuration Summary 723 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 725 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 726 Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 728 728 .

xxviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Foundation Topics 730 The Neighbor Discovery Protocol 730 Discovering Routers with NDP RS and RA 731 Discovering Addressing Info for SLAAC with NDP RS and RA 732 Discovering Neighbor Link Addresses with NDP NS and NA 733 Discovering Duplicate Addresses Using NDP NS and NA 734 NDP Summary 735 Dynamic Configuration of Host IPv6 Settings 735 Dynamic Configuration Using Stateful DHCP and NDP 736 Differences Between DHCPv6 and DHCPv4 736 DHCPv6 Relay Agents 737 Using Stateless Address Auto Configuration 739 Building an IPv6 Address Using SLAAC 739 Combining SLAAC with NDP and Stateless DHCP 740 Troubleshooting IPv6 Addressing 741 Verifying Host IPv6 Connectivity from Hosts 741 Verifying Host Connectivity from Nearby Routers 744 Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing 750 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 750 Foundation Topics 752 Connected and Local IPv6 Routes 752 Rules for Connected and Local Routes 753 Example of Connected IPv6 Routes 753 Examples of Local IPv6 Routes 755 Static IPv6 Routes 756 Static Routes Using the Outgoing Interface 756 Static Routes Using Next-Hop IPv6 Address 758 Example Static Route with a Global Unicast Next-Hop Address 758 Example Static Route with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 759 Static Default Routes 760 Static IPv6 Host Routes 761 Floating Static IPv6 Routes 762 Default Routes with SLAAC on Router Interfaces 763 Troubleshooting Static IPv6 Routes 765 Troubleshooting Incorrect Static Routes That Appear in the IPv6 Routing Table 765 The Static Route Does Not Appear in the IPv6 Routing Table 767 Part VIII Review Part IX 772 Network Device Management Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Foundation Topics 780 779 777 778 .

and Client/Server Mode 789 NTP Using a Loopback Interface for Better Availability 791 Analyzing Topology Using CDP and LLDP 793 Examining Information Learned by CDP 793 Configuring and Verifying CDP Itself 796 Implementing Link Layer Discovery Protocol 797 Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 802 Foundation Topics 804 Securing IOS Passwords 804 Encrypting Older IOS Passwords with service password-encryption 805 Encoding the Enable Passwords with Hashes 806 Interactions Between Enable Password and Enable Secret 806 Making the Enable Secret Truly Secret with a Hash 807 Improved Hashes for Cisco’s Enable Secret 808 Hiding the Passwords for Local Usernames 810 Cisco Device Hardening 810 Configuring Login Banners 810 Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 812 Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs 813 Firewalls 814 Typical Location and Uses of Firewalls 814 Security Zones 815 Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 820 Foundation Topics 822 Managing Cisco IOS Images and Upgrades 822 The IOS File System 822 Upgrading IOS Images 824 Copying a New IOS Image to a Local IOS File System Using TFTP 825 Verifying IOS Code Integrity with MD5 827 . Servers.xxix System Message Logging (Syslog) 780 Sending Messages in Real Time to Current Users 780 Storing Log Messages for Later Review 781 Log Message Format 782 Log Message Severity Levels 783 Configuring and Verifying System Logging 784 The debug Command and Log Messages 786 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 787 Setting the Time and Timezone 788 Implementing NTP Clients.

Series. and per Software Version/Release 850 Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 851 New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 851 IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 852 The Future: Cisco ONE Licensing 854 Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 854 Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 855 Example of Manually Activating a License 857 Showing the Current License Status 857 Adding a Permanent Technology Package License 859 Right-to-Use Licenses 861 Part IX Review Part X 864 Final Review Chapter 37 Final Review 867 868 Advice About the Exam Event 868 Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial Think About Your Time Budget Versus Number of Questions 869 A Suggested Time-Check Method 870 Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 870 Exam-Day Advice 871 868 .xxx CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Copying Images with FTP 828 Copying Images with SCP 829 The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 830 The Configuration Register 831 How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 831 Verifying the IOS Image Using the show version Command Password Recovery 835 The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 836 A Specific Password Reset Example 837 Managing Configuration Files 839 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 839 833 Traditional Configuration Backup and Restore with the copy Command 840 Alternatives for Configuration Backup and Restore 841 Erasing Configuration Files 843 Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 843 Chapter 36 IOS License Management 848 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 848 Foundation Topics 850 IOS Packaging 850 IOS Images per Model.

xxxi Reserve the Hour After the Exam in Case You Fail 871 Exam Review 872 Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 873 Take Practice Exams 874 Practicing Taking the ICND1 Exam 875 Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 876 Taking Other Practice Exams 877 Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 877 Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 879 Review Mind Maps from Part Review 880 Do Labs 880 Assess Whether You Are Ready to Pass (and the Fallacy of Exam Scores) 881 Study Suggestions After Failing to Pass 882 Other Study Tasks 883 Final Thoughts 884 Part XI Appendixes 887 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates Glossary Index 889 895 897 928 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Appendix E Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks Appendix F Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets Appendix G Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design Appendix H Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Appendix I Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix J Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Appendix K Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Appendix L Mind Map Solutions Appendix M Study Planner Appendix N Classless Inter-domain Routing Appendix O Route Summarization Appendix P Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Appendix Q Topics from Previous Editions Appendix R Exam Topics Cross Reference .

ciscopress.com/register and log in or create an account*.xxxii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Reader Services To access additional content for this book. . Enter the product ISBN 9781587205804 and click Submit. *Be sure to check the box that you would like to hear from us to receive exclusive discounts on future editions of this product. After the process is complete. To start the registration process. you will find any available bonus content under Registered Products. go to www. simply register your product.

■ Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. ■ Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element. . mutually exclusive elements.xxxiii Icons Used in This Book Printer PC Laptop Server Phone IP Phone Router Switch Frame Relay Switch Cable Modem Access Point ASA DSLAM WAN Switch CSU/DSU Hub PIX Firewall Bridge Layer 3 Switch Network Cloud Ethernet Connection Serial Line Virtual Circuit Ethernet WAN Wireless Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). ■ Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. ■ Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. ■ Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice.

You also pick up the CCENT certification by going through the two-exam path. To make sure you reference the correct exam. and 200-125 CCNA exams. the exams in Figure I-1 will likely be called version 3 (or v3 for short). you’ve probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification.Introduction About the Exams Congratulations! If you’re reading far enough to look at this book’s Introduction. 100-105 ICND1 CCENT 200-105 ICND2 200-125 CCNA Figure I-1 CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S) Cisco Entry-Level Certifications and Exams Note that Cisco has begun referencing some exams with a version number on some of their web pages. Before the exam timer begins. ICND2. the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam is the seventh separate version of the exam (which warrants a different exam number). as shown in Figure I-1: pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. early in the year 2016. In many geographies and markets around the world. the paths to certification are not quite obvious at first. Cisco gives you two options to achieve CCNA R&S certification. or just pass the CCNA exam. when looking for information. and the related 100-105 ICND1. Historically. Types of Questions on the Exams The ICND1. but the two-exam path does so spread over two exams rather than one. networking equals Cisco. Most everyone new to Cisco certifications begins with either CCENT or CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S). for instance. Both paths cover the same exam topics. you have a chance to do a few other tasks on the PC. and registering for the test. you sit in a quiet room with a PC. The CCENT certification requires a single step: pass the ICND1 exam. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer. with more than 80 percent market share in some markets. If that form holds true. Cisco has a ridiculously high market share in the router and switch marketplace. Cisco certification makes perfect sense. and CCNA exams all follow the same general format. However. you need to know Cisco. dating back to 1998. but you do not when working through the single-exam option. At the testing center. Anyone who has user-level skills in . 200-105 ICND2. just make sure to use the correct exam number as shown in the figure. Simple enough. you can take a sample quiz just to get accustomed to the PC and the testing engine. The Exams to Achieve CCENT and CCNA R&S Cisco announced changes to the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certifications. using forums. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry at all.

What’s on the CCNA Exams—And What’s in the Book? Ever since I was in grade school. you see a network topology. and an idea about the kinds of knowledge and skills required for each topic. with the exam topics included in each chapter. Instead of changing/fixing the configuration. Simlet questions: This style combines sim and testlet question formats. single-answer ■ Multiple-choice. “What’s on the test?” Even in college. people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams.” This PDF appendix lists two cross references: one with a list of the exam topics and the chapters that include something about each topic. xxxv . Your job is to fix a problem with the configuration. These two question styles with the simulator give Cisco the ability to test your configuration skills with sim questions. as well as the reverse: a list of chapters. At heart. look for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching pages. multiple-answer ■ Testlet (one scenario with multiple multi-choice questions) ■ Drag-and-drop ■ Simulated lab (sim) ■ Simlet Before taking the test. like a testlet. what to study a little. and your verification and troubleshooting skills with simlet questions. search for “exam tutorial” at www. The Cisco Published Exam Topics First. This tool walks through each type of question Cisco may ask on the exam. for every Cisco certification exam.com/go/ certifications. a lab scenario. You can find out more about what’s on the exam from two primary sources: this book and from the Cisco website. “Exam Topic Cross Reference. a lab scenario. and can access the devices. Cisco wants the public to know both the variety of topics.com. The question types are ■ Multiple-choice. you answer questions about the current state of the network. Like a sim question.cisco. Although the first four types of questions in the list should be somewhat familiar from other tests in school. the last two are more common to IT tests and Cisco exams in particular.Introduction getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment. In particular: Sim questions: You see a network topology. learn the exam user interface by using the Cisco Exam Tutorial. To find the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon. Both use a network simulator to ask questions. and can access the devices. and what to not study at all. so that you control and use simulated Cisco devices. the goal is to know what to study hard. and navigate until you see the exam topics in Appendix R. you also see multiple multiple-choice questions. However. Just go to www.cisco. someone would always ask. Cisco tells the world the specific topics on each of their exams.

and to troubleshoot problems when it is not working. You should take the time to not only read the exam topics. and for final review. And if to do that. and then a final review at the end of the book. It also highlights the most important topics in each chapter as key topics. This Book: About the Exam Topics This book provides a complete study system for the Cisco published exam topics for the ICND1 100-105 exam.xxxvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Cisco does more than just list the topic (for example. For example. which describes one of the most important topics in both CCENT and CCNA R&S: Configure. in the technology chapters of the book. The ICND1 book (and ICND1 100-105 exam topics) covers about half of the topics listed for the CCNA 200-125 exam. In short. and the ICND2 book (and the ICND2 200-105 exam topics) cover the other half. with lists and tables for comparisons. So. These books give you a study system designed to help you not only learn facts but also to develop the skills need to pass the exams. this book covers about one-half of the CCNA exam topics. and the fact that Cisco intends the exam topics to be a set of general guidelines for the exams. For example. verify. and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting Note that this one exam topic has three verbs (configure. this Introduction discusses the book features introduced by chapter. Note that the list of exam topics provides a certain level of depth. about three-quarters of the chapter is about the technology. The scope of the book is based on the exam topics. The primary exam topics each list one or more verbs that describe the skill level required. and troubleshoot). CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. the ICND1 100-105 exam topic list has 41 primary exam topics (topics with verbs). . and the similar CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide. IPv4 addressing). verify. but you should understand them well enough to verify that the configuration works. go beyond what you would find in a simple technology book. To do that. and troubleshoot. All the topics in this book either directly relate to some ICND1 exam topic or provide more basic background knowledge for some exam topic. Look for notices about the use of unscored items. The “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter contains rich content to explain the topics on the exam and to show many examples. plus additional subtopics that further define that technology area. This section makes extensive use of figures. those details are implied. consider the following exam topic. but read the short material above the exam topics as listed at the Cisco web page for each certification and exam. and about one-quarter is for the related study features. so you know what to master first in your study. but they also list the depth to which you must master the topic. And because the book organizes your study by chapter. you need to understand concepts. for content. The rest of this section works through these book features. you should be able to not only configure IPv4 addresses and subnets. Book Features This book. and you need to have other knowledge. For those of you thinking more specifically about the CCNA R&S certification and the CCNA 200-125 single-exam path to CCNA. The exam questions will attempt to assess whether you can configure. part. and then by part (a part contains multiple chapters). Most of the book’s features tie in some way to the need to study beyond simply reading the “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter. verify.

The app shows the table with some content removed. The chapter review refers you to these other tools.. Figure I-2 shows how each chapter uses these three key elements. Foundation Topics: This is the heading for the core content section of the chapter. some is. verification. The chapter review lists the key terminology from the chapter. Make sure you have a good understanding of each term. The Introduction’s upcoming section titled “About Building Hands-On Skills” discusses your options. organized for reading and study. more important to learn. for the purpose of later review and mastery. You start with the DIKTA quiz. so these items are noted as key topics. the technology content in the chapter). and troubleshooting. xxxvii . use the chapter review tasks to start working on mastering your memory of the facts and skills with configuration.Introduction Chapter Features and How to Use Each Chapter Each chapter of this book is a self-contained short course about one small topic area. ■ Labs: Many exam topics use verbs list “configure. and then reveals the completed table. connect ideas. and use the DVD Glossary to cross-check your own mental definitions. scan the chapter for these items to review them. each “Chapter Review” section uses a variety of other book features.” and “troubleshoot”. However. 2) Companion Website 3) DVD Three Primary Tasks for a First Pass Through Each Chapter In addition to these three main chapter features. The chapter review lists the key topics in a table. or not so much. When finished. some tables have been marked as memory tables. of course. You can use the score to determine whether you already know a lot. ■ Key Terms You Should Know: You do not need to be able to write a formal definition of all terms from scratch.. or. and determine how to approach reading the Foundation Topics (that is. so you can work on memorizing the content.” “verify. ■ Complete Tables from Memory: Instead of just rereading an important table of information. DIKTA Quiz Take Quiz Figure I-2 High Score Low Score Foundation Topics Chapter Review (Skim) Foundation Topics (Read) Foundation Topics 1) In-Chapter. as follows: “Do I Know This Already?” quizzes: Each chapter begins with a prechapter quiz. Chapter Review: This section includes a list of study tasks useful to help you remember concepts. including the following: ■ Review Key Topics: Inside the “Foundation Topics” section. the Key Topic icon appears next to the most important items. or needs more review to master. you do need to understand each term well enough to understand exam questions and answers. These tables exist in the Memory Table app that is available on the DVD and from the companion website. all these refer to skills you should practice at the user interface (CLI) of a router or switch. While all content matters. and practice skills-based content in the chapter.

to help you think about topics from multiple chapters. However. for extra practice in answering multiple choice questions on a computer. These questions tend to connect multiple ideas together. to connect show commands and the related networking concepts.xxxviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Command References: Some book chapters cover a large amount of router and switch commands. VLANs. re-answering those questions can prove a useful way to review facts. but using the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam software that comes with the book. The chapter review asks you to do additional practice problems as found in DVD-only PDF appendixes. The part review elements make use of mind maps in several ways: to connect concepts and the related configuration commands. but also use them for study—just cover one column of the table. Figure I-3 lists the titles of the parts and the chapters in those parts (by chapter number). ■ Mind Maps: Mind maps are graphical organizing tools that many people find useful when learning and processing how concepts fit together.”) . and see how much you can remember and complete mentally. The part review suggests that you repeat the DIKTA questions. ■ Subnetting and Other Process Exercises: Many chapters in the ICND1 book ask you to perform various tasks that use math or use a particular process. and even to connect terminology. 8 IP Version 6 (28-32) 4 IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting (13-16) 2 1 Figure I-3 5 Implementing IPv4 (17-20) Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs (6-9) 9 Network Device Management (33-36) 6 IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting (21-24) 7 IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT (25-27) 3 Ethernet LANs: Design. Part Features and How to Use Part Review The book organizes the chapters into parts. The chapter review includes reference tables for the command used in that chapter. ■ Review DIKTA Questions: Although you have already seen the DIKTA questions from the chapters in a part. Use these tables for reference. because the part review takes place after completing a number of chapters. and Chapter Numbers in Each Part Each book part ends with a “Part Review” section that contains a list of activities for study and review. (For more information about mind maps. much like the “Chapter Review” section at the end of each chapter. One database holds questions written specifically for part review. and to build the skills needed for the more challenging analysis questions on the exams. Each part contains a number of related chapters. The following list explains the types of tasks added to part review beyond the types mentioned for chapter review: ■ Answer Part Review Questions: The books comes with exam software and databases on questions. see the section “About Mind Maps. The process of creating mind maps helps you build mental connections. the part review includes some tasks meant to help pull the ideas together from this larger body of work. and Troubleshooting (10-12) Network Fundamentals (1-5) The Book Parts (by Title). along with an explanation.

You can take simulated ICND1 exams with the DVD and activation code included in this book. along with a much larger set of practice questions. many “Part Review” sections have you perform other tasks with book features mentioned in the “Chapter Review” section: repeating DIKTA quiz questions. (You can take simulated ICND2 and CCNA R&S exams with the DVD in the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide. No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. PDF (for reading on your computer). mobile device. as a whole. ■ Subnetting practice: The companion DVD contains five appendixes (D–H) with a set of subnetting practice problems and answers. ■ Subnetting videos: The companion DVD contains a series of videos that show you how to calculate various facts about IP addressing and subnetting (in particular. labs that would be more appropriate for this stage of study and review. Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book. EPUB (for reading on your tablet. and doing more lab exercises. the “Final Review” chapter uses the same familiar book features discussed for the chapter review and part review elements. this book. or Nook or other eReader). right now. xxxix .) ■ CCENT ICND1 100-105 Network Simulator Lite: This lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson provides you with a means.) In addition to these tasks. ■ eBook: If you are interested in obtaining an eBook version of this title. including the following: ■ DVD-based practice exam: The companion DVD contains the powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam engine. using the shortcuts described in this book). reviewing key topics. (Check out the section “About Building Hands-On Skills” for information about lab options. This offer enables you to purchase the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test at a 70 percent discount off the list price. you also receive additional practice test questions and enhanced practice test features. Other Features In addition to the features in each of the core chapters. we have included a special offer on a coupon card inserted in the DVD sleeve in the back of the book. and Mobi (the native Kindle version). and uncovering your weak spots. This is a great resource to practice building subnetting skills.Introduction ■ Labs: The “Part Review” section will direct you to the kinds of lab exercises you should do with your chosen lab product. has additional study resources. to experience the Cisco command-line interface (CLI). In addition to three versions of the eBook. To that end. practicing answering exam questions. You can also do these same practice problems with applications that you can access from the DVD or the companion web site. Final Review The “Final Review” chapter at the end of this book lists a series of preparation tasks that you can best use for your final preparation before taking the exam. The “Final Review” chapter focuses on a three-part approach to helping you pass: practicing your skills.

