ICND1 100-105
Official Cert Guide

Cisco Press
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CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Wendell Odom
Copyright© 2016 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Published by:
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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Printed in the United States of America
First Printing May 2016
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016933699
ISBN-13: 978-1-58720-580-4
ISBN-10: 1-58720-580-7

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Elan Beer Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Cover Designer Mark Shirar Composition Studio Galou Senior Indexer Erika Millen Proofreaders Kathy Ruiz. you can contact us through email at feedback@ciscopress. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book. Each book is crafted with care and precision. Paula Lowell . our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs. Cisco Press Jan Cornelssen Executive Editor Brett Bartow Managing Editor Sandra Schroeder Senior Development Editor Christopher Cleveland Senior Project Editor Tonya Simpson Copy Editors Keith Chuck Hutchinson Technical Editors Aubrey Adams. Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process. undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Business Operation Manager.iii Feedback Information At Cisco Press. We greatly appreciate your assistance.

This book is his 27th edition of some product for Pearson. and he is the author of all editions of the CCNA R&S and CCENT Cert Guides from Cisco Press. Aubrey has technically reviewed several Pearson Education and Cisco Press publications. and associated industry including video. Africa. Elan has designed networks and trained thousands of industry experts in data center architecture. Australia. graduate diplomas in computing and education.certskills. Aubrey has qualifications in electronic engineering and management. CCNP QoS. performing data center and network audits. links to his blogs. 1837. With a background in telecommunications design. simulation. He has worked as a network engineer. Elan has been involved in numerous large-scale data center and telecommunications networking projects worldwide. He maintains study tools. configuration. and troubleshooting as well as service provider technologies.iv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide About the Author Wendell Odom. Elan Beer. has been in the networking industry since 1981. and course developer. routing. Since 2007. Western Australia. Europe. Since then. certification guides throughout the years for CCENT. is a senior consultant and Cisco instructor specializing in data center architecture and multiprotocol network design. he currently works writing and creating certification study tools. CCIE No. systems engineer. . Elan has been focused on data center design. CCNP ROUTE. and switching. and online products. Elan has a global perspective of network architectures via his international clientele. He has written books about topics from networking basics. Elan was among the first to obtain the Cisco Certified System Instructor (CCSI) certification. Most recently. China. he was among the first to attain the Cisco System highest technical certification. CCNA DC. North America. About the Technical Reviewers Aubrey Adams is a Cisco Networking Academy instructor in Perth. the Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert. and assisting clients with their short. In 1993. CCNA R&S. For the past 27 years. and in 1996. and other resources at www. consultant. and CCIE R&S. CCIE No. Elan has used his expertise to design and troubleshoot data centers and internetworks in Malaysia. He helped develop the popular Pearson Network Simulator. 1624 (Emeritus). instructor. and the Middle East. Elan has been instrumental in large-scale professional service efforts designing and troubleshooting internetworks.and long-term design objectives. He has taught across a broad range of both related vocational and education training areas and university courses.

precious girl. singing scat. equiangular equilateral quadrilaterals. my wonderful daughter: Tomato softball. movies while other kids are at school. smart brain and a bigger heart. . being Jesus’s hands and feet. Love you. wasabi.v Dedications For Hannah Grace Odom. math homework—hooray!. Underdog stories.