You can also do these same practice problems with applications that you can access from the DVD or the companion website. The applications can be found both on the DVD that comes with the book and on the book’s companion website. You can purchase a copy of this software from Pearson at http://pearsonitcertification.pearsonitcertification. ■ Author’s website and blogs: The author maintains a website that hosts tools and links useful when studying for CCENT and CCNA. Readers tell us they find that content useful. CLI navigation. go to the book’s website. but the content is static. ■ CCNA Simulator: If you are looking for more hands-on practice. The site lists information to help you build your own lab. In the past. ■ Mentoring videos: The DVD included with this book includes four other instructional videos. Check out the great CCNA articles. Use these for more practice on the particulars with some of the math. I have created a mapping guide that maps each of the labs in the simulator to the specific sections in these CCNA cert guides. Basically. Start at www.ciscopress. study pages that correspond to each chapter of this book and the ICND1 book. The advantages of using these apps are as follows: ■ Easier to use: Instead of having to print out copies of the appendixes and do the work on paper.com/title/9781587205804 posts upto-the-minute materials that further clarify complex exam topics.certskills. ■ Companion website: The website www. look to blog. and links to the author’s CCENT Skills blog and CCNA Skills blog.com for a page about the blogs in particular. interactive experience that you can easily run over and over. these new apps provide you with an easy to use.com/networksimulator or other retail outlets. and review content from one of your recently finished chapters. and other certification preparation tools from the industry’s best authors and trainers. with links to the pages with the labs related to this book.and process-oriented activities in the chapters. This book (and the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide) are the first Cisco Press Cert Guides with extensive interactive applications. To help you with your studies. Check this site regularly for new and updated postings written by the author that provide further insight into the more troublesome topics on the exam.com: The website www.certskills. ■ Convenient: When you have a spare 5–10 minutes. videos. or the chapter plus a DVD-only appendix.xl CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Other practice: The companion DVD contains four other appendixes (I–K) that each contain other practice problems related to a particular chapter from the book. . blogs. you might want to consider purchasing the CCNA Network Simulator.com. about the following topics: switch basics. and VLANs. ■ PearsonITCertification. most every activity that can be done at chapter review can now be done with an application. router configuration. A Big New Feature: Review Applications One of the single biggest additions to this edition of the book is the addition of study apps for many of the chapter review activities.com is a great resource for all things IT-certification related. all chapter review activities use the book chapter. You can get this mapping guide for free on the Extras tab of the companion website.

one per problem type How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book Traditionally. But most of that content is static: useful. and select Access Bonus Content to access the book’s companion website. From there. with the Glossary in the back of the book Glossary Flash Cards app Subnetting Practice Appendixes D–H. After you have registered your book. flip pages to find Key Topics Table app Config Checklist Just one of many types of key topics Config Checklist app Memory Table Two static PDF appendixes (one with sparse tables for you to complete. and have a DVD drive. you can access your review activities from anywhere—no need to have the book or DVD with you. your book will automatically be registered on your account page. If you buy the print book. click the Registered Products tab. with the appendixes often being located on the DVD. Tactile learners may do better by at least typing answers into an app.ciscopress. simply go to www. all chapter review activities use the book chapter plus appendixes. If you buy the Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test from Cisco Press. to help keep you focused on the activity.com/ register and enter the ISBN of the print book: 9781587205804. To do so. with practice problems and answers A variety of apps. click the Access Bonus Content link to get access to the book’s companion website. Table I-1 summarizes these new applications and the traditional book features that cover the same content. ■ Good for tactile learners: Sometimes looking at a static page after reading a chapter lets your mind wander. or clicking inside an app to navigate. and make them both more useful and more interesting. Table I-1 Book Features with Both Traditional and App Options Feature Traditional App Key Topic Table with list. So. but static. you have all the content on the DVD. one with completed tables) Memory Table app Key Terms Listed in each “Chapter Review” section. go to your account page and click the Registered Products tab. Just spin the DVD and use the disk menu that should automatically start to explore all content. Our in-depth reader surveys show that readers who use the chapter review tools like them. but that not everyone uses the “Chapter Review” sections consistently. we want to increase the number of people using the review tools. one per problem type Other Practice Appendixes I–K with practice problems and answers A variety of apps. If you buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. xli .Introduction ■ Untethered from Book/DVD: Because these apps are available on the book’s companion web page in addition to the DVD. Simply go to your account page. you can get the DVD files by registering your book on the Cisco Press website.

including duplex/speed and port security. “Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs. “Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs.” examines various ways to design Ethernet LANs.” shows how to use the Cisco CLI to verify the current status of an Ethernet LAN and how it switches Ethernet frames. This chapter introduces the basics of IPv4. . including VLAN trunking. “Configuring Basic Switch Management. ■ Chapter 12. ■ Chapter 11. and Appendixes This book contains 36 core chapters.” shows how to configure a variety of switch features that apply to interfaces. focusing on TCP and applications. ■ Chapter 8. and explains common design terminology. ■ Chapter 7. ■ Chapter 4. “Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing”: IP is the main network layer protocol for TCP/IP. Part III: Ethernet LANs: Design. ■ Chapter 5. “Configuring Switch Interfaces. ■ Chapter 3. “Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs”: This chapter explains the concepts and configuration surrounding virtual LANs. ■ Chapter 9.” introduces the central ideas and terms used by TCP/IP. The steps are the same as noted earlier for those who buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. such as remote access using Telnet and SSH.” explains how to configure Cisco switches for basic management features. Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND1 exam.” covers the concepts and terms used for the data link layer for WANs. including HDLC. Chapters 1 through 36. Book Organization. and contrasts the TCP/IP networking model with the OSI model.xlii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide If you buy the eBook from some other bookseller.” explains how to access the textbased user interface of Cisco Catalyst LAN switches. VLANs. “Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching. ■ Chapter 2. “Fundamentals of WANs. the very last page of your eBook file will contain instructions for how to register the book and access the companion website. with Chapter 37 as the “Final Review” chapter. and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 10. “Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs.” focuses on how to tell whether the switch is doing what it is supposed to be doing. “Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications”: This chapter completes most of the detailed discussion of the upper two layers of the TCP/IP model (transport and application). Chapters. mainly through the use of show commands. “Introduction to TCP/IP Networking.” introduces the concepts and terms used when building Ethernet LANs. including IPv4 addressing and routing. discussing the pros and cons. “Using the Command-Line Interface. The core chapters cover the following topics: ■ ■ ■ Part I: Networking Fundamentals ■ Chapter 1. The core chapters are organized into sections. Part II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs ■ Chapter 6.

and if chosen. ■ Chapter 20. “Variable-Length Subnet Masks.” shows how an engineer can analyze the key facts about a subnetting design based on the subnet mask. This chapter explains those challenges. Part VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT ■ Chapter 25. ■ Chapter 16. ■ Chapter 14. “Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing. Part VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 21.” explains how routers work together to find all the best routes to each subnet using a routing protocol. This chapter begins with a classful IPv4 network.” focuses on how to use two key troubleshooting tools to find routing problems: the ping and traceroute commands.” discusses how to add IPv4 address configuration to router interfaces and how to configure static IPv4 routes. with unicast IP addresses being in Class A.” moves away from the assumption of one subnet mask per network to multiple subnet masks per network—which makes subnetting math and processes much more challenging.Introduction ■ ■ ■ ■ Part IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting ■ Chapter 13. or C network to a completed subnetting design as implemented in an enterprise IPv4 network.” looks at the most common IPv4 problems and how to find the root causes of those problems when troubleshooting. “DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts.” takes a design approach to subnetting. “Operating Cisco Routers. “Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes. This chapter shows how to take those two facts and find key facts about the IP subnet in which that host resides. ■ Chapter 18. This chapter explores all things related to address classes and the IP network concept created by those classes. but it focuses on routers instead of switches. ■ Chapter 24. Part V: Implementing IPv4 ■ Chapter 17. B. and C.” walks you through the entire concept of subnetting. “Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks”: IPv4 addresses originally fell into several classes. ■ Chapter 22.” discusses how hosts can be configured with their IPv4 settings. B. “IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools.” is like Chapter 8. “Analyzing Existing Subnets”: Most troubleshooting of IP connectivity problems starts with an IP address and mask. “Subnet Design. ■ Chapter 23. “Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting. xliii . focusing on basic device management. ■ Chapter 19. This chapter shows how to look at the mask and IP network to determine the size of each subnet and the number of subnets. “Analyzing Subnet Masks. from starting with a Class A. This chapter also shows how to configure the RIPv2 routing protocol for use with IPv4. and asks why a particular mask might be chosen. “Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists”: This chapter examines how standard IP ACLs can filter packets based on the source IP address so that a router will not forward the packet. ■ Chapter 15. and how they can learn those settings with DHCP. what subnet IDs exist.

” mirrors Chapter 20’s discussions of IPv4 on hosts. verification. “IOS License Management. Part IX: Network Device Management ■ Chapter 33.xliv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ Chapter 26. ■ Chapter 36. “CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates. . Part VIII: IP Version 6 ■ Chapter 28. ■ Appendix B. “Device Management Protocols.” is a place for the author to add book content mid-edition. while adding details of how IPv6 uses Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC). and both standard and extended IP ACLs. respectively. “IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting.” discusses the concepts and configuration of some common network management tools: syslog. while discussing a variety of special IPv6 addresses. “Implementing IPv6 Routing. “Numeric Reference Tables. ■ The Glossary contains definitions for all the terms listed in the “Key Terms You Should Know” sections at the conclusion of Chapters 1 through 36.” shows how to add static routes to an IPv6 router’s routing table. “Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts. the appendix lists download instructions. including how it helps conserve public IPv4 addresses. ■ Chapter 35. Always check online for the latest PDF version of this appendix.” explains the IOS file system. “Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers.” suggests a plan for final preparation after you have finished the core parts of the book. and LLDP. “Final Review.” lists several tables of numeric information. Part X: Final Review ■ ■ Chapter 37. “Fundamentals of IP Version 6. ■ Chapter 34.” takes the discussion of device passwords a step deeper. and examines how to better secure devices through device hardening. ■ Chapter 31. configuration.” discusses the Cisco per-device license management practices through the use of PAK licensing. The chapter shows how to upgrade IOS and to backup/restore the configuration file. ■ Chapter 29.” shows how to configure IPv6 routing and addresses on routers. ■ Chapter 32. “Network Address Translation.” works through the two branches of unicast IPv6 addresses—global unicast addresses and unique local addresses—that act somewhat like IPv4 public and private addresses. CDP. “Managing IOS Files. ■ Chapter 30. focusing on key files like the IOS and configuration files. “Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists”: This chapter examines both named and numbered ACLs. including a binary-to-decimal conversion table and a list of powers of 2. “Device Security Features. ■ Chapter 27. Part XI: Appendixes (In Print) ■ Appendix A. NTP. focusing on the rules for writing and interpreting IPv6 addresses.” discusses the most basic concepts of IP version 6.” works through the complete concept. and troubleshooting sequence for the router NAT feature.

PCPT allows has many options. “Exam Topics Cross Reference. “Study Planner. “Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists” ■ Appendix J. In particular. You may read these when you first use the book. including how to get in touch with Cisco Press. but was removed for this edition. Install the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions This book. “Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers” ■ Appendix L.Introduction ■ Part XII: DVD Appendixes The following appendixes are available in digital format on the DVD that accompanies this book: ■ Appendix C. where you can track your progress through your study. ■ Appendix Q. Reference Information This short section contains a few topics available for reference elsewhere in the book. I included this chapter for reference if you need a little more depth about serial links. “Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks” ■ Appendix I. In a lab environment.” is a collection of information about topics that have appeared on previous versions of the CCNA exams. but you may also skip these topics and refer back to them later. ■ Appendix D. “Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design” ■ Appendix H. ■ Appendix O. terminology. along with rights to use some exam questions related to this book. “Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets” ■ Appendix G. While no longer within this exam’s topics. like many other Cisco Press books. “Mind Map Solutions.” provides some tables to help you find where each exam objectives is covered in the book. “Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks” ■ Appendix E. “Classless Inter-domain Routing. “Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks” ■ Appendix F. and math related to CIDR. and you may not have a copy of the ICND2 book. includes the rights to use the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) software. “Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6” ■ Appendix K. ■ Appendix M. “Topics from Previous Editions.” is a copy of a chapter that was in the previous edition of this book. make sure to note the final page of this introduction. “Implementing Point-to-Point WANs. you may want to use serial WAN links. and for instructors who may need the chapter for their existing course. “Route Summarization. ■ Appendix P. the concepts are still of interest to someone with the CCENT or CCNA certification.” shows an image of sample answers for all the part-ending mind map exercises. It is included here for anyone who has interest.” is a spreadsheet with major study milestones.” is a copy of the ICND2 book’s chapter about serial WANs.” is an extra chapter for anyone interested in reading more about the concepts. which lists several contact details. ■ Appendix R. ■ Appendix N. “Answers to the ‘Do I Know This Already?’ Quizzes. including the option to answer xlv .” includes the explanations to all the questions from Chapters 1 through 36.

. you will find a one-time-use coupon code that gives you 70 percent off the purchase of the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. challenging you to answer questions from memory. use PCPT to review the DIKTA questions for that part. using study mode. you get four different “exams. after you have finished reading the entire book. This book’s Part Review sections ask you specifically to use PCPT. spelled out here: ■ During part review. The questions come in different exams or exam databases. where all the answers are stripped out. NOTE Also on this same piece of paper. many people find it best to save some of the exams until exam review time. ■ During part review. on the opposite side from the exam activation code. use the questions built specifically for part review (the part review questions) for that part of the book. the code will be populated on your account page after purchase. and you can even take the DIKTA chapter pre-quizzes using PCPT. as listed in Figure I-4. Figure I-4 begins to suggest a plan. And with the ICND1 book alone. However. For those with a print book. ■ Save the remaining exams to use with the “Final Review” chapter at the end of the book.xlvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide questions in study mode. Do not lose the activation code. PCPT Exam Databases with This Book This book includes an activation code that allows you to load a set of practice questions. Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test. NOTE The right to use the exams associated with this book is based on an activation code. You should install PCPT so it is ready to use even for the earliest chapters. both in study mode and practice exam mode. For those who purchase a Kindle edition. the PCPT software downloads the latest version of all these exam databases. the practice test is not included. Note that if you purchase an eBook version from any other source.” or four different sets of questions. the code is in the DVD sleeve at the back of the book. or to view questions in flash card mode. or to take a simulated exam that mimics real exam conditions. When you install the PCPT software and type in the activation code. DIKTA (“Book”) ICND1 Exam #1 Part Review ICND1 Exam #2 Figure I-4 PCPT Exams/Exam Databases and When to Use Them You can choose to use any of these exam databases at any time. as other vendors are not able to vend the required unique access code. For those who purchase the Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test directly from the Cisco Press website. using study mode. the access code will be supplied directly from Amazon. so you can see the answers and explanations for each question as you go along.

you can choose a subset of the questions in an exam database. It gives you a little more practice in how to read questions from testing software. Select any other options on the right side of the window. and click Open Exam. You can use the DIKTA quiz as printed in the book. The part review questions instead focus more on application of those facts to typical real scenarios. take it again during chapter review for more practice. Then you have to deselect all chapters (with a single click). Step 2. Then select the box beside each chapter in the part of the book you are reviewing. you can view questions from only the chapters in one part of the book. In study mode. From the main (home) menu. Step 3. which is the way PCPT references questions found inside the printed book. DIKTA questions focus more on facts. Using PCPT for these questions has some advantages. the explanations to the questions are conveniently located in the PCPT software. for instance. Step 4. you might want to keep that PDF handy. How to View Part Review Questions The exam databases you get with this book include a database of questions created solely for study during the part review process. click at the bottom of the screen to deselect all objectives (chapters). with a name like CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. to help you determine whether you know the facts contained within the chapter. the DIKTA questions from the beginning of each chapter). Also. xlvii . and then select one or more chapters. Appendix C. check the ICND1 Book Questions box. It gives you a preset number of questions.Introduction The two modes inside PCPT give you better options for study versus practicing a timed exam event. On this same window. Step 5. with the letter answers on the page following the quiz. and look more like real exam questions. as follows: Step 1. How to View Only DIKTA Questions by Chapter or Part Most chapters begin with a “Do I Know This Already?” (DIKTA) quiz. or use the PCPT software. This selects the “book” questions (that is. To view these DIKTA questions inside the PCPT software. Practice exam mode also gives you a score for that timed event. lists the answers along with an explanation. Start the PCPT software. so you can study the topics more easily. PCPT practice mode lets you practice an exam event somewhat like the actual exam. with a timed event. you need to select Book Questions. The book lists the questions. Click Start to start reviewing the questions. Step 6. Also. you can see the answers immediately. on the DVD. and the “Part Review” sections even suggest that you repeat the questions from all chapters in that part. from all chapters. and uncheck the other boxes. You can take the quiz to start a chapter. The top of the next window that appears should list some exams. select the item for this product.

You then add a large central idea. Each mind map begins with a blank piece of paper or blank window in a mind mapping application. When you spend time thinking about an area of study. follow the same process as you did with DIKTA/book questions. Figure I-5 Sample Mind Map Mind maps may be the least popular but most effective study tool suggested in this book. The branches contain smaller concepts. you strengthen existing mental connections and create new connections. with branches that move out in any direction.com. For example.thinkbuzan. but Tony Buzan often gets credit for formalizing and popularizing mind maps. all into your own frame of reference.” and then writing down random terms and ideas. NOTE Many books have been written about mind maps. you can create deeper and deeper branches. In short. commands. but select the Part Review database rather than the book database. whatever idea needs to be represented. and eventually reach the point where you believe the organization of ideas makes sense to you. ideas. most mind maps will not go beyond a couple of levels. www. mind maps help you internalize what you learn. pictures. you draw lines connecting the ideas. You might create this kind of mind map when reviewing IPv6 addressing concepts. For instance. As you start to organize them mentally. I personally find a huge improvement in learning new areas of study when I mind map. PCPT has a clear name for this database: Part Review Questions.xlviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide To view these questions. You can also use mind maps to improve how your brain organizes concepts. reorganize them. Mind maps improve your brain’s connections and relationships between ideas. You can learn more about mind maps at his website. you can use mind maps as an alternative way to take notes. Any concepts that can be grouped should be put near each other. I hope you will make the effort to try these tools and see if they work well for you too. . and organize your ideas into a mind map. About Mind Maps Mind maps are a type of visual organization tool that you can use for many purposes. although for this book’s purposes. Figure I-5 shows a sample mind map that begins to output some of the IPv6 content from Part VIII of the ICND1 book. starting with the big topic of “IPv6 addressing. As need be.

certskills. and click from there. Linux. or find and download a mind map application. About Building Hands-On Skills You need skills in using Cisco routers and switches. Part of the skill you need to learn is to remember which configuration commands work together. you can just draw them on a blank piece of paper. So.com/ccna/ Wendell’s CCNA (ICND2): In the menus. typically on multiple devices. helps provide that practice. so feel free to look around.certskills. specifically the Cisco command-line interface (CLI). and then check your answer versus the supplied answer. you type a command. you need to know a lot of commands.Introduction Finally. the challenge level goes beyond just picking the right parameters on one command. The Cisco CLI is a text-based command-and-response user interface. And getting good at that kind of task requires practice. this edition places the content not only outside the book but also onto the author’s blog site. with some requirements. Note that the Config Lab posts should show an image like this in the summary: Figure I-6 Config Lab Logo in the Author’s Blogs xlix .com/ccent/ Wendell’s CCENT (ICND1): In the menus. The answer then shows a sample configuration. introduced as a new feature in this edition of the book. for mind mapping tools. blog. I have used Mind Node Pro on a Mac. with a brief description of lab options outside the book. in which combination. You job is to create the configuration. and the device (a router or switch) displays messages in response. This next section walks through the options of what is included in the book.com). To reach my blog sites for ICND1 content or for ICND2 content (two different blogs). and you need to be able to navigate to the right place in the CLI to use those commands. and we build the sample mind maps with XMIND.certskills. navigate to Hands On… Config Lab Both blogs are geared toward helping you pass the exams. and which ones are optional. and you have to decide what to configure on each device. You have to choose which commands to use. Each lab presents a sample lab topology. which has free versions for Windows. Also for the first time. which ones are required. To answer sim and simlet questions on the exams. Config Lab Exercises Some router and switch features require multiple configuration commands. you can start at my blog launch site (blog. navigate to Hands On… Config Lab blog. and OS X. The Config Labs feature.

from any web browser. untethered from the book or DVD. to experience the Cisco CLI. from your phone or tablet. each with labs that match the book content. This simulator product simulates Cisco routers and switches so that you can learn for the CCENT and CCNA R&S certifications. No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. . make sure you install both Sim Lite products. make sure and use the NetSim Lite to learn the basics of the CLI to get a good start. and they both come with the book. This book comes with a lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson. right now. one reason that NetSim Lite comes on the DVD is that the publisher hopes you will buy the full product. Note that the blog organizes these Config Lab posts by book chapter. Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book. NOTE The ICND1 and ICND2 books each contain a different version of the Sim Lite product. So. even if you do not use the full product. See the “Your Study Plan” element that follows the Introduction for more details about those review sections. and rave about how the book and Simulator work well together. Reader surveys tell us that those people who use the Simulator along with the book love the learning process. and easy comments by you. Of course. Either way.to 10-minute exercise if all you are doing is typing in a text editor or writing your answer on paper. without help. and with confidence. The single best option for lab work to do along with this book is the paid version of the Pearson Network Simulator. it focuses on learning for the exam by providing a large number of useful lab exercises. you should be able to do all the Config Labs. A Quick Start with Pearson Network Simulator Lite The decision of how to get hands-on skills can be a little scary at first. you need more than those two tools. with Part II being the first part with commands. Self-assessment: As part of final review. The labs with this latest version of NetSim Lite includes labs associated with Part II of this book. Two outcomes. you can still learn from the labs that come with NetSim Lite while deciding about what options to pursue. including the following: Untethered and responsive: Do them from anywhere. The Pearson Network Simulator The Config Labs and the Pearson Network Simulator Lite both fill specific needs. Part I includes concepts only. However. both good: Practice getting better and faster with basic configuration. If you bought both books. However. Designed for idle moments: Each lab is designed as a 5. The good news: You have a free and simple first step to experience the CLI: Install and use the Pearson NetSim Lite that comes with this book. you have discovered a topic that you can now go back and reread to complete your knowledge.l CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide These Config Labs have several benefits. But more importantly. which provides you with a means. you are a step closer to being ready for the exam! Blog format: Allows easy adds and changes by me. or if you get lost. so you can easily use these at both chapter review and part review.

in an offering called Cisco Learning Labs (www. Try the Lite version. All these previously mentioned options cost some money. You should plan to use some lab environment to practice as much CLI as possible. and cannot provide you with the IOS images for legal reasons. You can find that PDF on the book product page under the Downloads tab here: www.com/title/9781587205804. you can use real Cisco routers and switches.com). For a time in 2016. you can get a great idea of how the full Simulator product works by using the Pearson Network Simulator Lite product include with the book. This book does not tell you what option to use. Cisco intends Packet Tracer for use by people currently enrolled in Cisco Networking Academy courses. but you should plan on getting some handson practice somehow. or try and re-create examples from the book. new or used. or borrow them at work. So during that time. the Simulator is still very useful. you could even do the Config Lab exercises from my blog on that gear.com/go/learninglabs). http://virl. you will need to refer to a PDF that lists those labs versus this book’s organization. More Lab Options If you decide against using the full Pearson Network Simulator. during the months in 2016 for which the Simulator is the older edition listing the older exams in the title. the Virtual Internet Routing Lab (VIRL. creating a virtual environment running real Cisco IOS. Just look for “Sort by Chapter” tab in the Simulator’s user interface. definitely use Packet Tracer.cisco. when you want to do labs when reading a chapter or doing part review. On a practical note. and the same types of labs. but with a different catch for each. GNS3 is not a Cisco product. GNS3 works somewhat like VIRL. the Simulator organizes the labs to match the book.ciscopress. Cisco offers a virtualization product that lets you run router and switch operating system (OS) images in a virtual environment. and not for the general public. If you have the right mix of gear.Introduction Of course. That product includes approximately 80 percent of the CLI topics in the ICND1 100-105 and 200-105 books.cisco. Thankfully. First. and check out the full product. the Simulator will be the Simulator created for the previous versions of the exams (ICND1 100-101. First.com for more information. You can rent them for a fee. You can even rent virtual Cisco router and switch lab pods from Cisco. and consider all the options. li . if you are part of a Cisco Academy. Cisco also makes a simulator that works very well as a learning tool: Cisco Packet Tracer. There is a full product for CCENT only. However. plus others for the ICND2 parts of the content). However. This tool. lets you create a lab topology. Check out http://virl. you need to make a decision for yourself. and connect to real router and switch OS images. start the topology. and CCNA 200-120). ICND2 200-101. you still need hands-on experience. Both have the same base code and same user interface. and another for CCNA R&S (which includes all the labs in the CCENT product. but the next two are generally free to the user. So. However. You can buy them. Note that the Simulator and the books work on a different release schedule.cisco. The important thing to know is that most people need to practice using the Cisco CLI to be ready to pass these exams.

but the real work is up to you! I trust that your time will be well spent.cisco.com/go/ccent for the latest details. This is the CCNA ICND1 certification book from the only Cisco-authorized publisher.com/go/ccna and www. Cisco might make changes that affect the CCNA certification from time to time. select Contact Us. submit them via www.lii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide For More Information If you have any comments about the book. and type your message. You should always check www. .cisco. We at Cisco Press believe that this book certainly can help you achieve CCNA certification. The CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide helps you attain CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certification. Just go to the website.com.ciscopress.

This page intentionally left blank .

A Brief Perspective on Cisco Certification Exams Cisco sets the bar pretty high for passing the ICND1. but with enough of the puzzle filled in. You have to apply your knowledge of IPv4 routing. To do that.Your Study Plan You just got this book. Your study will go much better if you take time (maybe 15 minutes) to think about a few key points about how to study before starting on this journey. but it takes more than just a quick read through the book and the cash to pay for the exam. . The challenge of these exams comes from many angles. That is what this section will help you do. These skills require that you prepare by doing more than just reading and memorizing what you read. and CCNA R&S exams. you need to read many pages in this book to learn many individual facts and how these facts relate to each other. like some pieces of the jigsaw puzzle. A simple question might ask you why a host cannot communicate with some server. Each of these exams covers a lot of concepts and many commands specific to Cisco devices. “Introduction to TCP/IP Networking. you should be able to answer the question. ICND2. and Ethernet LAN switching to the scenario in the question to come up with some of the other pieces of the puzzle. The question would supply some of the information. And some pieces will just remain unknown for a given question. Most anyone can study and pass these exams. The more challenging questions on these exams work a lot like a jigsaw puzzle. but with four out of every five puzzle pieces not even in the room. and/or CCNA 200-125). the ICND1 exam includes many troubleshooting topics. Of course. For a given question. Beyond knowledge. you must know each networking concept and remember how the concepts work together. exercises that help you build the skills to solve these networking puzzles. You must be able to configure Cisco devices to work correctly in those networks. And you must be ready to troubleshoot problems when the network does not work correctly. as represented with the white pieces in Figure 1.” Stop to read this section about how to create your own study plan for the exam(s) you plan to take (ICND1 100-105. You must be able to analyze and predict what really happens in a network. For instance. But a big part of this book lists exercises beyond reading. You are probably now wondering whether to start reading here or skip ahead to Chapter 1. these Cisco exams also require deep skills. ICND2 200-105. some pieces of the puzzle may remain a mystery. You have probably already read (or quickly skimmed) the Introduction. IP addressing. To solve the puzzle. you have to mentally re-create the missing pieces.

So break the task down into smaller tasks. beyond reading and remembering all the facts? You need to develop skills. but many people pass them every day. as shown in Figure 2. but as 9 parts. This is a large book. what do you need to do to be ready to pass. You need to mentally link each idea with other related ideas. Your study plan has you working through the chapters in each part. you never sit down to read 900 pages in one study session. The good news here is that the book is designed with obvious breakpoints and built-in extensive review activities. In short. the next few pages give you five key planning steps to take so that you can more effectively build those skills and make those connections. So. Then. the book is more of a study system than a book. Besides. To help you along the way. Doing that requires additional work. So you cannot think about the book as one huge task or you might get discouraged. visualize an average of 4 chapters. within each part. and then reviewing the material in that part before moving on. . So the first step in your study plan is to visualize the book not as one large book. Step 1: Think in Terms of Parts and Chapters The first step in your study plan is to get the right mindset about the size and nature of the task you have set out to accomplish.Given: Output of show mac address-table Predict Output: show ip route Predict Configuration: RIPv2 on Routers Predict Output: show ip arp Given: Router Topology Drawing Figure 1 Calculate: IPv4 subnet IDs Filling In Puzzle Pieces with Your Analysis Skills Five Study Plan Steps These exams are challenging. before you dive into this exciting but challenging world of learning networking on Cisco gear.

4

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Part I

Part II

Chapter 1
Review

Chapter 2
Review

Chapter 3
Review

Chapter 4
Review

Chapter 5
Review

Chapter 6
P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Part VI

Chapter 21
Review

Chapter 22
Review

Chapter 23
Review

Chapter 24
Review

Review

Chapter 7
Review

Chapter 8
Review

Chapter 9
Review

Part III
P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Part VII

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Chapter 25
Review

Chapter 26
Review

Chapter 27
Review

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Chapter 10
Review

Chapter 11

Review

Chapter 12
Review

R
E
V
I
E
W

Part VIII

Chapter 28
Review

Chapter 29
Review

Chapter 30
Review

Chapter 31
Review

Chapter 32
Review

Figure 2

Part IV
P
A
R
T

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Chapter 13
Review

Chapter 14
Review

Chapter 15
Review

Chapter 16
Review

Part V
P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Part IV

Chapter 33
Review

Chapter 34
Review

Chapter 35
Review

Chapter 36
Review

Chapter 17
Review

Chapter 18
Review

Chapter 19
Review

Chapter 20
Review

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Final Review

P
A
R
T
R
E
V
I
E
W

Practice Exams
Do Labs

Review Concepts
Practice Subnetting
.
.
.

9 Parts, with an Average of 4 Chapters Each, with Part Reviews

Now your plan has the following:
1 large task: Read and master all content in the book.
9 medium tasks/book: Read and master a part.
4 small tasks/part: Read and master a chapter.

Step 2: Build Your Study Habits Around the Chapter
For your second step, possibly the most important step, approach each chapter with the
same process: read it, and then study the chapter before moving on.
Each chapter follows the same design with three parts, as shown in Figure 3. The chapter
pre-quiz (called a DIKTA quiz, or Do I Know This Already? quiz) helps you decide how
much time to spend reading versus skimming the core of the chapter, called the Foundation
Topics. The Chapter Review section then gives you instructions about how to study and
review what you just read.
DIKTA Quiz
Take Quiz

Figure 3

High Score
Low Score

Foundation Topics

Chapter Review

(Skim) Foundation Topics
(Read) Foundation Topics

1) In-Chapter, or...
2) Companion Website
3) DVD

Suggested Approach to Each Chapter

The book has no long chapters, on purpose. They average just over 20 pages for the
Foundation Topics. By keeping the size reasonable, you can complete all of a chapter in one
or two short study sessions. Go into each study session that begins a new chapter thinking
that you have a chance to complete the chapter, or at least make a great start on it. And if
you do not have enough time, look for the major headings inside the chapter—each chapter

Your Study Plan
has two to three major headings, and those make a great place to stop reading when you
need to wait to complete the reading in the next study sessions.
The Chapter Review tasks are very important to your exam-day success. Doing these tasks
after you’ve read the chapter really does help you get ready. Do not put off using these
tasks until later! The chapter-ending review tasks help you with the first phase of deepening
your knowledge and skills of the key topics, remembering terms, and linking the concepts
together in your brain so that you can remember how it all fits together. The following list
describes most of the activities you will find in the “Chapter Review” sections:

Review key topics

Review key terms

Repeat the DIKTA questions

Review memory tables

Re-create config checklists

Review command tables

Do lab exercises

Do subnetting exercises

Check out the upcoming section titled “Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD?”
later in this planning section for more details.

Step 3: Use Book Parts for Major Milestones
Studies show that to master a concept and/or skill, you should plan to go through multiple
study sessions to review the concept and to practice the skill. The “Chapter Review” section
at the end of each chapter is the first such review, while the Part Review, at the end of each
part, acts as that second review.
Plan time to do the Part Review task at the end of each part, using the Part Review elements
found at the end of each Part. You should expect to spend about as much time on one Part
Review as you would on one entire chapter, or maybe a little more for some parts. So in
terms of planning your time, think of the Part Review itself as another chapter.
Figure 4 lists the names of the parts in this book, with some color coding. Note that Parts II
and III are related (Ethernet), and Parts IV through VII are also related (IP version 4). Each
part ends with a Part Review section of 2 to 4 pages, with notes about what tools and activities to use.
8

IP Version 6 (28-32)

4 IPv4 Addressing
and Subnetting (13-16)
2

1

Figure 4

5

Implementing
IPv4 (17-20)

Implementing Basic
Ethernet LANs (6-9)

9 Network Device Management (33-36)
6 IPv4 Design and
Troubleshooting (21-24)

3 Ethernet LANs: Design, VLANs,
and Troubleshooting (10-12)

Network Fundamentals (1-5)

Parts as Major Milestones

7 IPv4 Services:
ACLs and NAT (25-27)

5

6

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Chapter Review and Part Review differ in some ways. Chapter Review tasks tend to provide
a lot of context, so you can focus on mentally adding a specific piece of knowledge, or
practicing a specific skill. Part Review activities instead remove a lot of the context, more
like real life and the real exams. Removing that context means that you have to exercise
your own knowledge and skills. The result: You uncover your weaknesses. The better you
become at uncovering weaknesses, and then learning what you are missing in that area, the
better prepared you will be for the exam.
The Part Review sections use the following kinds of tools in additional to some of the same
tools used for Chapter Review:

Mind maps

Part Review questions with PCPT

Labs

Also, consider setting a goal date for finishing each part of the book (and a reward, as well).
Plan a break, some family time, some time out exercising, eating some good food, whatever
helps you get refreshed and motivated for the next part.

Step 4: Use the Final Review Chapter to Refine Skills and Uncover
Weaknesses
Your fourth step has one overall task: Follow the details outlined in Chapter 37, “Final
Review,” at the end of this book for what to do between finishing the book and taking
the exam.
The “Final Review” chapter has two major goals. First, it helps you further develop the
analytical skills you need to answer the more complicated questions on the exam. Many
questions require that you connect ideas about concepts, configuration, verification, and
troubleshooting. The closer you get to taking the exam, the less reading you should do, and
the more you should do other learning activities; this chapter’s tasks give you activities to
further develop these skills.
The tasks in the “Final Review” chapter also help you uncover your weak areas. This final
element gives you repetition with high-challenge exam questions, uncovering any gaps in
your knowledge. Many of the questions are purposefully designed to test your knowledge
of the most common mistakes and misconceptions, helping you avoid some of the common
pitfalls people experience with the actual exam.

Step 5: Set Goals and Track Your Progress
Your fifth study plan step spans the entire timeline of your study effort. Before you start
reading the book and doing the rest of these study tasks, take the time to make a plan, set
some goals, and be ready to track your progress.
While making lists of tasks may or may not appeal to you, depending on your personality,
goal setting can help everyone studying for these exams. And to do the goal setting, you
need to know what tasks you plan to do.
NOTE If you read this, and decide that you want to try to do better with goal setting
beyond your exam study, check out a blog series I wrote about planning your networking
career here: http://blog.certskills.com/ccna/tag/development-plan/.

every task in the Part Reviews. Things to Do Before Starting the First Chapter Now that you understand the big ideas behind a good study plan for the book.Your Study Plan As for the list of tasks to do when studying.) However. commitment. do not start skipping the tasks listed at the ends of the chapters! Instead. think about what is impacting your schedule—real life. Then. when you finish a task sooner than planned. This spreadsheet allows you to update and save the file to note your goal dates and the tasks you have completed. Some activities also rely on the PCPT testing software. And. move up the next few goal dates. You should track at least two tasks for each typical chapter: reading the “Foundation Topics” section and doing the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. Table 1 shows a sample for Part I of this book. If you miss a few dates. plus PDF appendixes found on the DVD. Pick reasonable dates that you can meet. or around the time you are reading the first few chapters. as listed in the table of contents. Before leaving this section. listing the major tasks can be enough. think about how fast you read and the length of each chapter’s “Foundation Topics” section.” on the DVD that comes with this book. of course. take a few more minutes for a few overhead actions that will help. “Study Planner. Table 1 Sample Excerpt from a Planning Table Element Task Chapter 1 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 1 Do Chapter Review tasks Chapter 2 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 2 Do Chapter Review tasks Chapter 3 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 3 Do Chapter Review tasks Part I Review Do Part Review activities Goal Date First Date Completed Second Date Completed (Optional) NOTE Appendix M. Use your goal dates as a way to manage your study. do not forget to list tasks for Part Reviews and Final Review. contains a complete planning checklist like Table 1 for the tasks in this book. (You could list every single task in every chapter-ending Chapter Review section. and every task in the “Final Review” chapter. Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD The earlier editions of the book have used review activities that relied on the chapter. look at some other tasks you should do either now. you do not have to use a detailed task list. 7 . and so on— and either adjust your goals or work a little harder on your study. and not as a way to get discouraged if you miss a date. to help make a good start in the book. When setting your goals.

Note that this book includes the traditional methods of review as well. ICND2. so the two-exam path gain has an advantage.8 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide This edition is the first Cisco Press certification guide to offer a large set of apps to use instead of the traditional study features. To get a CCNA Routing and Switching certification. there is no cost savings for most people with the one-exam path. or a final exam covering the whole year? It is just harder to prepare for an exam that covers more material. which would you rather have done in school: take a final exam over a single semester’s material. and CCNA. and then make some comparisons. You can consider the one-exam path if ■ You already know about half the topics well. through prior experience or study. and the exam experience teaches you things about the exam and yourself that no study tool can teach you. Next. At that point. ■ You have already proven that you are excellent at learning through self-study. the most compelling reason for the two-exam path is that you probably have no experience with Cisco exams yet. Should I Plan to Use the Two-Exam Path or One-Exam Path? You do not have to make this choice today. both paths require learning the same content. assume that you fail each exam once: again. you would be better off taking the two-exam path. but those same exercises exist in DVD-only appendixes— you choose which works better for you. and find the review apps there. you can study the entire ICND1 book and all the while ponder whether to use the one-exam or two-exam path to CCNA R&S. the costs are identical. all the subnetting exercises can be done in an app. Next. Thankfully. CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. in my opinion. for ICND1. Simple enough. Check the exam prices in your country. First. you choose either a one-exam or twoexam path. the cost is identical for both the ICND1 + ICND2 path and the CCNA path. Which should you use? The following is my opinion. consider the number of topics. . Both methods organize the review activities by chapter and by part. For instance. but you can be mulling the decision while you study. Finally. Also. and matching PDF appendixes in some cases. with instructions in the book. you do not have to decide now. I encourage you to go ahead and access the book’s companion website to find the review apps and explore. I hope you have a chance to pass many Cisco exams during your career. Or. In fact. spin the DVD. So. From a content perspective. Assume you pass the tests on the first try: traditionally. Study Options for Those Taking the 200-125 CCNA Exam Studying for the two-exam path has an obvious approach: just use the ICND1 book for the ICND1 exam. The Introduction’s section titled “A Big New Feature: Review Applications” detailed some of the reasons. and the ICND2 book for the ICND2 exam. Otherwise. but it’s based on chatter and opinions from readers from many years. you can make a better decision about which path works better for you. The two-exam path gets you to that first exam attempt sooner.

and then the IPv6 part in both books. I am a fan of completing the ICND1 book completely. then move on to the ICND2 book. Similarly. then ICND2. you have a couple of study options. VLANs. ICND1 ICND2 I: Networking Fundamentals II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs III: Ethernet: Design. then the Ethernet part in ICND2. based on topics. as shown in Figure 5.Your Study Plan If you do plan to take the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam. ■ Move back and forth between the ICND1 and ICND2 books. and then moving on to the ICND2 book. and then the final part in both books. The first option is pretty obvious. Figure 5 shows a study plan in which you complete the Ethernet parts in the ICND1. by part. First. this alternate reading plan may work well. to be clear: The 200-125 CCNA exam covers the topics in the combined ICND1 and ICND2 books. using both the ICND1 and ICND2 books covers everything for the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam. The only question is when to read each part of the two books. for those of you with a large amount of experience already. You have two reasonable options when going with the one-exam option: ■ Complete all the ICND1 book. you complete the IPv4 parts in ICND1. However. 9 . So. but the second one is less obvious. Troubleshooting 1 I: Ethernet LANs IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting 2 V: Implementing IPV4 VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 3 II: IPv4 Routing Protocols III: Wide Area Networks IV: IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS 4 VIII: IP Version 6 V: IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting 5 6 VI: IP Version 6 IX: Network Device Management 7 Figure 5 VII: Miscellaneous Alternate Reading Plan for CCNA: Moving Between Books by Part Personally.

10

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide

Other Small Tasks Before Getting Started
You need to do a few overhead tasks to install software, find some PDFs, and so on. You
can do these tasks now or do them in your spare moments when you need a study break
during the first few chapters of the book. But do these early. That way, if you do stumble
upon an installation problem, you have time to work through it before you need a particular
tool.
Register (for free) at the Cisco Learning Network (CLN, http://learningnetwork.cisco.com)
and join the CCENT/CCNA R&S study group. This group allows you to both lurk and participate in discussions about topics related to the ICND1 exam, ICND2 exam, and CCNA
R&S exam. Register (for free), join the groups, and set up an email filter to redirect the
messages to a separate folder. Even if you do not spend time reading all the posts yet, later,
when you have time to read, you can browse through the posts to find interesting topics (or
just search the posts from the CLN website).
Explore the electronic elements of this book, as detailed in the Introduction’s section titled
“How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book.” That includes the installation of the
PCPT and Sim Lite software.
Also find my blog site as listed in the Introduction, and bookmark the pages that list the
config labs, to have those handy for later study. (The URL is
http://blog.certskills.com/ccent/category/hands-on/config-lab.)

Getting Started: Now
Now dive in to your first of many short, manageable tasks: reading the relatively short
Chapter 1. Enjoy!

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 22

Variable-Length Subnet Masks
This chapter covers the following exam topics:
1.0 Network Fundamentals
1.8 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting

IPv4 addressing and subnetting use a lot of terms, a lot of small math steps, and a lot of
concepts that fit together. While learning those concepts, it helps to keep things as simple
as possible. One way this book has kept the discussion simpler so far was to show examples
that use one mask only inside a single Class A, B, or C network.
This chapter removes that restriction by introducing variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).
VLSM simply means that the subnet design uses more than one mask in the same classful
network. VLSM has some advantages and disadvantages, but when learning, the main challenge is that a subnetting design that uses VLSM requires more math, and it requires that
you think about some other issues as well. This chapter walks you through the concepts, the
issues, and the math.

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
Take the quiz (either here, or use the PCPT software) if you want to use the score to help
you decide how much time to spend on this chapter. The answers are at the bottom of the
page following the quiz, and the explanations are in DVD Appendix C and in the PCPT
software.
Table 22-1

“Do I Know This Already?” Foundation Topics Section-to-Question Mapping

Foundation Topics Section

Questions

VLSM Concepts and Configuration

1–2

Finding VLSM Overlaps

3–4

Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design

5

1. Which of the following routing protocols support VLSM? (Choose three answers.)
a.

RIPv1

b.

RIPv2

c.

EIGRP

d.

OSPF

254.5.1.16.240. 192.1.1. R4 has a connected route for 172.255. 192.2.1. 172. 10.0 c.0 255.168.8.16.255.168.0.0/22.0/25 5. Vociferous longitudinal subnet mask d. Which of the following subnets is the numerically lowest subnet ID that could be added to the design. 192.1.168.0 255.0 255. 172.0/21 b.112/28 c.168.0.11. 192. if you wanted to add a subnet that uses a /28 mask? a.6.168. A design already includes subnets 192.144/28 b. 10.0. 192. 10.16. 172.224.168.0/26. Variable-length subnet mask b.96/28 .128.0 d.0 255.80/28 e.64/28 d.160/29.32. when configured on another interface on R1. What does the acronym VLSM stand for? a. 192.16. and 192.168. would not be considered an overlapping VLSM subnet? a.1. 172.0/23 c.168.0 command.240.128/30. Vector loop subnet mask 3. R1 has configured interface Fa0/0 with the ip address 10.5. Which of the following answers lists a subnet that overlaps with this subnet? a.0 b.5. Very long subnet mask c.4. 10. Which of the following subnets.0.16.0.1. Vector-length subnet mask e.0 4.16.5.255.48.255.1 255.0/20 d.1.

5. the router receiving the update would be confused.4. In that case.3.1. as defined in RFC 1918.3.0. Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” quiz: 1 B. Figure 22-1 shows an example of VLSM used in Class A network 10. if in one internetwork diagram.0 /24 10. the design uses two different masks.0 /24 10. all subnets of network 10.0. with mask /24 (255. However.3.0.0. because you can always grab another private network from RFC 1918 if you run out. with two masks being used.1.0 /24 Figure 22-1 VLSM in Network 10. for subnets that need fewer addresses. but the benefits are more dramatic with public networks. the design does not use VLSM.255.0 uses only one mask.255.240.0 mask.0. VLSM allows engineers to better match the need for addresses with the size of the subnet.0) on the LAN subnets.0 /24 10.0 /24 10.0 uses only one mask.255. so the subnet has fewer host IP addresses.1. All subnets are of Class A network 10.0. and all subnets of network 11.0 mask.255. By wasting fewer addresses.0: Masks /24 and /30 Figure 22-1 shows a typical choice of using a /30 prefix (mask 255. For example. VLSM can be helpful for both public and private IP addresses.0. mainly related to how you allocate and use your IP address space. VLSM provides many benefits for real networks. the address savings help engineers avoid having to obtain another registered IP network number from regional IP address assignment authorities. C. the routing protocol must advertise the mask along with each subnet.4. With public networks.3.255.1.0.3.0 /30 S0/1 Yosemite Albuquerque S0/0 10.7.255.0 /30 S0/1 S0/0 Seville 10. D 2 A 3 A 4 D 5 C .6.255. you must first use a routing protocol that supports VLSM. This flexibility reduces the number of wasted IP addresses in each subnet.2.0 use a 255. therefore meeting the definition of VLSM.0 /24 10.0. and Class A network 11. running out of addresses is not as big a negative.0 /24 10.0. B.0. 10. Because a mask defines the size of the subnet (the number of host addresses in the subnet). more space remains to allocate more subnets.0.0 use a 255.2.0 /24 10. To support VLSM.2. Oddly enough.0. a common mistake occurs when people think that VLSM means “using more than one mask in some internetwork” rather than “using more than one mask in a single classful network.2. With private networks.1.” For example.530 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Foundation Topics VLSM Concepts and Configuration VLSM occurs when an internetwork uses more than one mask for different subnets of a single Class A.0 /24 10.2.0.0. Without mask information.4.6. the engineer uses a mask with fewer host bits. Classless and Classful Routing Protocols Before you can deploy a VLSM design.252) on point-topoint serial links. Class A network 10.0. or C network.

Example 22-1 Configuring Two Interfaces on Yosemite. as noted in Table 22-2. but they also support manual route summarization. or C network all in a row.8.0.8.255. the routing protocols do not have to be configured to support VLSM or to be classless.1.1.1.252 The use of VLSM can also be detected by a detailed look at the output of the show ip route command. Just look down the list. From a configuration perspective.1.1 255. Routers collectively configure VLSM by virtue of having IP addresses in the same classful network but with different masks. both with IP addresses in Class A network 10. B. and because multiple masks can be used with VLSM. or need any configuration to use it.0/23? 10. and 22 . by classful network. The example shows the IP address assignments on two interfaces. but with no mask information.1.0. For example.1. what does that mean? Is that subnet 10. To effectively support VLSM. The classless routing protocols.0 happens to be a valid subnet number with a variety of masks. one with a /24 mask and one with a /30 mask.2. are the newer.1.4.255. classless routing protocols advertise the mask with each advertised route.0. Table 22-2 Classless and Classful Interior IP Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Is It Classless? Sends Mask in Updates? Supports VLSM? Supports Manual Route Summarization? RIPv1 No No No No RIPv2 Yes Yes Yes Yes EIGRP Yes Yes Yes Yes OSPF Yes Yes Yes Yes Beyond VLSM itself. VLSM Configuration and Verification Cisco routers do not configure VLSM.8. enable or disable it.0/24? 10.0. more advanced routing protocols. This command lists routes in groups. the router has no good way to make an educated guess.255.0 Yosemite(config-if)# interface S0/1 Yosemite(config-if)# ip address 10. and classful routing protocols do not. The only configuration choice you must make is to use a classless routing protocol.0/30? The dotted-decimal number 10. Not only do these more advanced classless routing protocols support VLSM.8. if a router learned a route for 10. By definition. Example 22-1 shows two of the interfaces from router Yosemite from Figure 22-1. VLSM is simply a side effect of using the ip address interface subcommand.255. which allows a routing protocol to advertise one route for a larger subnet instead of multiple routes for smaller subnets. so that you see all the subnets of a single Class A.1 255. There is no command to enable or disable the fact that classless routing protocols include the mask with each route.8.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 531 For example. the routing protocol needs to advertise the correct mask along with each subnet so that the receiving router knows the exact subnet that is being advertised. Resulting in VLSM Yosemite# configure terminal Yosemite(config)# interface Fa0/0 Yosemite(config-if)# ip address 10.

00:00:34. ignore the /32 “local” routes that a router automatically creates for its own interface IP addresses.3.6. as noted in the highlighted line in the example. the subnets used in any IP internetwork design should not overlap their address ranges.1.1. Serial0/0 D 10.2.0/30 is directly connected. This chapter is devoted to VLSM. In short.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. Routers clearly cannot route packets correctly in these cases.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. FastEthernet0/0 C 10.1.4.4.1.1. 14 subnets. to work with VLSM. but it took a mere three to four pages to fully describe it.6.1.2.0.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. As a result.4.1/32 is directly connected.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. Serial0/0 NOTE For the purposes of understanding whether a design uses VLSM. Serial0/0 D 10.2.1.2. So ends the discussion of VLSM as an end to itself.1.0.0/30 is directly connected.0. To do these same tasks on the exam requires skill and practice. to find problems with it. Serial0/1 C 10.3.1.4. Example 22-2 Albuquerque Routing Table with VLSM Albuquerque# show ip route ! Legend omitted for brevity 10.6.1/32 is directly connected.7.1. Serial0/0 D 10. how many different masks are listed. 3 masks D 10. to add subnets to an existing design. Example 22-2 lists the routing table on Albuquerque from Figure 22-1.6. 00:00:34.6.1. When subnets in different locations overlap their addresses. 00:00:56.3.2.1. 00:00:34.4.2.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. .6. hosts in different locations can be assigned the same IP address. Serial0/0 D 10.1.1/32 is directly connected. Albuquerque uses masks /24 and /30 inside network 10.1. Why the entire VLSM chapter? Well.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. to apply VLSM to real networks—takes skill and practice.1. The rest of this chapter examines the skills to apply VLSM and provides some practice for these two key areas: ■ Finding VLSM overlaps ■ Adding new VLSM subnets without overlaps Finding VLSM Overlaps Regardless of whether a design uses VLSM.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. a router’s routing table entries overlap.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. and to design using VLSM from scratch—in other words. 00:00:56.4. if any.1.0.3.6. Serial0/1 L 10.0.2.4. 00:00:56. 00:00:34.4.1.2. a design that uses overlapping subnets is considered to be an incorrect design and should not be used.1. FastEthernet0/0 L 10.1.3. For example.1.0/24 is directly connected.5.0/8 is variably subnetted. Serial0/1 D 10. Serial0/1 C 10. Serial0/1 D 10. Serial0/0 L 10. Serial0/1 D 10. 00:00:56.532 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide look to see.2.1.

172.16. imagine you start with a brand-new VLSM design. .16.0.0 /24 172. Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM When creating a subnetting plan using VLSM. As soon as you choose to use one subnet from any column. Figure 22-2 List of /23 Subnets List of /24 Subnets 172.4.0. For example.0 /24 172.16. 172.16.0 /24 .0. by looking at existing designs and trying to find any existing overlaps. and some with /24. and so on.0. .16. up through 172.0.16.16.2.16.0 /22 172.0. with something like Figure 22-2.16.0.1.16.0. other subnets with another mask.16. and /24 Masks The drawing shows the first few subnet IDs available with each mask.16. “Analyzing Existing Subnets”: In binary.0. but with a Class B network and a /24 mask.255.0 /24 172. List of /22 Subnets 172. with /22. but you cannot use all subnets from all three lists in a design.1.16.0.0 /24 Possible Subnet IDs of Network 172. . First. “Subnet Design. you have to be much more careful in choosing what subnets to use.0 /23 172. consider a subnet plan for Class B network 172.16.16.0 /24 172. to meet the requirements for different sizes of different subnets. To begin.7.0 /22 .0 /23 172.16.16.0 (the zero subnet). For instance.4. some with /23.16. /23. Chapter 21.0 /24 172.0.0 /23 172. If you use the math and processes to find all subnet IDs per Chapter 21. .2. It then gets into an operational and troubleshooting approach to the topic. NOTE Subnet IDs must always follow this important binary rule as noted back in Chapter 16.16.16. whatever masks you use in a VLSM design. .2.” discusses how to find those subnets in depth.0 /23 172. then 172. you remove some subnets from the other lists because subnets cannot overlap. Now expand your thinking about subnet IDs to a VLSM design.0. You plan to have some subnets with /22 masks. and so on. the subnet ID must be a subnet ID that you could choose if you subnetted the whole Class B network with that same mask. you would decide that you need some subnets with one mask. . 172. the possible subnet IDs should be easy to calculate by now: 172. each subnet ID has a host field of all binary 0s.3.16.4.16. all those subnet IDs happen to have binary 0s in the host fields.5. To create a subnet with a /24 mask. Overlapping subnets are subnets whose range of addresses include some of the same addresses. to drive home the ideas behind VLSM overlaps.6.6.16. each subnet ID must be a valid subnet ID given the mask that you use for that subnet.3.4. 22 . with Class B network 172.0. .Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 533 This section begins with a short discussion about VLSM design.0 /24 172. You might develop then a planning diagram.0.0. 172. or at least draw the ideas.

0 /23 172. List of /22 Subnets 172. Now look to the upper right of the figure.16. imagine that a practice question for the CCENT exam shows Figure 22-4.1.16. the person making the subnetting plan has decided to use these two subnets somewhere in the network.0).0–172. That subnet includes addresses from the subnet ID of 172.16.0.0. to subnet 172.4. With VLSM.255 including the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address. . But because there is some overlap. because: A subnetting design. For instance.2.0–172. you have to look at the entire range of addresses in each subnet.3.6. 172. These address overlaps are easier to see when not using VLSM. so to find overlaps.16. If overlapping subnets are implemented.16. /23.3. However.16.16.255. and compare the range to the other subnets in the design. The subnet has a range of 172. That subnet overlaps with the two subnets referenced to the left. .0 /24 172.0/24.2.7. Figure 22-3 List of /23 Subnets List of /24 Subnets 172.3. .5. with VLSM.0.16.3. An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap For example.0 on the lower left.0.0/22 subnets could not be used without causing problems.0 /24 .16.6. because it uses three different masks: /23.4. As you can see just by looking at the subnet IDs to the right.16.0 /23 172.0.0/22). that is.0 /24 172.16.16. once the design has allocated the 172. /24.16.16. The subnets with a dark gray shading and an X in them can no longer be used because they have some overlapping addresses with the subnets that have check marks (172.3.0 /24 172.0 /22 172.16. To find these overlaps.0/23 and 172.0 /24 172. .3. . .16.16.255.0 /23 172. as was the case in this most recent example with the subnets across the top of Figure 22-3. .16.534 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide As an example.0 through the subnet broadcast address of 172.4.0/22 includes the range from 172.16. on paper. When not using VLSM. from subnet ID to subnet broadcast address.4. and /24 subnets of Class B network 172.16.4.16.4.16. . overlapped subnets may not have the same subnet ID. It uses a single Class B network (172.0 /23 172.0. you just have to look at the subnet IDs.0. it shows a check mark beside two subnets that have been allocated for use. Figure 22-3 shows the same list of the first few possible /22.0/24 and 172. routing problems occur and some hosts simply cannot communicate outside their subnets.16.16.16. overlapped subnets have identical subnet IDs.2.16.0 /24 172. whether using VLSM or not.0 /24 Selecting Two Subnets Disallows Other Subnets in Different Columns Just to complete the example.0.3.0/24 subnet.0 /22 .16.16.0. and /30.0 /24 172. should not allow subnets whose address ranges overlap. subnet 172.16. first look at subnet 172. all the subnets referenced with the arrowed lines are within that same range of addresses.7.16. the 172.

Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 172. Scan the list from top to bottom.4 172.16.16.5.9. Table 22-3 Subnet Subnet IDs and Broadcast Addresses.6 /30 S0/0/1 Address Range? Figure 22-4 535 R2 Fa0/0 Address Range? Address Range? R3 Fa0/0 172.5.1 /23 Address Range? Address Range? 172. The two subnets already marked as overlapped can overlap with the next subnet in the list.16.16. in numerical order based on the subnet IDs.16. Step 3.7 The VLSM design is invalid in this case because of the overlap between R2’s LAN subnet and R3’s LAN subnet.16.0 172. note that if two adjacent entries in the list overlap. Step 3 states the somewhat obvious step of comparing the address ranges to see whether any overlaps occur.16.3 R1-R3 serial 172. comparing each pair of adjacent entries.9. and one of these two subnets would need to be changed. which gives you the range of addresses in that subnet.16.4.9. but two entries (highlighted) do overlap. in Numerical Order.16. To answer such a question. List the subnet IDs in numerical order (along with their subnet broadcast addresses).4.9. or it might not even mention that the root cause could be that some of the subnets overlap.16.5.255 R2 LAN 172.2.0 172.16.16. As for the process. compare three entries at the next step.1 /24 VLSM Design with Possible Overlap Now imagine that the exam question shows you the figure.1 /30 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 172. listing the subnet IDs and subnet broadcast addresses. to see whether their range of addresses overlaps.9.3. the three subnets in the following list overlap in that the first subnet overlaps with the second and third subnets in the list.9. from Figure 22-4 Subnet Number Broadcast Address R1 LAN 172.0 172. in this case.16. Note that. As far as the three-step process works.2 /30 S0/1/0 172.16.255 R1-R2 serial 172.0 172.16. Step 2. This type of question might simply tell you that some hosts cannot ping each other.5 /30 172.16. Table 22-3 completes the first two steps based on Figure 22-4.1 /23 Fa0/0 R1 172. you could follow this simple but possibly laborious process: Step 1.9. If you 22 . and either directly or indirectly asks whether overlapping subnets exist.5. Calculate the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address of each subnet.255 R3 LAN 172.2. none of the subnet numbers are identical. For example.9. For example.16. The design is invalid because of the overlap.

200.4. along with the subnet broadcast addresses.168.1. broadcast 10.16. for both real life and for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching exams.101/23 172.200.0. you would have first noticed the overlap between the first two subnets in the list. in the section “Answers to Earlier Practice Problems. In other words.0.1.1. broadcast 10. Calculate all possible subnet numbers of the classful network using the mask from Step 1.122.126.9/22 172. and then follow the three-step process outlined in the previous section to find any VLSM overlaps.168.1.0. with classful network 172. you need to pick a new subnet and not make a mistake! For example.4.1. so you would then also need to check the next subnet in the list to find out if it overlapped.1/20 172.151/22 192.0. Pick the subnet mask (prefix length) for the new subnet. To that end.122/30 Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design The task described in this section happens frequently in real networks: choosing new subnets to add to an existing design.29.250. you really have a couple of tasks: To find all the subnet IDs that could be used.255) 10.1.125/30 10.0/16 (subnet ID 10. if both 172.200.0. An exam question might suggest that a new subnet. you need to be ready to do the mental process and math of choosing a subnet that does not create an overlapped VLSM subnet condition. and then check to see whether the question guides you to pick either the numerically lowest (or highest) subnet ID. Just start with the five IP addresses listed in a single column.0/24 (subnet ID 10.17.1.1.1.168. Step 2.253/30 10.168. The answers can be found near the end of this chapter.151/20 192.33/30 192. practice helps.255) 10. “Pick the numerically lowest subnet number that can be used for the new subnet. However.0.1. broadcast 10.57/27 192.0 and 172. you can use IP Address Management (IPAM) tools that help you choose a new subnet so that you do not cause an overlap. needs to be added to the design. In real life.1/30 192.128.16.250. rule out the ones that would cause an overlap. consider the internetwork shown earlier in Figure 22-2. 10.255. with a /23 prefix length.1.1.0.245/29 10.34.1.254/22 172.1.255) Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps As typical of anything to with applying IP addressing and subnetting.1. The question might also say.1.16.16.1.168.1.122.16.16.250. . Table 22-4 lists three practice problems.23.536 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide followed the process shown here. This list outlines the specific steps: Step 1.16.16.16.0/24 (subnet ID 10.1. So.1/21 172.122. use 172.0 would work.0.6. based on the design requirements (if not already listed as part of the question).113/28 10.” In other words.1.” Table 22-4 VLSM Overlap Practice Problems Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 10.

0 172.16.4.7.6 /30 S0/0/1 R2 R3 Figure 22-5 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 172.16.16.2.0 172.0 172. as shown earlier in Figure 22-5.0 172. you need to add a new subnet to support 300 hosts. you need to list all the subnet numbers and broadcast addresses of 172. Table 22-5 Subnet First Five Possible /23 Subnets Subnet Number Subnet Broadcast Address First (zero) 172.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Step 3.0.1 /30 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 172.255 Fifth 172.9.5. Compare the existing subnets to the candidate new subnets to rule out overlapping new subnets. You use some math and logic you learned earlier in your study to choose mask /23.16.0. for 29 – 2 = 510 hosts in the subnet.16.16.16.16.16.16.9. you have already been given the mask (/23). 537 An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet For example. but you need the list for comparison to the existing subnets. Imagine that the question tells you to use the smallest subnet (least number of hosts) to meet that requirement. at least for the first five possible /23 subnets.5.255 Second 172. Network 172.16. Figure 22-5 shows an existing internetwork that uses VLSM. To do so. list the existing subnet numbers and broadcast addresses.16.9. (The figure uses the same IP addresses as shown in Figure 22-4. but with R3’s LAN IP address changed to fix the VLSM overlap shown in Figure 22-4.2 /30 S0/1/0 172. Make a list of existing subnet IDs and matching subnet broadcast addresses. For Step 1.0.3.8. 172.255 Next. do the usual math to take an IP address/mask to then find the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address.) In this case.9.0 At this point.1 /23 172.16.5 /30 172.1 /24 Internetwork to Which You Need to Add a /23 Subnet. Step 5.16.0. paying attention to whether the question asks for the numerically lowest or numerically highest subnet ID. 22 . For Step 2. Table 22-6 summarizes that information. including the locations.255 Fourth 172. Choose the new subnet ID from the remaining subnets identified at Step 4.16. assuming the /23 mask. and subnet broadcast addresses.16. Step 4.16. subnet numbers.2.9.0 172.1. You will not use all these subnets.255 Third 172.4. Table 22-5 shows the results. at Step 3.6. just follow the steps listed before Figure 22-5.16. which gives you 9 host bits.16.1 /23 Fa0/0 R1 172.

4. the zero subnet should be avoided if (a) the question implies the use of classful routing protocols or (b) the routers are configured with the no ip subnet-zero global configuration command. To better track your study progress.16. Table 22-7 outlines the key review elements and where you can find them.6. Which of the possible new /23 subnets (Table 22-5) overlap with the existing subnets (Table 22-6)? In this case.538 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Table 22-6 Existing Subnet IDs and Broadcast Addresses from Figure 22-5 Subnet Subnet Number Subnet Broadcast Address R1 LAN 172.0 172.16.16.0 172. DVD/website Practice finding VLSM overlaps DVD Appendix H.16. NOTE The answer. For the exam. 172.16. so rule those out as candidates to be used.16.16. Review this chapter’s material using either the tools in the book. but it is still worth listing as a separate step. Simply compare the range of numbers for the subnets in the previous two tables. DVD/website Review key terms Book. DVD/website .9.9. Table 22-7 Chapter Review Tracking Review Element Review Date(s) Resource Used Review key topics Book. the second through fifth subnets in Table 22-5 overlap.6.255 R3 LAN 172.16. which in this case is 172.255 R1-R2 serial 172. Multiple-choice questions sometimes need to force you into a single answer. and asking for the numerically lowest or highest subnet does that.2.0/23. DVD.0/23.0.16. happens to be a zero subnet.16. or interactive tools for the same material found on the book’s companion website.0 172. Otherwise.3.4 172. PCPT Review memory tables Book. Chapter Review One key to doing well on the exams is to perform repetitive spaced review sessions. assume that the zero subnet can be used. DVD/website Repeat DIKTA questions Book.16.7 At this point. DVD/website Practice adding new VLSM subnets DVD Appendix H.9.0 172. record when you completed these activities in the second column.) Step 5 has more to do with the exam than with real network design.16. Refer to the “Your Study Plan” element for more details.5. you have all the information you need to look for the overlap at Step 4. This particular example asks for the numerically lowest subnet number.0.9.255 R2 LAN 172. (Table 22-5 denotes those subnets with gray highlights.3 R1-R3 serial 172.

” Answers to Earlier Practice Problems Answers to Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps This section lists the answers to the three practice problems in the section “Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps.16. “Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks.1.1.32. the second and third subnet IDs listed in Table 22-9 happen to overlap.1/20 10.0 10. Table 22-9 VLSM Overlap Problem 1 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 10.” as listed earlier in Table 22-4.1.0 10.254/22 10.35.28.0 10.1.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 539 Review All the Key Topics Table 22-8 Key Topics for Chapter 22 Key Topic Element Description Page Number Table 22-2 Classless and classful routing protocols listed and compared 531 Text Rule about subnetting designs cannot allow subnets to overlap 532 List Steps to analyze an existing design to discover any VLSM overlaps 535 List Steps to follow when adding a new subnet to an existing VLSM design 536 Key Terms You Should Know classful routing protocol.20.23.1.1. classless routing protocol.1.1.29. overlapping subnets.255 22 .1.15.34. The second subnet’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the third subnet.1/21 10.255 4 10.255 2 10. In Problem 1. practice the same problems found in both these apps using DVD Appendix H. PDF: Alternatively. variable-length subnet masks (VLSM) Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes For additional practice with finding VLSM overlaps and adding a new subnet to a VLSM design.1.23.1.255 3 10.255 5 10.29.1.17.101/23 10.0 10.23.1.1. Note that the tables that list details of the answer reordered the subnets as part of the process.9/22 10.1.1.0 10.0. you may do the same set of practice problems using your choice of tools: Application: Use the Variable-Length Subnet Masks application on the DVD or companion website.

122.1.1.245/29 192.0 172.168.1.253/30 192.168.168. Table 22-11 VLSM Overlap Problem 3 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 192. three subnets overlap.128.125/30 192. the second subnet’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the third subnet. after you find that the first two subnets overlap.16.168.1.168.122.122.122.168.16.151/22 172.122/30 192.1.16.1.124 192.255 In Problem 3.1.57/27 172.122.168.120 192.16.122.1.168. Note that the second and third subnets do not overlap with each other. Table 22-10 VLSM Overlap Problem 2 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 172.128.16.32 172.16.122.35 4 172.63 3 172.540 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide In Problem 2.255 5 172.168.1. so the overlap is more obvious.252 192.16.1.112 192.168.168.16.32 172.123 3 192.122.240 192.1.151/20 172.113/28 192.1.127 2 192.124.16.1/30 172.127.143.16.16. Also.16.0 172.168.1. as shown in Table 22-11.255 .1.16.16.168.168. the second and third subnet IDs are the same value.168. again the second and third subnet IDs (listed in Table 22-10) happen to overlap.16. so for the process in this book to find all the overlaps.247 5 192.3 2 172.33/30 172.122.1. you should compare the next entry in the table (3) with both of the two known-to-overlap entries (1 and 2).126.127 4 192. Subnet 1’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the second and third subnets. and again.0 172.

This page intentionally left blank .

813-814 extended numbered ACLs. 599 configuration examples. 630-631 location and direction. 48-50 extended numbered ACL configuration commands. 594-595 matching packets. 819 access control lists. 51 ACK flags. 41 802. 136-137 ACLs (access control lists). See ACLs access interfaces. 617-620. 599. 608 matching any/all addresses.1A. 606 2-tier campus design. 599-600 matching subset of address.1Q. 228-230 permit keyword. 602. 602-603 matching exact IP address. 618 802. 599. 110 ? command. 616-621 implementation considerations. 43 access VLANs (virtual LANs). 292-293 access-list command. 43. 162-163 log keyword.Index Symbols examples and logic explanations. 220-221 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 640. 595-596 named ACLs. 602-603 3-tier campus design. 640 comparison of. 598-599 building ACLs with. 602-606 any keyword. 584. 681-682 access-class command. 43. 228. 621 2-switch topology. 43 tcp keyword. 416-419 access points (APs). 175-176 abbreviating IPv6 addresses. 611. 248-249 access switches. authorization. 596-597 controlling Telnet and SSH access with. 629-630 access-list command. 600-601 . 602 deny keyword. 681 A AAA (authentication. 293-294 1000BASE-T. 813-814. 232 1000BASE-LX. 625-629 standard numbered ACLs. 252. 602 list logic. 608 command syntax. 608-610 10GBASE-T. 594 :: (double colon). 618 100BASE-T. and accounting) servers. 621 upd keyword. 597. 48-50. 230-232 10BASE-T.

See IPv4 addresses. 397-400 AD (administrative distance). 892 OSI. 631-633 autonegotiation. 84. 490 boot sequence (IOS). 722-723 finding subnet IDs. 497 ASA (Adaptive Security Appliance) firewall. 364 anycast addresses (IPv6). 814 authentication.reverse engineering from ACL to address range. authorization. 175-176 auto-mdix. 398 Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewall. 490. 22 addresses. 57 to/from prefix masks. 819 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). 468 B backups. 364-366 all-subnets broadcast addresses (IPv4). 84. 646 architecture (networking). 814 banner command. IPv6 addresses banners. 367 archive command. 367 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). 449-450 bandwidth setting. 491 binary subnet analysis all IP addresses. 602 binary practice problems. 830-833 . and accounting (AAA) servers. 398-399 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. converting adjacent-layer interaction. 841. login. 606-607 wildcard masks. 810-812. 608-610 troubleshooting. 841 Boolean OR. 633-634 auto-summary command. 366-367 binary-to-hexadecimal conversion. 600-602 troubleshooting. 34 blocking. matching. 41 application layer shortcut for binary process. 367 any keyword. 845-846 Boolean math. 415. 631 arp -a command. 602 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 491 Boolean math. 18 Boolean AND. 454. 362-363 APs (access points). 635-636 reversed source/destination IP address. 681 binary masks. 51 ACL behavior in network. matching. Tim. 602 finding range of addresses. 24-25 binary wildcard masks. 449-450 to/from DDN masks. 22-23 blocks (CIDR). 155 TCP/IP. 635 auxiliary ports (routers). 810-812 binary/hexadecimal conversion chart (IPv6). See software activation bandwidth command. 367 any/all IP addresses. 601 administrative distance (AD). 637-639 autosummarization (RIPv2). 634-635 troubleshooting commands. 343-344 all-hosts broadcast addresses (IPv4). 367 archiving configuration files. 99-100 Berners-Lee. 99-100. 198-202 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 454-455 common syntax mistakes. 606-607 verification. CSMA/CD. 840-842 activating software. 465. 344-345 algorithms.

130-132 Cisco License Manager. See IOS (Internetwork Operating System) leased-line cabling. See exam tips cables. See leased-line WANs Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewall. 64-65 Cisco Learning Network (CLN). 349-350 two-tier campus design. 329-330 reserved networks. 114 channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU). 796-797 broadcast flags. 114-115 CIDR (classless inter-domain routing). 334 unusual addresses. 43-46 Cisco ONE Licensing. 227-230 first octet values. 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). See MAC address table broadcast addresses. 796-797 bridging table. 344 physical console connection. 331 calculating hosts per network. 868-869 cable Internet. 343.930 boot system command boot system command. 53-54. 48-50 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 331-332 topology design terminology. 855-857 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 57. 645-646 circuits. 845 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) bridges. 854 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 387-388 DTE (data terminal equipment) cables. 814 Cisco Binary Game. 334 . 232-233 dividing addresses into three parts. 518 cdp run command. 51 Cisco Unified Communication Manager (CUCM). 46-47 cache (ARP). 100 Class A networks. 117-118 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 854-855 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair). 801 browsers. 224-227 verification. 793-796 broadcast domains. 263 UTP Ethernet links. 491-492 discovering information about neighbors. 328 three-tier campus design. 801 broadcast subnet. 41 Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. 330 campus LANs default masks. 66 Cisco integrated services routers. 344 Cisco Catalyst switches. 65 browsing web DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 474 cdp enable command. See MAC address table address formats. 329. 221-222 configuration. 114. 76-77 Cisco Discovery Protocol. 128-129 C Cisco Certification Exam tips. See CDP DCE (data communications equipment) cables. 88-91 CAM (Content-Addressable Memory) tables. 230-232 carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD). 221 number and size. 66 Cisco IOS. 831-833.

175-176 classes in. 334 Class C networks. 88-91 address formats. 665 first octet values. 130132 dividing addresses into three parts. 343. 334 clients classful routing protocols. 329-330 simple password configuration. 331 local username/password configuration. 454. 316-317 calculating hosts per network.clients Class B networks. 133 931 . 329 unusual addresses. 328 number and size. 316 external authentication servers. 330 CLI (command-line interface) accessing. 133-135 subnet masks. 331-332 default masks. 328 clear ipv6 neighbor command. 88-91 address formats. 350 Telnet clients. 645-646 calculating hosts per network. 136-137 overview. 141-143 configuration mode. 313-315 user EXEC mode. 530-531 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 126-128 privileged EXEC mode. 340 CLI skills. 486. practicing. 88-91 address formats. 135-136 calculating hosts per network. 651. 329-330 reserved networks. 329 clear mac address-table dynamic command. 331 clear ip dhcp conflict command. 789-791 classless addressing. 331 physical console connection. 315-316 SSH (Secure Shell). 328 Class E networks. 133 first octet values. 133 Cisco Catalyst switches. 331-332 classless routing protocols. 133-135 security. 331-332 Telnet. 140 configuration files. 785 reserved networks. 138-139 configuration submodes and contexts. 328-329 default masks. 349-350 clear ip nat translation command. 176-179 public IP networks. 129-130. 334 Class D networks. 659. 330 before subnetting. 330 classless inter-domain routing (CIDR). 329-330 clear logging command. 390-391 password security. 349-350 classful IP networks. 173-175 network number and related numbers. 530-531 default masks. 168-169 choosing. 745 number and size. 139-141 help. 497 dividing addresses into three parts. 128-129 command edit and recall. 162-164 unusual addresses. 332-333 number and size. 169-173 private IP networks. 879-881 unusual addresses. 137 common command prompts. 349-350 SSH (Secure Shell). 328 classful IP addresses.

223-224 switches. 660-662 clock summer-time command.932 CLM (Cisco License Manager) CLM (Cisco License Manager). 66. 181-183 IPv6 address configuration summary. 227-230 collision domains. 220 10BASE-T with hub. 854-855 NAT (Network Address Translation) CLN (Cisco Learning Network). 252-253 data and voice VLANs. 143 erasing configuration files. See individual commands (for example. 253-256 routing. 845 configuration. 800 static NAT. 711-714 verifying. 602-606 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). 422-428 static unicast addresses. 723-724 host settings. 831. 717-718 ACLs (access control lists). 843 storing configuration files. 190-192 autonegotiation. 443-447 static routes. 221-222 command-line interface. 655-657 clock rate command. 626 trunking. 800 clocking. 173-175 simple passwords. 784-786 VLANs (virtual LANs). 198-202 description. 256-257 named ACLs (access control lists). 193-194 Syslog. 222-223 transparent bridges. 344 dynamic NAT. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 789. 582-583 passwords local passwords. 715 extended numbered ACLs. 66. See CLI commands. 143 initial configuration. 193-194 configuration mode. 735-741 port security. 420-422 login banners. 796-797 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 169-173 RIPv2. 258-262 . 140 NTP (Network Time Protocol) client/ server. 182-183. 810-812 shorter VLAN configuration example. 400 clock set command. 621-624 IOS software common command prompts. 195-197 configuration submodes and contexts. 654-655 clock timezone command. 789. 220-221 impact on LAN design. 709-711 switch interfaces. 708 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 195 copying configuration files. 789-791 numbered ACLs (access control lists). 478-480 dynamic unicast addresses (IPv6). 139-141 multiple interfaces. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. access-list command) config-register command. 397. 202-208 removing configuration. 396-397 collapsed core design. 141-143 IPv4. 264-266 full VLAN configuration example. 193-194 duplex. 138-139 enabling/disabling interfaces. 197-198 speed. 788-789 PAT (Port Address Translation). 629-630 overlapping VLSM subnets.

836-837 connected routes. 846 data encapsulation OSI terminology. 65 copying. 818 startup-config. 143. 46 replacing. 841-842. 44. 148 console connection cabling. 139. 839. 34 copy ftp flash command. 169 Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) tables. 342-346 debug command. 27.debug ip rip command VLSM (variable length subnet masks). 840 copying configuration files. 176-178. 846 copy tftp flash command. 786-787. 801 debug ip nat command. 111 DAD (Duplicate Address Detection). 143-145. 142 crypto key generate rsa command. 391. 177 running-config. 138-139 configuration register. 485-486 confreg command. 857-859 conflicts (DHCP). 831 configure replace command. 66 copy startup-config running-config command. 130-132 data communications equipment (DCE) cables. 731. 825. 57. 413-414. 35 TCP/IP terminology. 263 configure terminal command. showing. 753-755 connection establishment and termination (TCP). 846 CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection). 141-143 configuration mode (CLI). 531-532 configuration files IOS images. 50 erasing. 66-67 copy running-config startup-config command. 665 debug ip rip command. 145. 256. 455 copy command. 841 CPE (customer premises equipment). See MAC address table context-setting commands. 403. 230-232 archiving. 783. 221 CSU/DSU (channel service unit/data service unit). 139 contiguous networks. 841-842 crypto key command. 30-32 data link layer Ethernet. 87. 659. 138. 171. 143-145. 828. 51-52 OSI. 839-841 crossover cable pinout. 839-840. 734-735 connectionless protocols. 841 current license status. 838. 111 data centers. 205. 786 933 . 839-841 DCE (data communications equipment) cables. 841 CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager). 831. 65 D connection-oriented protocols. 65 configure restore command. 841. 846 data terminal equipment (DTE) cables. 143 core design. 110-111 customer premises equipment (CPE). 825 copy tftp startup-config command. 66 console passwords. 143. 825-830 switch configuration files. 828 data-link protocols. 843 crosstalk. 66 DDN (dotted-decimal notation). 142 storing. 187.

783 sending messages to users. 406. 813-814 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 781-782 verification. 793-796 verification. 784-786 debug command. 796-797 discovering information about neighbors. 571 supporting. 805-806 device hardening hiding for local usernames. 372-374 finding subnet IDs. 489-490 controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 182-183. 787-788 client/server configuration. 810 delete vlan. 93. 474 login banner configuration. matching. 816 login banner configuration. 626-628. 806-809 destination IP. 481-482 DHCPv6. 641 IOS passwords. 600-601 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 476-477 . 782 log message security levels. 810-812 configuration. 93. 737-739 information stored at DHCP server. 812-813 DHCP pools. 410 default gateways. 156 firewalls. 780-781 storing log messages for review. 368-369 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 804 description command. 796-797 LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol). 810 advantages of. 400 encoding with hashes. 813-814 default VLANs. 788-789 Syslog configuration. 331 default-router command. 617-618 destination port numbers. 475-476 troubleshooting. 736-737 relay agents. 370-372 predictability in interesting octet. 602-603. 784-786 device security device hardening default routers. 889-891 decimal wildcard masks. 789-791 loopback interfaces. 471-475 definition of. 478-480 unused switch interface security.dat command. 786-787 log message format.934 decimal masks decimal masks. 406 default masks. 791-793 setting time and timezone. 815 unused switch interface security. 810-812 denial of service (DoS) attack. 812-813 deny command. 369-370 reference table: DDN mask values and binary equivalent. 253 definition of. 107 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 193. 478 device management protocols CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) configuration. 83. 810 controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 210. 473 firewalls. 814-817 demilitarized zone (DMZ). 736 compared to DHCPv4. 814-817 broadcast flags. See DDN (dotted-decimal notation) decimal subnet analysis analysis with easy masks. 83. 496 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 374 decimal-to-binary conversion. 596. 323. 797-799 DHCP Relay.

655-657 verification. 481-482 DHCP server configuration. 74-76 DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM). 76 echo replies (ICMP). 481. network. 484-485 duplex command. 133-135 configuring on switch interfaces. 209. 323-324 dns-server command. 806. 98-99. 342-346 dynamic windows. 478 server verification. 439-440 distribution switches. 650-651 configuration. 826. 496. 679 dual stack. 484 LAN connectivity. 169-170 duplex enable mode. 657-659 dynamic port numbers. 846. 739-740 summary. 100 DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer). 391. 816 dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). 488-489. 571-572 conflicts. 715 DoS (denial of service) attack. 734-735 duplicate addresses. 482-484 IP connectivity. 819 duplex mismatch. 107 DMZ (demilitarized zone). 731. 824 distance vector. 806-809. 87. 145 disabled VLANs. 228. 480-481 troubleshooting. choosing. 740-741 digital subscriber line (DSL). 182-183 dynamic NAT (Network Address Translation). 29 combining with NDP and DHCP. 100 DTE (data terminal equipment) cables. 279-282 enable secret command. 74-76 dir command. 734-735 dynamic configuration of IPv6 host settings. 171. 193-194. 491 direction (ACLs). 320. 141 E DSL (digital subscriber line). 736-739 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration) building IPv6 addresses with. 76 echo requests (ICMP).enable secret command pools. 66 EIGRPv6 (EIGRP for IPv6). 169 troubleshooting. 735 DHCPv6. 109. 188. 141 DNS (Domain Name System). 485 diagrams. 201 enable passwords. 294 discontiguous classful networks. 569-570 dynamic ranges per subnet. 115-117. 400 Duplicate Address Detection (DAD). 815 dotted-decimal notation (DDN). 232 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. 297. 112-113 DRAM (dynamic random-access memory). 594-595 disable command. 863 directed broadcast addresses. 145. 193-194 enable password command. 569 dynamic unicast address configuration. 454-455 disk file systems. 485-486 DHCP Relay agent configuration. 133. 279-281. 679 enable command. 27. 819 935 . 18. See DHCP dynamic IP address configuration. 171.

207-208 verifying. 29. and segment lengths. 44. 453-454 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 38-40 broadcast domains. 104 switching logic. 220-221 impact on LAN design. 846 switch interfaces. 42-43 analyzing. 51-52 IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). 236-237 topology design terminology. 619 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 44 OSI terminology. media. 234 three-tier campus design. 418 Ethernet Type field. 146-149 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS). 52-54 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 41 enterprise LANs. 150-153 erase nvram command. 136 enterprise LANs. 145 half-duplex logic. 224-227 Ethernet types. 221-222 port security. 70-72 enterprise wireless LANs. 238-240 Ethernet LANs. 111-112 choosing. 83-84 Ethernet frames. 202-203 configuration. 227-230 collision domains. 846 erase startup-config command. 45 FCS (Frame Check Sequence) field. 230-232 home office wireless LANs. 55. 235 campus LANs history of. 153-163 enterprise wireless LANs.936 enable secret love command enable secret love command. 233-234 error recovery. 234 two-tier campus design. 156. 805-806 full-duplex logic. 156 error detection. 411-412 Ethernet addressing. 104. 55-56 end command. 35 Ethernet physical layer standards. 54 encoding schemes. 17. 220 LAN switching. 158-159 err-disabling recovery. 222-223 transparent bridges. 41-42 . 203-205 MAC addresses. 843. 56-58 end-user perspectives on networking. 145. 149-150 physical standards. 46 encapsulation command. 70-71 eq 21 parameters. 205-206 violation actions. 17-18 hubs. 207 SOHO (small office/home office) LANs. 55 encryption. 223-224 switches. 288-289 verifying. 154-155 equal-cost load balancing. 238-240 overview. 453 summary. 235-236 Ethernet emulation. 232-233 table of. 145. 43 TCP/IP terminology. 220 10BASE-T with hub. 42-43 encapsulation. 154 enterprise routers. 156 enterprise networks. 843. 410 Ethernet data link protocols. 386-388 MAC address table. 155-156 equal-cost routes. 307 flooding. 30-32 Ethernet ports.

871-872. 195 cable Internet. 74-76 speed. 253 time management. 188 tagging. 190-192 autonegotiation. 169-173 IP telephony. 616 VLAN IDs. 48-50 other study tasks. 193-194 Internet access links. 879-881 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables. 133-135 native VLANs. 869-870 EXEC modes. 248 user EXEC. 871 exam review. 133-135 routing between. 292-296 hands-on CLI skills. 874-877 subnetting and other math-related skills. 244-246 configuration. 883-884 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 72-73 EtherType. 868-869 exam-day advice. 881-882 Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. 70-71 Ethernet WANs (wide area networks). 43-46 practice exams. 286-287 definition of. 139. 252-257 default VLANs. 278-279 Layer 1 problems. 274-275 port security. 282-284 methodologies. 870-871 UTP Ethernet links. 262-267 privileged EXEC. 72 multiple interfaces. 185. 76-77 removing configuration. 198-202 description. 51 pre-exam suggestions. 287-292 predicting contents of MAC address table. 284-286 Internet as a large WAN. 257-262 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs. 279-282 interface status codes. 275-277 finding knowledge gaps. 70-71 Internet access. 193-194 Ethernet emulation. 143-145 troubleshooting. 877-879 VLANs (virtual LANs). 271 interface speed and duplex issues. 193-194 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 246-249. 249-252 exec-timeout command.extended numbered IPv4 ACLs switch interface configuration. 54 EUI-64 (extended unique identifier). 872-873 problem isolation. 46-47 study suggestions after failing to pass. 292-296 experimental addresses. 70-72 enabling/disabling interfaces. 621-624 937 . 711-714 exact IP address matching. 882-883 VLANs (virtual LANs). 195-197 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 73-74 troubleshooting. 246 configuration. 328 trunking. 873-874 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 69-70 duplex. 197-198 DSL (digital subscriber line). 599-600 exam tips assessing whether you are ready to pass. 246-248 exit command. 573-574 analyzing forwarding paths.

839 archiving. 55-56 files configuration files. 152 forwarding packets. 547-549 external authentication servers. 762-763 extended ping testing LAN neighbors with. See IPv4 routing. 758-759 firewalls. 882-883 Fast Ethernet. 233 full update messages. 440-441 full VLAN configuration example. 175-176 F flash memory. 823 flooding. 680 full-duplex logic. 841 copying. 55 failed exam attempts. 154 flow control (TCP). 154 transmitting. 692-693 FIN bits. IPv6 routing forwarding path. 83. 142 full mesh topology. 143. 814-817 subnetting with. 111 forward-versus-filter decisions. 426. 110 IPv6 static routes with. 835-838 address ranges for. 822-824 Gigabit Ethernet. and destination IP. 412 FTP (File Transfer Protocol). 332-333 matching TCP and UDP port numbers. 43 IOS software boot sequence. 824-830 assigning to hosts. 828-829 full addresses (IPv6). 43 file system. 841-842 running-config. 830-835 global routing prefix (IPv6). 328 group addresses. 43 FCS (Frame Check Sequence) field. 700-701 transferring. 142 storing. 394 configuration files. 253-256 G startup-config. 618-621 floating static routes. 87-88 . 229. 550-551 testing reverse routes with. 53 groupings (IP address). 117 IOS file system. 851 fiber-optic cabling. 141-143 G0/0 status code. 843 replacing. See FTP frames. 820-822 G0/1 status code.938 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs matching protocol. 112-113 forward acknowledgment. 839-841 erasing. 394 management. 822-824 File Transfer Protocol. 693-695 global unicast addresses password recovery/reset. 696-699 first octet values. 617-618 first usable IP addresses. source IP. 23. 839-842 GET requests. 44 deciding to process incoming frames. 141. 143. 695 upgrading IOS images. 29-31. 117-118 definition of. 871-872. 409-410 flooding. 55 feature sets. 286-287 Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field.

86. 188 from hosts. 350-352 host bits. 184 verifying host connectivity history size command. 67 headers (HTTP). 736-739 ICMPv6. 67 RS (Router Solicitation). 23 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). IPv6 dynamic configuration. 56-58 discovering duplicate addresses. 488-489 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). 22-23. 688 IBM SNA (Systems Network Architecture). 330. 310 IPv4 settings. 741-744 home office wireless LANs. 114-118 hubs host part (of IP addresses). 114-118 I assigning addresses to. 733 RA (Router Advertisement). 635 hosts. 406 hostname command. 178. 82. 681. 733-734 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 731-732 Ethernet. 220-221 autonegotiation and. 229. 733 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion. 188 hostname Fred command. 676 939 . 22-23. 739-741 H NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 306-309 10BASE-T. 645. 52 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 201-202 Huston. 98 hosts. 184. 93-94 from nearby routers. 233 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). 139 hostnames. IPv4. 486 default routers. 236-237 host addresses. 735 DHCPv6. 19 DNS name resolution. 892 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 100 troubleshooting. 732-733 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 879-881 hashes. practicing. 806 discovering neighbor link addresses. 566-570 icmp keyword. 67 headers discovering routers. 731 history buffer commands. 81 analyzing subnet needs. 310 host forwarding logic. 734-735 hands-on CLI skills. 700-701 calculating per subnet. 141-145. 730-731 half-duplex logic. 340. 487-488 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). 27. 179-181. 156. 688 IP address and mask configuration.ICMPv6 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 731 High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). 489-490 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). 744-747 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 675 hybrid topology. 331-332 host bits. 348-349 host routing logic. Geoff.

193-194 . 513 enterprise routers. 649-650 switch interface configuration. 392 interface IDs. 289-292 to local file system. 824-830 clock rate. 497. 851 one image per model/series. 139. 246 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). 827. 278-279. 400 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 392 finding with binary math. 282 status codes. 253. 515-519 interface ethernet command. 187 interface vlan vlan_id. 391. 209. 362-363 finding with decimal math. 850 violation actions. 288-289 protect mode. 393-394 inside global addresses. 320. 421 interfaces access interfaces. 202-203. 265. 360-361. 487. 190-192 inside local addresses. 649-650 autonegotiation. 292-293 Layer 1 problems. 370-372 finding with magic number. 392 interface gigabitethernet command. 515 zero subnet. 833-835 displaying. 205-206 one image per feature set. 698 Interface loopback command. 255 interface subcommands. 519-520 interface command. 520-522 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits.940 IDs IDs installation of routers interface IDs. 441 speed and duplex issues. 195. 800 interface range command. 203-205 images (IOS) MAC addresses. 279-282 input errors. 289-292 with FTP. 20 interesting octet. 825-827 shutdown mode. 369-370. 387-388 IPv4 subnet IDs. 742. 207 router interfaces universal images. 515 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 698 Cisco integrated services routers. 139 interface vlan command. 398 upgrading. 287-288 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). 437-438 interface fastethernet command. 828-829 restrict mode. 748 IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 282-284 port security. 393-396 infinity. 829-830 verifying. 437 configuration. 409-410 interface status codes. 391-393 incoming frames. 207-208 copying err-disabled recovery. 310. 198-202 description. 851-853 bandwidth. 522 Internet access routers. 145. 566. 209. 389-390 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). 20 ifconfig command. 396-397 verifying. 288-289 with SCP. 386-388 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 514 IPv6 subnet IDs. 698-699 VLAN IDs.

851-853 password security. 143 storing configuration files. 688 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 478. 421. 415 ip default-gateway command. 437 International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 861-862 IOS (Internetwork Operating System) boot sequence. 418. 424. 139-141 copying configuration files. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 496 941 . See IOS with Cisco License Manager. 187 ip dhcp excluded-address command. 437-438 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). 197-198 license management. 187. 72 DSL (digital subscriber line). 531. 631. 100 hiding passwords for local usernames. 195 initial configuration. 854-855 internetworks. 478-479. 820-822 configuration files. 193-194 interior gateway protocols (IGPs). 611. See ACLs (access control lists) ip address command. 748 configuration register. 839-842 ip access-list command. 645. 806-809 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). 140 configuration mode. 248-249 with right-to-use licenses. 307 manual activation. 855-860 Inter-Switch Link (ISL). 843 removing configuration. 74-76 Internet access links. 566. 195-197 password recovery/reset. 640 IP ACLs (access control lists). 626-627. 394. 640 verifying IOS image. 852-853 packaging one image per model/series. 851 universal images. 413-414. 855-860 software activation with Cisco License Manager. 496 ip dhcp pool command. 72-73 manual software activation. 804 encoding with hashes. 604. 143 erasing configuration files. 621. 830-831 with universal images. 389-390 Internet as a large WAN. 822-824 enabling/disabling interfaces. 831 ip access-group command. 19 Internet access. 833-835 configuration common command prompts. 582-583 IP ARP table. 400. 141-143 file management. 182. 852-853 versions versus releases. 835-838 upgrading IOS images. 688 software activation Internetwork Operating System. 193-194 IOS file system. 73-74 Internet access routers. 810 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 85. 850 choosing IOS to load. 824-830 multiple interfaces. 831-833 ip -6 neighbor show command.ip dhcp pool command duplex. 805-806 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). 734. 848 speed. 854-855 software activation with universal images. 138-139 configuration submodes and contexts. 182.

187. 655. 648-650. 647-648 dynamic NAT. 514 network number and related numbers. 665 ip nat inside source list command. 78. subnets address exhaustion. 87-88 ip name-server command. 571-572 grouping. 178 default masks. 334 IPv4 routing. 491 IPv4 addresses. 396-397 classless versus classful addressing. 652-653. 494-495 ip domain-name command. 491-492 calculating hosts and subnets in network. 178 troubleshooting. 486-490 ip nat command. 655-659 ip nat outside command. 660. 394-396 ipconfig command. 330 broadcast addresses. 473-476. 98-99 enabling IPv4 support on router interfaces bandwidth. 845 ip helper-address command. 266-267 rules for. 84. 662-664 ip subnet-zero command. 262 number and size of networks. 656. 829 ip ssh version 2 command. 497.942 ip domain-lookup command ip domain-lookup command. 182. 480-483. 657. 645 IPv4 ACLs (access control lists). 422-424 static NAT. 660-662 exact IP address. 602 ip nat inside command. 182-183 ip ftp username command. 665 any/all addresses. 99-100 configuring on switch. 391-393 . 653. 660-662 PAT (Port Address Translation). 663 ip nat inside source static command. See also subnets ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). 84-85. 675 address formats. 748 scalability. 331-332 CIDR (classless inter-domain routing). 599-600 ip nat inside source command. 492-494 NAT (Network Address Translation). 570 matching addresses host settings. 413. 660-662 ip nat pool command. 645-646 troubleshooting. 642. 332-333 IP telephony. 646-647. 25-28. 742. See also subnet masks. 690-692 data and voice VLAN configuration and verification. 654-655 ip scp server enable command. 81. 648 ip route. 662 subset of address. 600-601 multicast addresses. 86-87 router interface IP addresses. 566. 405-407. 650-651. 570 unusual addresses within classes. 845 dynamic IP address configuration. See ACLs (access control lists) unicast addresses. 331 ip ftp password command. 262-264 private addresses. 328-329 clock rate. 665 source NAT. 398 CLI access. 487. 350-352 calculating hosts per network. 350 displaying interfaces. 656. 497. 329-330 data and voice VLAN concepts. 390-391 classes in. 264-266 public addresses. 653-655. 181-182 DNS (Domain Name System). 655. 403. 570 comparison of address types. 653. 690-692 summary.

453-454 abbreviating. 83. 553-559 verifying on switch. 408 protocols. 579-583 encapsulating packets in frames. 714 autosummarization. 179-181 IP hosts. 569-570 LAN issues. 88-91 IP packet encapsulation. 96-98 routing logic. 409-410 DHCP issues. 439-440 equal-cost routes. 438 IPv6 addresses. 567-569 packet filtering with access lists. 573-574 mismatched masks. 706-707 configuration. 454-455 distance vector. 718 comparison of IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 726. 735 full update messages. 442-443 RIP updates. 443-447 discontiguous classful networks. 681-682 address configuration summary. 711. 707. 682 split horizon. 570 deciding whether to process incoming frames. 447-451. 456-458 testing connectivity. 584 ping command. 543-553 router WAN interface status. controlling. 409 mismatched IPv4 settings. 715-717. 441 global routing prefix. 94-95 ipv6 address dhcp command. 454-455 ipv6 address link-local command. 715 route poisoning. 583 SSH (Secure Shell). 440-441 DHCPv6. 571-572 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 85. 674. 100 troubleshooting. 93-94 IP routing tables. 693-695 943 . 393-394 IP addresses. 575-578 hosts forward IP packets to default routers (gateway). 753 routing tables. 83-84 host forwarding logic. 398-399 examples of. 564 choosing where to forward packets. 94-95 DNS problems. 723-724 assigning subnets to internetwork topology. 83. 82. 411-412 IP forwarding issues. 736-739 history of IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 437-438 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 85-86. 559-561 traceroute command. 461-466 verification. 566-567 transmitting frames. 81-83 data link layer encapsulation. 437 ipv6 address eui-64 command. 394-396 router auxiliary ports. 726 RIPv2. 27. 412 host and switch IP settings. 408 troubleshooting. 699-700 dynamic configuration of host settings.IPv6 addresses interface status codes. 410-411 default router IP address setting. 441-442 expanding addresses. 410 incorrect addressing plans. 559-561 Telnet. 183-184 ipv6 address command. 452-453 dynamic unicast address configuration. 739-741 key features. 86 IP networks.

734-735 discovering neighbor link addresses. 753-755 protocols. 700-701 verifying. 735 link-local next-hop address. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. 759 IPv6 routing. 730-731 discovering duplicate addresses. 711-714 assigning to hosts. 681 history of. 761 RS (Router Solicitation). 758-759 static unicast address configuration. 748 ipv6 enable command.944 IPv6 addresses global unicast addresses address ranges for. 762 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 680 static routes. 699 subnetting with. 756 routing. 709-711 definition of. 707-708 link-local next-hop address. 732-733 global unicast next-hop address. 761-762 troubleshooting. 756. 755-756 representing full IPv6 addresses. 696-699 hexadecimal/binary conversion chart. 731 troubleshooting. 716-718 loopback addresses. 696-699 subnetting with global unicast addresses. 761 RA (Router Advertisement). 765-768 . 741-744 verifying host connectivity from nearby routers. 723 multicast addresses anycast addresses. 701-702 troubleshooting. 693 global unicast next-hop address. 718. 752 prefix length. 692-693 subnet router anycast addresses. 731-732 floating static routes. 698 link-local addresses. 760-761 outgoing interface. 744-747 unique local addresses definition of. 719-720 solicited-node multicast addresses. 701-702 unknown addresses. 695 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 741 verifying host connectivity from hosts. 756 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 702-703 subnetting with. 733-734 subnetting with unique local addresses. 683-685 connected routes. 731 static host routes. 723 ipv6 dhcp relay command. 676-677 local routes. 756-757 static host routes. 720-721 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 733 static default routes. 733 outgoing interface. 708 static default routes. 692-693 importance of. 738-739 ipv6 dhcp relay destination command. 758 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 722-723 local scope multicast addresses. 674-676 interface IDs. 765-768 summary. 769 discovering routers. 762-763 site local addresses. 753. 759-760 enabling IPv6 routing. 726 ipv6 route command. 677-680 floating static routes.

181. 28-30 summary. 877-879 known unicast frames. 202-203. 84 L4PDU. 553-559 duplex. 207 TCP/IP adjacent-layer interaction. 146-149 analyzing. 44. 25-28 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. testing. 153-154 layers aging. 197-198 speed. 22-23 IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). 154 Layer 4 PDU. 156 last usable IP addresses. 205-206 violation actions. 332-333 Layer 1 problems. finding. 154-155 link layer. 549-551 LAN switching. 198-202 isolating problems with traceroute. 162 data link. WLANs LAN neighbors. 726 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 181. 288-289 MAC addresses. 19 autonegotiation. 156 L3 PDU (Layer 3 protocol data units). 708. 43 multiple switches. 33-35 showing. 289-292 shutdown mode. 275-277. 162-163 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). 149-150 verifying. 288-289 verifying. 203-205 err-disabled recovery. 193-194 enabling/disabling interfaces. 30 same-layer interaction. 106 LANs (local-area networks). 193-194 knowledge gaps. 195 description. 420-422 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 207-208 protect mode. 416 configuring routing to VLANs. 150-153 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 24-25 application layer. 161 Ethernet clearing. See Ethernet LANs. 150-153 switching logic. 193-194 J-K-L multiple interfaces. 158-159. 190-192 ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 106 MAC address table. 287-288 configuration. 155-156 network layer. 251-252 flooding. 289-292 restrict mode. 249. 84 Layer 3 switches.layers ipv6 unicast-routing command. 25-28 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 249 Layer 3 protocol data units (L3 PDU). 159-160 physical layer standards. 22-23 compared to OSI. 156-157 port security. 248-249 switch interface configuration. 24-25 945 . 195-197 removing configuration. 282-284 Layer 2 switches. 30-32 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 51-52 finding entries in. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology.

239 logging console command. building. 810 location (ACLs). 399 logging synchronous command. 185. 136. 785. 187. 861-862 log message security levels. 852-853 logging command. 799-801 leased line terminology. 23-24 transport layer. 850 configuration. 145. 800 License Manager (Cisco). 810-812 line console 0 command. 848 Cisco License Manager. 723 . 855-857 IOS packaging. 753-756 local scope multicast addresses. 797-799 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 68-69 lldp transmit command. 185. See Ethernet LANs. 851-853 log message format. 800 line console command. 491 logging monitor command. 66-67 LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol). 854 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 391 login command. 115 cabling. 781-782 manual activation. 187. 781. 818 login local command. 759-760 leased-line WANs (wide area networks) links. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 66 data-link protocols. See leased-line WANs link-local next-hop address. 800 line aux 0 command. 187. 861-862 license install command. 62-63 list of subnets. 334. hiding passwords for. wireless LANs local broadcast addresses (IPv4). 780-781 with Cisco License Manager. 716-718 leased circuits. 23-25 link layer (TCP/IP). 780. 818 loopback addresses. 784-786 Lightweight AP (LWAP). 594-595 log keyword. 171. 799-801 license boot module command. 780 one IOS image per model/series. 188. 818 login banners. 606 logging with Syslog. 491 local routes (IPv6). 719-720 local usernames. 28-30 Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). 188 line con 0 command. 170-171. 170-171 logging trap command. 64-65 list logic (IP ACLs). 145. 854-855 Cisco ONE Licensing. 863 license management. 782 debug command. 598-599 connecting LANs via. 800 with universal images. 783 software activation sending messages to users. 497 link-local addresses (IPv6). 63-64 lldp run command. 320-321 creating in lab. 851 local-area networks. 786-787 right-to-use licenses.946 layers TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 67 lldp receive command. 857. 139-140. 187. 854-855 storing log messages for review. 797-799 lease command. 854-855 verification. 784-786 universal images. 800 limited broadcast addresses (IPv4). 781. 818 line vty command. 855-860 logging buffered command. 799-801 routing.

515 manual software activation Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 617-621 standard numbered ACLs any/all addresses. 855-857 current license status. 52-54. 154-155 Media Access Control. networking definition of.multicast addresses loopback interfaces. 857-859 permanent technology package licenses. 602 command syntax. 52 wildcard masks. 566-567 mismatched masks. 30 overview. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 458. 159-160 multiple switches. 162-163 overview. 284-286 showing. 595-596 matching parameters extended numbered ACLs. 492-494 IPv6. 468 maximum transmission unit (MTU). 207-208 sticky secure MAC addresses. 19-20 OSI model. 52 IPv4. 162 finding entries in. 719 947 . 711-714 exact IP address. 30-32 link layer. 827 loops. 599 sending to users. 161 clearing. 153-154 aging. 239 memory. 370. 22-23 compared to OSI. 203 macrobending. 294-296 models. 328. 567-569 mismatched trunking operational states. 18-19 history of. 53-54. 156-157 MAC addresses port security. See MAC address table LWAP (Lightweight AP). See subnet masks matching packets. 600-602 multicast addresses maximum-paths command. showing. 440-441 log messages. 791-793 MD5 verification. 141. 780-781 mismatched IPv4 settings. 24-25 application layer. 823 messages M full update messages. 599-600 MP BGP-4 (Multiprotocol BGP version 4). 20-21 same-layer interaction. 781-783 MAC address table. 23-24 modified EUI-64 (extended unique identifier). 20-21 adjacent-layer interaction. 279 magic number. avoiding with STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 24 transport layer. 28-30 network layer. 24-25 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 25-28 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 153-154 predicting contents of. 679 subset of address. 32-35 TCP/IP. 600-601 MTU (maximum transmission unit). 453-454. adding. 859-861 masks.

testing LAN neighbors. 733-734 networking diagrams. See link layer (TCP/IP) Network Address Translation. 731 . 748 local scope multicast addresses. 796. 730-731 Network Time Protocol. 642. 268 network broadcast addresses. 647-648. 719-720 Neighbor Advertisement (NA). 549-551 WAN neighbors. 720-721 neighbor link addresses. See PAT (Port Address Translation) network numbers. 551-552 netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors command. 444-447. 625-629 NAT (Network Address Translation). 62 next-hop IPv6 address. 312 multiplexing. 819 RA (Router Advertisement). 468. 34 TCP/IP. 731-732 next-server command. 758-760 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 748 netstat -rn command. 731 no cdp run command. 454-455. 496 network file systems. See NDP Neighbor Solicitation (NS). 18. 733 no auto-summary command. 62 network interface layer. configuring. See link layer (TCP/IP) network layer OSI. 497 network access layer. 690 dynamic NAT. 465 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 655-659 PAT (Port Address Translation). 18 discovering duplicate addresses. 648 static NAT.948 multicast addresses anycast addresses. 733 no cdp enable command. 733 neighbors. 249-252 multiple interfaces. 25-28 NAT Overload. 480-483. 662-664 network command. 733 network addresses. 480 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 332-334 network interface cards (NICs). 195 multiple subnet sizes. 648-650. 181. 676. 733 solicited-node multicast addresses. 106-108 Multiprotocol BGP version 4 (MP BGP-4). 253. 650-651. 488-489 named ACLs. 734. See network numbers name command. 458. See NAT NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 732-733 NICs (network interface cards). 734. 734-735 networking blueprint. 733-734 multilayer switches. 654-655 troubleshooting. 491 name resolution. 660-662 source NAT. 18 discovering neighbor link addresses. 824 network IDs. 819 RS (Router Solicitation). 332-334 native VLANs. 248 network routes. 489. 463-464. 679 N Neighbor Discovery Protocol. 424 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 652-653. 332-334. See NTP networking architecture. 722-723 ndp -an command. 29 discovering routers.

783 no passive-interface command. 421. 791-793 setting time and timezone. 209. 182. 788-789 ntp master command. 306 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). 630 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 210 subnet numbers. 370 objects. 210 no enable password command. 575-578 949 . 649-650 overlapping routes. 188. 838 NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM). 787-788 client/server configuration. IPv6 static routes with. 819 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 676. 824 no speed command. 785. 117 octets. 107-108 outside global addresses. 522 no enable secret command. 310. 195-198. 332-334 outgoing interfaces. 145 sequence numbers. 27. 370-372 finding with magic number. 94 Open Systems Interconnection. 173 no service password-encryption command. 756-757 port numbers. 800 ntp source command. 32-35 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). 854 one-size subnets. 288-289. See OSI operational view of subnetting. 468 no password command. 391. 629-630 numbers DDN (dotted-decimal notation). 520-522 no duplex command. 649-650 SEQ (sequence number). 800 numbered ACLs. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 819 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 362-363 no logging console command. 570 no ip http server command. 24 outside local addresses. 789-791 loopback interfaces. 819 no ip access-group command. 360-361. 892 no shutdown command. 824 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). 197-198. 320. 892 decimal-to-binary conversion. 197-198. 824 nonworking states. 400. 94 OSPFv3. 19. 278-279 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 311-312 opaque file systems. 627-629 no description command. 141. 514 numeric reference table binary-to-hexadecimal conversion. 800 ntp server command. 297. 889-891 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion. 679 network numbers. 457. 806 zero subnet. 210 O nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM).overlapping routes no debug all command. 268. 197-198. 514 finding with binary math. 515-519 no ip subnet-zero command. 783 finding with decimal math. 185. 733 NTP (Network Time Protocol). troubleshooting. 515 no logging monitor command. 733 ONE Licensing (Cisco). 141. 87 magic number. 87 on-link. 492 no ip domain-lookup command. 791. 185. 519-520 no ip directed-broadcast command.

452-453. 855 . 235 history of. 130-132 with universal images. 34 physical standards (Ethernet LANs). 806-809 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 238-240 Ethernet types. 229. 425. 852-853 PAR (Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission). 173-175 simple password configuration. 430 permanent technology package licenses. 83-84 host forwarding logic. 532-536. 468 passive-interface default command. 602-603. 234 home office wireless LANs. 94-95 PAT (Port Address Translation). 579-581 overloading NAT (Network Address Translation). 468 passive interfaces. 113 partial mesh topology. 81-83 data link layer encapsulation. 235-236 enterprise wireless LANs. 625-628. 96-98 path command. 82. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 855-857 PDUs (protocol data units). 233 passive-interface command. 850 universal images. See ACLs (access control lists) packet forwarding (IPv4). 854-855 path selection. and segment lengths. 596. 35 IOS packaging. 457. 187. 641 manual software activation. 804 encoding with hashes. 169 IP routing tables. 855-860 physical console connection. 874 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 83. 93-94 enable passwords. media. 652-653. 145. 850-853 software activation permanent keyword. 581-583 without VLSM. 82 PBX (private branch exchange). 660-662 password faith command. 464. 660-663 routing protocols. 236-237 table of. 805. 262 Cisco ONE Licensing. 810 recovery/reset. 854 PCPT (Pearson IT Certification Practice Test) exam software. 234 PID (product ID). 85-86. 136 passwords CLI (command-line interface). 835-838 shared passwords. 464-465 password command. 851 one IOS image per model/series. 805-806 hiding passwords for local usernames. 135-136 local username/password configuration. 169 packaging (IOS). 848 Cisco License Manager. 854-855 permit command. 233-234 choosing.950 overlapping subnets overlapping subnets with VLSM. 845 PAK (product authorization key) licensing. 169 Telnet passwords. 859-861 with Cisco License Manager. 139. 851-853 packet filtering. 457. 170-171. 818 physical layer (OSI). 169-173 P console passwords. 169 security.

894 practice exams self-ping. 205 ports Ethernet ports. 855-857 router auxiliary ports. 276. 743-744. 288-289 verifying. 35 public addresses (IPv4). See leased-line WANs definition of. 549-550 test-taking tips. 550-551 exam scores. 287-288 configuration. 109 powers of 2 numeric reference table. 545-547 testing reverse routes with extended ping. 646-647. 660-663 product authorization key (PAK) licensing. 543-544. 690-692 public IP networks. See leased-line WANs privileged EXEC mode. 748 private addresses. 551-552 question review. 262 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 647 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 288-289 MAC addresses. 51 private line. 637. 618-621 Product License Registration Portal (Cisco). 877-879 violation actions. 207-208 protect mode. 203-205 err-disabling recovery. 830 Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3). 49 privilege level 15. 330. 547-549 testing WAN neighbors with standard ping. 289-292 protect mode. 877 testing LAN neighbors with extended ping. 683-685 prefix masks. 829 private IP networks. 275-277. 881 testing LAN neighbors with standard ping. 315-316 point-to-point line. 398-399 security.quit command ping command. 207 quit command. 34 ping6 command. 552-553 POST (power-on self-test). 877-879 predictability in interesting octet. 109 problem isolation with traceroute. 637-639 additional test questions. See PAK (product authorization key) licensing port-security command. 343-346 prefix part of IP addresses. 369-370 prefix length (IPv6). 554-559 Port Address Translation (PAT). 48-50 private internets. 744-745 ping with names and IP addresses. 205-206 question review. 289-292 restrict mode. 748 IPv6. 133-135 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3). 569-572. 46 product ID (PID). 347-350 presentation layer (OSI). 313-315 Q-R shutdown mode. 289-292 protocol data units (PDUs). 107-108. 202-203. 340. 855 port numbers. 145 switch ports. 150 951 . 874-877 testing longer routes from near source of problem. 690-692 pinouts private branch exchange (PBX). 100.

830. 675 split horizon. 634-635 router VLAN trunking. 836 route poisoning. 93. 608-610 summary. 441-442 Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). 695 full update messages. 456-458 show ip route command. 358 restrict mode. 437 CLI (command-line interface). 46 ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 449-450 show ip protocols command. 443-447 default routers. 641 other router issues. 288-289 RIP updates. 415 RIPng (RIP next generation). 143-145. 100 requests ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) requests. 416 routers. 289-292 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 453-454 for global unicast addresses. 361-362 read-only memory (ROM). 23 ICMP echo replies. 251. 99 HTTP. 41. 141 ROMMON. 441 registered public IP networks. 416 router rip command. 440-441 of usable addresses. 251. 99 HTTP GET requests. 850 auto-summary issues. 626. 156. 83. 489-490 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) configuration. 447 AD (administrative distance). 675 RJ-45 ports. 117 ICMP echo requests. 454-455 configuration. 416 ROM (read-only memory). 450-451. controlling. 434. 329. 447-449 RIRs (Regional Internet Registries). 461-462 releases (IOS). 861-862 ARP table. 731 reversed source/destination IP address. 100 reserved networks. 313-315 troubleshooting. 141 IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 133-134. 463-464 remark command. 468 reverse routes. 547-549 Router Solicitation (RS). 464-465 replies ARP. 454-455 RAM (random access memory). testing. 466 verification. 452-453 password recovery/reset. 411 passive interfaces. 465 reload command. 846 missing/incorrect network commands. 466 remote subnets. 334 resetting passwords. 441-442 router-on-a-stick (ROAS). 840. 835-838 route poisoning. 834. 437-438 recovery key features. 835-838 resident subnets. 398-399 RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2). 679 auxiliary ports. 442-443 err-disabling recovery. 478-480 . 731 discontiguous classful networks.952 RA (Router Advertisement) RA (Router Advertisement). 439-440 ranges equal-cost routes. 384 right-to-use licenses. 141 distance vector. 390-391 autosummarization.

393-394 IP addresses. 289-292 shutdown mode. 810 password recovery/reset. 812-813 IOS passwords. 421 Internet access routers. 394 installation same-layer interaction. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 249-251 wireless routers. 287-288 configuration. 708 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 389-390 IPv4. 731-732 S dynamic unicast address configuration. 573-574 verifying IPv6 host connectivity from. 805-806 hiding for local usernames. 814-816 login banner configuration. 142 RXBOOT. 168-169 external authentication servers. 135-136 simple password configuration. 711-714 verifying. 829 CLI (command-line interface). 391-393 interface status codes. 386-388 sdm prefer lanbase-routing. 289-292 restrict mode. 709-711 troubleshooting DHCP issues. 806-809 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 744-747 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 835-838 port security. 830 scp command. 810-812 unused switch interface security. 394-396 router WAN interface status. 810 firewalls. 24-25 Cisco integrated services routers. 173-175 password security. 288-289 953 . 236 routing. 416 router interfaces bandwidth. 251. 571-572 LAN issues. 396-397 displaying. 176-179. 202-203. 176-179 device hardening controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 559-561. See IPv4 routing. 403. 829-830 enterprise routers. 288-289 MAC addresses. 813-814 link-local address configuration. 169-173 SSH (Secure Shell). 717-718 security ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 207-208 protect mode. 731 running-config file. 398 clock rate. 813-814 definition of. 447-449 RS (Router Solicitation). 203-205 err-disabling recovery. See RIPv2 routing tables. 387-388 SCP (SSH Copy Protocol). 407 Secure Shell (SSH). 133. 715 S0/0/0 status code. IPv6 routing Routing Information Protocol Version 2. 583 static unicast address configuration configuring full 128-bit address. 175-176 local username/password configuration. 804 encoding with hashes.security discovering with NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol).

188 service sequence-numbers command. 159. 297. 184. 783 show crypto key mypubkey rsa command. 283. 801 show cdp entry command. 655-662. 183. 297. 846 self-ping. 815-817 show dhcp lease command. 641 session layer (OSI). 567. 133 web servers. 293-297 show interfaces trunk command.954 security verifying. 193-194. 396. 188 security zones (firewall). 819 service providers. 392. 665 show ip nat translations command. 401 violation actions. 413. 855 servers AAA (authentication. 392 show interfaces status command. 207 security levels (log messages). 169 show ip dhcp binding command. 392-393. 753 serial number (SN). and accounting) servers. 466. 846 Setup mode (IOS). 611. 486. 490. 789-791 Telnet servers. 211. 604. 824-827. 480-481. 794 show cdp neighbors detail command. 655-665 show ip protocols command. 401. 401. 797 show clock command. 188 segments. 188 SEQ (sequence number). 628-630. 497 show access-lists command. 468 . 296-297 show interfaces vlan command. 627. 801 show interfaces serial command. 570 show cdp command. 205-206 show controllers command. 843. 256-257 show ip dhcp conflict command. 482. 137 show ip dhcp pool command. 805-806. 260-262. 269. 106 show flash command. 278. 183. 480. 34 show ip arp command. 265. 794-796 show cdp traffic command. 797. 183. 396. 604. authorization. 266. 611. 627-629 show interface switchport command. 175-176 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers. 633. 843 show ip default-gateway command. 497 setup command. 633. 114 service password-encryption command. 31. 24. 397. 278-280. 800 show ip access-lists command. 466. 175-176 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 297 show interfaces switchport command. 794-796 show cdp interface command. 611. 158. 259-262. 278-281. 497 show ip dhcp server statistics command. 269. 196-197. 497 shorter VLAN configuration example. 604. 497 show ip interface brief command. 637-639 show history command. 456-458. See leased-line WANs show interfaces command. 480. 801 show command. 497. 633 show ip nat statistics command. 468 show ip interface command. 641 show arp command. 797 show cdp neighbors command. 64 show interfaces description command. 164. 574 show interfaces loopback command. 478-484 external authentication servers. 188 shared passwords. 293 serial line. 450-451.

801 show vlans. 575-576 show ip route static. 770 show ipv6 route connected command. 754. 162-164. 293. 757. 717. 575-578. 288-289 show mac address-table dynamic address command. 716. 400. 726. 426-428. 391. 109 show mac address-table dynamic command. 182. 207. 447-449. 863 show license udi command. 183. 297 show ipv6 neighbors command. 857-863 show startup-config command. 160 show ipv6 interface brief command. 109 show mac address-table dynamic interface command. 791. 754. 210. 413-414. 207-210. 142-145. 164 single-size subnets. 297 show lldp interface command. 756 show ntp status command. 745. 801 show version command. 627-629. 164 show vtp status command. 755 show license feature command. 798 show vlan id command. 288. 423. 791. 172-173. 209. 164. 757-763 show running-config command. 711. 268. 401 show ipv6 route static command. 255. 161. 846 show ipv6 routers command. 210 show mac address-table vlan command. 297 show mac address-table command. 424 show ip ssh command. 269. 717. 395-396. 137. 297. 205-206. 819. 755 show ip route ospf command. 211. 195. 824 show ipv6 route local command. 164 show mac address-table dynamic vlan command. 710. 179. 188 show license command. 285-286 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 164 shutdown mode. 784. 135. 156-157. 211. 819 show mac address-table count command. 254-257. 288-291 show ipv6 route command. 297 show logging command. 179. 293-294. 748 show port-security interface command. 164 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). 360. 781. 310-312 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 160. 824. 801 show ipv6 interface command. 863 show lldp commands. 161. 468. 798 show vlan brief command. 858863 show lldp entry command. 293. 833-835. 145. 159. 858. 785. 787 show protocols command. 288-289. 293. 531-532. 207-210 show mac address-table static command. 726. 195-196. 293. 722. 603. 297. 726 show ntp associations command. 693 size of subnets. 739-741 955 . 801 show process cpu command. 746-748 show ssh command. 799 show vlan command. 188. 257. 419 show mac address-table aging-time command. 188 show mac address-table secure command. 142. 731. 391 shutdown command. 297 show lldp neighbors command. 709-710. 391. 813.SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration) show ip route command. 738-739 show port-security command. 269. 709-710. 311-312 site local addresses. 788. 720. 855-856.

17. 756. 859-861 with right-to-use licenses. 739-741 stateless DHCPv6. 138-139 static ranges per subnet. 606-607 wildcard masks. 861-862 with universal images. 599-600 matching subset of address. 323-324 configuration submodes and contexts. showing. 19 list logic. 855-857 troubleshooting. 654-655 configuration mode. 758-759 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). 139-141. 133. 426 troubleshooting. 297. matching. 343 split horizon. 209. 413. 391. 852 SSH Copy Protocol. 741 static NAT (Network Address Translation). 756-757 static default routes. 731. 857-859 permanent technology package licenses. 760-761 static host routes. 422-428 floating static routes. 233 startup-config file. 109 access-list command. 606-607 Cisco Product License Registration Portal.956 slash masks slash masks. 428-430 IPv6. 153 floating static routes. 279-281. 720-721 source IP. 41-42 SMARTnet. 855-857 current license status. 142 stateful inspection. 617-618 IPv4. 400. 597 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). 855 configuration examples. 424-428 configuring. 107 software activation command syntax. adding. 403. 602-606 SNA (Systems Network Architecture). 648 global unicast next-hop address. 600-601 with Cisco License Manager. 112-113 SSH (Secure Shell). 760-762 source MAC addresses. 574 outgoing interface. choosing. 762-763 source NAT (Network Address Translation). 599 matching exact IP address. 559-561. 109 matching any/all addresses. 602 sockets. 176-179. 140 configuration files. 441 sliding windows. 813-814 small office/home office (SOHO) LANs. 761-762 troubleshooting. 193-194. 852-853 software configuration common command prompts. 41-42 solicited-node multicast addresses. 815 Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC). 17. 759-760 speed command. 854-855 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 608 SN (serial number). See SCP standard numbered IPv4 ACLs. 765-768 . 711. 154-155 link-local next-hop address. 608-610 manual activation. 229. 648-650. 141-143 verification. 139-141 static routes SOHO (small office/home office) LANs. 600-602 star topology. 598-599 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

304. 154-155 straight-through cable pinout. 278-279 sticky secure MAC addresses. 319-320 mismatched masks. 360-361. 362 binary practice problems. 342-343 mask formats. 203 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 349-350 subnet router anycast addresses. 362-363 subnet masks. 139 subdivided networks. 521 finding with binary math. 520-522 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 536-538 classful routing protocols. 310. 515 zero subnet. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 367 finding range of addresses. 506-512 classful IP networks before subnetting. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. 579 status codes interface status codes. 711-714 finding VLSM overlaps. 350-352 choosing. 567-569 prefix part. 418 overlapping subnets. 310. 581-583 verification. 364-366 Boolean math. 723 subnet zero. See subnets subinterface numbers. 514 subnets. 416 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 514 subnet part of IP addresses. 699. 48-49 subcommands. 519-520 subinterfaces. 347-350 sample design. 530-531 classless routing protocols. 340. 533-534 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 364 finding subnet IDs. See also subnet masks analyzing with binary math. 316-317 converting between formats. 515-519 subnet blocks. 368-369 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 530 adding new subnets to existing VLSM design. 531-532 subnet numbers. 316-318. 320. 708 configuration. 340 finding with decimal math.subnets static unicast address configuration (IPv6). 367 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 312. 317-318 calculating hosts and subnets in network. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 522 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 530-531 finding with magic number. 531-532 definition of. 362-363 shortcut for binary process. 372-374 957 . 83. 709-711 recognizing when VLSM is used. 366-367 analyzing with decimal math analysis with easy masks. 528 designing subnet plans with. 319 VLSM (variable length subnet masking). 510-512 formats for. 91-93. 343-346 finding. 370-372 borrowing host bits to create subnet bits. 393-394 troubleshooting. 532-536 verifying.

305 predictability in interesting octet. 182-183 range of usable addresses. 249 . 320-321 switches. 310. 515-519 calculating per network. 321-324 dynamic IP address configuration with DHCP. 232 subnet masks. 181. 475-476. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 315-316 subset of IP address. 361-362 host and switch IP settings. 141-143 distribution switches. 358 routing between VLANs. 183-184 Layer 2 switches. 518 zero subnet. 181-182 planning implementation. 361 analyzing subnet needs subnet blocks. 415-419 verifying on switch. matching. 581-583 troubleshooting. 182-183 assigning to internetwork topology. 320. 579-581 with VLSM. 305. 369-370 size. 308-309 size of subnets. 128-129 example of network with four subnets.958 subnets finding subnet IDs. 310-312 reference table: DDN mask values and binary equivalent. 370-372 simple example. 320. See also LAN switching public IP networks. 279-282 status codes. 481-482 Cisco Catalyst switches. 514 choosing IP network. 698 Layer 1 problems. 51 DHCP Relay. 222-223 IPv6 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 320-321 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 358 finding with decimal math. 310-313 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 184 interfaces interface IDs. 522 which hosts are in which subnet. 696-699 configuration files. 699-700 with global unicast addresses. 41. 701-702 speed and duplex issues. 515 broadcast addresses. 316-320. 350-352 finding with binary math. 309 number of subnets. 232 history buffer commands. 520-522 number of hosts per subnet. 228. 521 subnet numbers. 228. 306-308 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 306 overlapping subnets without VLSM. 278-284 IPv4 configuring on switch. 519-520 building list of. 316 classful networks. 313-315 access switches. 600-601 list of all subnets. 411 resident subnets. 179-181 remote subnets. 362-363 definition of. 358-359 collision domains and. 278-279 operational versus design view of. 282-284 with unique local addresses. 374 subnet broadcast. 370-372 design choices finding with magic number. 360-361. 310. 506-512 auto-mdix.

782 removing configuration. 168-169 switchport port-security maximum command. 169-173 SSH (Secure Shell). 207-208 restrict mode. 289-292 shutdown mode. 110 Syslog. 287. 295. 176-179 switchport port-security violation command. 256-257. 813. 203-205 switchport port-security mac-address command. 226 switchport access vlan command. 210 security. 195 log message format. 784-786 debug command. 193-194 duplex. 268 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 264-266. 203. 195-197 SYN flags. 203. 210. 202-203. 295 switchport port-security command. 268. 173-175 simple password configuration. 819 switchport mode access command. 253. 175-176 local username/password configuration. 288-289 MAC addresses. 417 switchport nonegotiate command. 181. 150-153 switchport trunk native vlan command. 269 autonegotiation. 781-782 voice switches. 260 switchport mode trunk command. 198-202 description. 204-205. 258.tables Layer 3 switches. 253. 193-194 sending messages to users. 204-206. 293. 205-206 violation actions. 210. 415. 265-266. 268 switchport mode dynamic auto command. 193-194 enabling/disabling interfaces. 780 configuration. 783 speed. 268. 287-288 configuration. 262. 819 switchport mode command. 207. 269 switchport trunk encapsulation command. 284-287 switchport port-security mac-address sticky command. 203. 813. 258. 203-205. 19 T T1. 197-198 log message security levels. 786-787 multiple interfaces. 210 predicting where switches will forward frames. See leased-line WANs tables ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) tables. 190-192 switchport voice vlan command. See MAC address table switchport access command. 780-781 switch interfaces. 256. 262 verification. 294 Systems Network Architecture (SNA). 100. 258. 288-289 verifying. 819 switch interface configuration. 297 switchport trunk allowed vlan command. 207 switchport mode dynamic desirable command. 210 external authentication servers. 203-205 err-disabled recovery. 784-786 switching table. 249-252 port security. 265-268. 490 959 . 813. 158-159 storing log messages for review.

232-233 two-tier campus design. 112-113 multiplexing. 83.960 tables IP routing tables. 22-23 compared to OSI. 169 flow control. 23-24. 188 terminal monitor command. 235 time. 30-32 examples. 813-814 error recovery and reliability. 554 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 30 RFCs (Requests for Comments). 106 sockets. 447-449 tagging (VLAN). 14. 162-163 predicting contents of. 559-560 terminal history size command. 105-106 compared to UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 559 connection establishment and termination. 828 three-tier campus design. 104 DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 117-118 identifying receiving application. 22-23 timezone. 478. See troubleshooting TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol). 118-119 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 156-157 routing tables. 227-230 . 111-112 passwords. 284-286 showing. 788-789 time management for Cisco Certification Exam. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) application layer. 161 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 23. 554 history of. 230-232 topology design terminology. 781. 107 supported features. 230-232 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association). 113-114 clearing. 107-108 segments. 845 Time To Live (TTL). 788-789 link layer. 25-28 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 114. 184. 246-248 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 162 web browsing finding entries in. 801 testing. 133. 159-160 multiple switches. 108-109 port numbers. 618 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol). 104-105. 94-95 transport layer. 235 Telnet. See also IPv4 addresses. 110-111 controlling access with ACLs. 23-25 MAC address table. 28-30 network layer. 106-108 popular applications. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 869-870 time-period command. 109. 20 topologies of campus LANs three-tier campus design. 787. 560-561 when to use. 20-21. 19-20 Time-to-Live Exceeded (TTL Exceeded). 153-154 aging. IPv6 addresses. 801 terminal no monitor command. 104-105 tcp keyword. 114-115 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). setting.

282-284 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 106-108 packet filtering with access lists. 569-570 connection establishment and termination. 112-113 mismatched masks. 744-747 methodologies. 104 common syntax mistakes. 108-109 port numbers. 111-112 LAN issues. 178 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 575-578 mismatched IPv4 settings. 635 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. 105-106 compared to UDP (User Datagram Protocol). See TCP/IP speed and duplex issues. 391. 52 Ethernet LANs. 748 traceroute6 command. 187.troubleshooting traceroute command. 748 troubleshooting definition of. 633634 IPv4 routing. 818 transport input none command. 634-635 troubleshooting commands. 282-284 transferring files. 553-559. 24-25 same-layer interaction. 552-553 961 . 104-105 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 631-633 transport input all command. 274-275 with ping command. 178 transport layer (OSI). See TCP Layer 1 problems. 24-25 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 573-574 flow control. 567-569 multiplexing. 579-583 error recovery and reliability. 571-572 DNS problems. 107 supported features. 572. 412 status codes. 221-222 ACL behavior in network. 104-105. 178 transport input telnet ssh command. 748 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 34 transport layer (TCP/IP). 481-485 trailer fields (Ethernet). 543-544 ping with names and IP addresses. 23-24. 635-636 reversed source/destination IP address. 584 popular applications. 564 default router IP address setting. 279-282 transmitting frames. 107-108 segments. 744-745. 478. 637-639 transport input command. 583 IPv6 addressing verifying host connectivity from hosts. 278-279 IPv4 ACLs (access control lists) transparent bridges. 741-744 verifying host connectivity from nearby routers. 110-111 incorrect addressing plans. 178. 113-114 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 117-118 interfaces Transmission Control Protocol. 566-567 router WAN interface status. 743-744. 271 tracert command. 178 transport input ssh command. 109. 23 adjacent-layer interaction. 828 IP forwarding issues. 570 DHCP issues. 106 sockets.

452-453 . 559-561 with traceroute command. 227-230 Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs). 855 testing longer routes from near source of problem. 258-262 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). 248-249 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). 287-292 unabbreviated addresses (IPv6). 257 subnetting with. 328. 701-702 TTL (Time To Live). flooding. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 145 problem isolation with traceroute. 104-105 port security. 708-711 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 491 802. 618-621 supported features. 428-430. 688 RIPv2.962 troubleshooting testing LAN neighbors with extended ping. 22 unknown unicast frames. 292-296 trunking. 553-559 VLANs (virtual LANs). 765-768 with Telnet. 855 mismatched trunking operational states. 246. 554 universal addresses. 154 unshielded twisted-pair. 549-550 UDI (unique device identifier). 715 static unicast address configuration (IPv6) configuring full 128-bit address. 114-115 configuration. matching. 554 universal images (IOS). 53 TTL Exceeded (Time-to-Live Exceeded). 702-703 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 680 predicting where switches will forward frames. 545-547 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 113-114 testing reverse routes with extended ping. 248-249 unique device identifier (UDI). 550-551 U testing LAN neighbors with standard ping. See UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables unused switch interface security. 293 dynamic unicast address configuration (IPv6). 868-869 unknown addresses (IPv6). 711-714 unicast IP addresses. 551-552 port numbers. 53. 246-248 importance of. 723 two-switch topology. 692-693 VLAN tagging. 851-853 tutorials for Cisco Certification Exam. 812-813 updates (RIP). 547-549 compared to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 275-277. 701 definition of. 104 testing WAN neighbors with standard ping. 606-607 static IPv4 routes. 416-417 undefined VLANs. 22 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 294-296 unique local addresses. 162-163 two-tier campus design. 559-561 standard numbered ACLs (access control lists). 284-287 undebug all command.1Q. 358. 461-466 with SSH (Secure Shell). 554-559 unicast addresses. 23.

531-532 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 225-226. 829 show ip protocols command. 173. 22 IOS images. 827 from hosts. 829. 133-135 user mode external authentication servers. See UDP IPv6 host connectivity user EXEC mode. 456-458 username secret command. 114-115 host IPv4 settings. 655 port security. 48-50 verify command. 833-835 usbflash file systems. 264-266 variable-length subnet masks. 420-422 shorter VLAN configuration example. 657-659 static NAT. 824-830 Ethernet switching. 796-797 data and voice VLANs. 810 local username configuration. 818. 156 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 253-256 Layer 3 switches. 258-262 default VLANs. 846 VLANs (virtual LANs). 175. 271 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers. 810 show ip route command. 486-490 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). 480-481 full VLAN configuration example. 264-266 definition of. 709-711 users. 253 IP telephony. 741-744 from nearby routers. 450-451. 244-246 V configuration. 447-449 usernames hiding passwords for. See VLSM verification access interfaces. 51 versions (IOS). 252-253 data and voice VLANs. 175-176 passwords local password configuration. 169-173 username command. 256-257 trunking. 262-267 963 . 173-175 standard numbered ACLs (access control lists). 827. 606-607 static unicast address configuration. 845 username password command. 173-175 simple password configuration. 810 IOS code integrity. 780-781 Syslog. 43-46 VLSM (variable length subnet masks). 205-206 RIPv2. 744-747 NAT (Network Address Translation) dynamic NAT. 827. 784-786 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables. 850 UTP Ethernet links. 292-293 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). 447 AD (administrative distance). 449-450 username privilege 15 command. 46-47 virtual LANs. See VLANs verify /md5 command. 22. sending messages to. 174-175. 846 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 187.VLANs (virtual LANs) upgrading IOS images. 824 IPv4 on switch. 183-184 User Datagram Protocol.

294-296 undefined VLANs. 114-115 web clients. 236. 249-251 tagging. 246 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). 268 VLAN IDs. testing. 66 data-link protocols. 114 web browsing DNS (Domain Name System) resolution.1Q. 253. 70-72 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 63-64 routing. 294 mismatched trunking operational states. 240 home office wireless LANs. 531-532 definition of. 530-531 configuration. 246-248 troubleshooting. 114 web pages. 68-69 WAN neighbors. 312. 248-249 configuration. 292-293 trunking. 62-63 creating in lab. See wildcard masks web browsers. 600-602 windowing. 246 802. 292 disabled VLANs. 70-71 Internet access. 581-583 recognizing when VLSM is used. 246 vlan command. 249. 294-296 VLAN tagging. 67 leased line terminology. 262 wired LANs. 66-67 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 238. 248 routing. 60 Ethernet WANs. 112-113 voice switches. 60 compared to LANs. 257 VLAN IDs. 239. 118-119 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 293 verifying access interfaces. 114 web servers. 551-552 WC masks. 536-538 classful routing protocols. 531-532 overlapping subnets. 251-252 with routers. 265. 415-419 with Layer 3 switch. 69-70 Ethernet emulation. 533-534 finding VLSM overlaps. See WANs wildcard masks. 237 . See Ethernet LANs (localarea networks) VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 117-118 identifying receiving application. 530 adding new subnets to existing VLSM design. 532-536 verification. 38 vtp mode command. 64-65 connecting LANs via. 38. 257 wireless LANs. 268 enterprise wireless LANs. 528 designing subnet plans with. 257 VLSM (variable length subnet mask). 257. 579 W-X-Y-Z WANs (wide-area networks). 114. 258-262 ISL (Inter-Switch Link).964 VLANs (virtual LANs) native VLANs. 248-249 troubleshooting. 530-531 classless routing protocols. 246-248 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 114 wide-area networks. 72-77 leased-line WANs cabling.

109 write erase command. 145.zero subnet 965 Wireless LAN Controllers (WLCs). 845 WWW (World Wide Web). 514 . 239 World Wide Web (WWW). 841. 843. 239 wireless routers. 236 WLANs (wireless LANs) enterprise wireless LANs. 236-237 WLCs (Wireless LAN Controllers). 846 write-memory command. 109 zero subnet. 238-240 home office wireless LANs.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful
ciscoexam-online-sale-200-125-exam    | udemy-newccnax-sale-200-125-exam    | whats-new-with-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | ccna-practice-quiz-sale-200-125-exam    | What-is-the-difference-sale-200-125-exam-cert    | boson-practice-sale-200-125-exam-practice    | measureup-Cisco-Certified-Network-Associate-sale-200-125-exam    | globed-cisco-new-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-standard    | exam-labs-sale-200-125-exam-cert    | streaming-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-technologies    | caring-charts-blood-pressure-sale-200-125-exam    | pluralsight-courses-networking-cisco-sale-200-125-exam    | pearsonitcertification-articles-sale-200-125-exam    | safaribooksonline-library-sale-200-125-exam-routing    | learncisco-ccna.php-sale-200-125-exam-tast    | protechgurus-fees-syllabus-sale-200-125-exam    | certificationkits-cisco-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-standard-kit    | zeqr-lazaro-diaz-course-sale-200-125-exam    | 9tut-faqs-tips-sale-200-125-exam    | scribd-document-CCNA-sale-200-125-exam    | itunes-ccnax-sale-200-125-exam    | linkedin-cisco-sale-200-125-exam-questions-details    | teachertube-ccna-sale-200-125-exam-practice    | killexams-detail-sale-200-125-exam    | examsboost-test-sale-200-125-exam    | ccnav6-online-full-collections-sale-200-125-exam    | spiceworks-topic-sale-200-125-exam    | behance-gallery-sale-200-125-exam    | vceguide-share-experience-sale-200-125-exam    | techexams-forums-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | free4arab-sale-200-125-exam    | openlearning-courses-sale-200-125-exam    | mindhub-Cisco-Certified-Network-sale-200-125-exam    | vceplus-ccna-exam-sale-200-125-exam    | examsforall-cisco-sale-200-125-exam    | how2pass-ccna-practice-tests-sale-200-125-exam    | simulationexams-details-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | teksystems-sale-200-125-exam-routing-switching    | cram-flashcards-sale-200-125-exam    | pass4cert-cisco-new-ccna-sale-200-125-exam    | snatpedia-ccnaa-sale-200-125-exam    | cert4sure-free-download-sale-200-125-exam    | logicindia-ccnarouting-switching-sale-200-125-exam    | justcerts-practice-questions-sale-200-125-exam    | isc2-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | infosecinstitute-cissp-boot-camp-sale-CISSP-exam    | tomsitpro-security-certifications-sale-CISSP-125-exam    | infoworld-cissp-certification-sale-CISSP-exam    | welivesecurity.com-cissp-certified-sale-CISSP-exam    | searchsecurity-definition-sale-CISSP-exam    | simplilearn-cyber-security-training-sale-CISSP-exam    | arstechnica-security-sale-CISSP-exam    | cybrary-course-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | skillset-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | transcender-certprep-sale-CISSP-exam    | pearsonvue-sale-CISSP-exam-cert    | gocertify-isc2-issp-sale-CISSP-exam    | trainingcamp-training-bootcamp-sale-CISSP-exam    | cbtnuggets-security-sale-CISSP-exam    | cglobalknowledge.com-us-en-sale-CISSP-exam    | itgovernance-cissp-sale-CISSP-exam    | boson-certification-sale-CISSP-exam    | firebrandnordic-training-sale-CISSP-exam    | firebrandnordic-sale-CISSP-exam-123    | cybervista-sale-CISSP-exam-cert    | becker-sale-CISSP-exam-pdf    | youracclaim-certified-information-sale-CISSP-exam    | techexams-forums-sale-CISSP-exam    | munitechacademy-courses-sale-CISSP-exam    | hot-topics-cyber-security-courses-sale-CISSP-exam    | pearsonitcertification-sale-CISSP-exam    | sybextestbanks-wiley-sale-CISSP-exam    | lifewire-preparing-sale-CISSP-exam    | villanovau.com-resources-iss-sale-CISSP-exam    | intenseschool-boot-sale-CISSP-exam    | phoenixts-training-sale-CISSP-exam    | infosecisland-blogview-sale-CISSP-exam    | centralohioissa-member-sale-CISSP-exam    | learningtree-courses-certified-information-sale-CISSP-exam    | udallas.edu-executive-education-sale-CISSP-exam    | umbctraining-Courses-catalog-sale-CISSP-exam    | skyhighnetworks-cloud-security-sale-CISSP-exam    | helpnetsecurity-cert-sale-CISSP-exam    | secureninja-certification-bootcamp-sale-CISSP-exam    | mercurysolutions-information-sale-CISSP-exam    | exam-labs-info-sale-100-105-exam-pdf    | cbtnuggets-training-ccna-icnd1-sale-100-105-exam    | gocertify-ccent-practice-quiz-sale-100-105-exam    | ciscopress.com-ccna-icnd1-sale-100-105-exam    | boson-practice-sale-100-105-exam    | examcollectionuk-vce-download-sale-100-105-exam    | pearsonitcertification-articles-sale-100-105-exam    | transcender-practice-sale-100-105-exam-test    | techexams-forums-ccna-ccent-sale-100-105-exam    | shop-oreilly-sale-100-105-exam    | safaribooksonline-library-view-sale-100-105-exam    | subnetting-download-ccent-sale-100-105-exam    | 2cram-icnd1-online-quiz-sale-100-105-exam    | networklessons-routing-sale-100-105-exam    | centriq-123-ccna-certification-sale-100-105-exam    | ituonline-interconnecting-sale-100-105-exam    | transcender-introducing-the-new-sale-100-105-exam    | measureup-Networking-Devices-Part-sale-100-105-exam    | vceguide-icnd1-experience-sale-100-105-exam    | dumpscollection-dumps-sale-100-105-exam    | computerminds-business-sale-100-105-exam    | globed-ccent-or-icnd1-sale-100-105-exam    | ucertify-load-course-sale-100-105-exam    | academy-gns3-sale-100-105-exam    | visiontrainingsystems-product-sale-100-105-exam    | pearsonhighered-program-Wilkins-CCENT-sale-100-105-exam    | vceplus-ccent-sale-100-105-exam    | mindhub-Interconnecting-sale-100-105-exam    | sale-70-410-exam    | we-sale-70-410-exam    |
http://mleb.net/    | http://mleb.net/    |