with Mike drawing new figures as soon as I outline a new section or chapter. . From finding small technical errors. This book has more moving parts than most. and then pulling the design and layout together. Chris. because he knows of the common mistakes that students make when learning these same CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Acknowledgments Brett Bartow again served as executive editor on the book. As for technical editors. thanks. the juggling act continues. Presto. a pleasure to work with. Chris Cleveland did the development editing for the very first Cisco Press exam certification guide way back in 1998. and done well. learning some subnetting (fun. to suggesting where an extra thought or two rounds out a topic. From fixing all my grammar. Aubrey Adams tech edited the book. and building apps to make the practice experience more interactive. Lisa Matthews. and Chris’s part of the work happened on a challenging timeline. Besides the usual wisdom and good decision making to guide the project. It means more edits when I change my mind. did a great job on the figures again. I use a different process with the figures than most authors. and out pops these beautiful books. new at least in terms of someone I interact with during the writing process. once again getting the “opportunity” to manage two books with many elements at the same timeline. Greg Cote. It is truly abnormal to find one person who can do all aspects of technical editing in the same pass. huh Lisa?). Diligent. with excellence. And Tonya. crummy word choices. Joe Stralo. Thanks for managing the whole production process again. for jumping into the fray to keep the schedule moving. Lisa! I love the magic wand that is production. and Phil Vancil were a great help while we worked on these titles. passive-voice sentences. thanks for putting it all together and making it look easy. even though I’m jealous of his office setup. we work in concert with Cisco. As part of writing these books. he was the driving force behind adding all the new apps to the DVD/web. Thanks for guiding us through the process. Mike Tanamachi. Lisa handled all the practice app development: taking various appendixes. and an important part of deciding what the entire Official Cert Guide series direction should be. for the many late-night hours working through the different elements. illustrator and mind reader. objective. Fantastic job as usual. word docs with gobs of queries and comments feed into the machine. Elan does it all. his first time tech editing one of my books. Elan Beer did his usual amazing job. Thanks. and he’s been involved with the series ever since. once again. thanks. useful comments all around. and all the production team for making the magic happen. and he also provided some excellent feedback. to noticing phrasing that might mislead. and especially for keeping us on track with the new features. Thanks to Sandra Schroeder. Elan. Tonya Simpson. It’s always great to work with Chris. they do it all. Aubrey’s experience teaching the material was a big help in particular. Mandie Frank. We’ve worked together on probably 20+ titles now. As always. Aubrey! Welcome and thanks to a new team member. In particular. ho hum. A special thanks goes out to various people on the Cisco team who work with Pearson to create Cisco Press books.

Mike came through again with some beautiful finished products. and especially those of you who post online at the Cisco Learning Network. owns big parts of the lab development process for the associated labs added to my blogs. No way the books are out on time without Sean’s efforts.vii and lots of mind reading of what Wendell really wanted versus what I drew poorly on my Wacom tablet. And thanks to Jesus Christ. A longtime co-collaborator with Pearson’s CCNA Simulator. Chris. Thanks to my daughter Hannah (see dedication). the comments I receive directly and overhear by participating at CLN made this edition a better book. Kris. does various tasks related to specific chapters. And a thanks goes out to Laura Robbins for working on helping make sure all the figures follow our color standards—standards she helped develop over several other editions of other books. you are the man! Sean Wilkins played the largest role he’s played so far with one of my books. thanks for the great job. Without question. who helps make this sometimes challenging work lifestyle a breeze. I could not have made the timeline for this book without Chris Burns of Certskills Professional. Sean did a lot of technology work behind the scenes. . and then catches anything I need to toss over my shoulder so I can focus on the books. Thanks to my wonderful wife. Chris owns the mind map process now. Lord of everything in my life. Sean! A special thanks you to you readers who write in with suggestions and possible errors. doll. I love walking this journey with you.

and Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs Part III Review 218 242 270 298 Part IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets Part IV Review 378 340 356 302 326 301 217 .viii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Contents at a Glance Introduction xxxiv Your Study Plan 2 Part I: Networking Fundamentals 13 Chapter 1 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications Part I Review 14 38 60 78 102 120 Part II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces Part II Review 125 126 146 166 190 212 Part III: Ethernet LANs: Design. VLANs.

ix Part V: Implementing IPv4 383 Chapter 17 Operating Cisco Routers Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts Part V Review 384 434 470 498 Part VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting Chapter 21 Subnet Design Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part VI Review 503 504 528 542 564 586 Part VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 591 Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists Chapter 27 Network Address Translation Part VII Review 592 614 642 666 Part VIII: IP Version 6 671 Chapter 28 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing Part VIII Review 672 688 750 772 Part IX: Network Device Management Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802 777 778 704 728 402 .

x CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820 Chapter 36 IOS License Management Part IX Review 864 Part X: Final Review Chapter 37 848 867 Final Review Part XI: Appendixes 868 887 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates Glossary Index 889 895 897 928 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Appendix E Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks Appendix F Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets Appendix G Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design Appendix H Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Appendix I Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix J Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Appendix K Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Appendix L Mind Map Solutions Appendix M Study Planner Appendix N Classless Inter-domain Routing Appendix O Route Summarization Appendix P Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Appendix Q Topics from Previous Editions Appendix R Exam Topics Cross Reference .

xi Contents Introduction xxxiv Your Study Plan Part I 2 Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 13 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking 14 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 14 Foundation Topics 17 Perspectives on Networking 17 TCP/IP Networking Model 18 History Leading to TCP/IP 19 Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 20 TCP/IP Application Layer 22 HTTP Overview 22 HTTP Protocol Mechanisms 22 TCP/IP Transport Layer 23 TCP Error Recovery Basics 23 Same-Layer and Adjacent-Layer Interactions 24 TCP/IP Network Layer 25 Internet Protocol and the Postal Service 25 Internet Protocol Addressing Basics 27 IP Routing Basics 27 TCP/IP Link Layer (Data Link Plus Physical) 28 TCP/IP Model and Terminology 30 Comparing the Original and Modern TCP/IP Models Data Encapsulation Terminology 30 Names of TCP/IP Messages 31 OSI Networking Model 32 Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32 Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 33 OSI Layers and Their Functions 33 OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35 OSI Encapsulation Terminology 35 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs 30 38 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 38 Foundation Topics 40 An Overview of LANs 40 Typical SOHO LANs 41 Typical Enterprise LANs 42 The Variety of Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 43 Consistent Behavior over All Links Using the Ethernet Data Link Layer 44 .

xii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Building Physical Ethernet Networks with UTP 45 Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 45 Breaking Down a UTP Ethernet Link 46 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T 48 Straight-Through Cable Pinout 48 Choosing the Right Cable Pinouts 50 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T 51 Sending Data in Ethernet Networks 51 Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 51 Ethernet Addressing 52 Identifying Network Layer Protocols with the Ethernet Type Field Error Detection with FCS 55 Sending Ethernet Frames with Switches and Hubs 55 Sending in Modern Ethernet LANs Using Full Duplex 55 Using Half Duplex with LAN Hubs 56 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs 60 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 60 Foundation Topics 62 Leased-Line WANs 62 Positioning Leased Lines with LANs and Routers 62 Physical Details of Leased Lines 63 Leased-Line Cabling 64 Building a WAN Link in a Lab 66 Data-Link Details of Leased Lines 66 HDLC Basics 67 How Routers Use a WAN Data Link 68 Ethernet as a WAN Technology 69 Ethernet WANs that Create a Layer 2 Service 70 How Routers Route IP Packets Using Ethernet Emulation Accessing the Internet 72 The Internet as a Large WAN 72 Internet Access (WAN) Links 73 Digital Subscriber Line 74 Cable Internet 76 Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 71 78 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 78 Foundation Topics 81 Overview of Network Layer Functions 81 Network Layer Routing (Forwarding) Logic 81 Host Forwarding Logic: Send the Packet to the Default Router R1 and R2’s Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 83 R3’s Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 83 82 54 .

and C IP Networks 90 IP Subnetting 91 IPv4 Routing 93 IPv4 Host Routing 93 Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table A Summary of Router Forwarding Logic 94 A Detailed Routing Example 94 IPv4 Routing Protocols 96 Other Network Layer Features 98 Using Names and the Domain Name System 98 The Address Resolution Protocol 99 ICMP Echo and the ping Command 100 Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications 94 102 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 102 Foundation Topics 104 TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 104 Transmission Control Protocol 105 Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 106 Popular TCP/IP Applications 108 Connection Establishment and Termination 110 Error Recovery and Reliability 111 Flow Control Using Windowing 112 User Datagram Protocol 113 TCP/IP Applications 114 Uniform Resource Identifiers 114 Finding the Web Server Using DNS 115 Transferring Files with HTTP 117 How the Receiving Host Identifies the Correct Receiving Application Part I Review Part II 120 Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Foundation Topics 128 126 125 126 118 . and C IP Networks 88 The Actual Class A. B.xiii How Network Layer Routing Uses LANs and WANs 83 IP Addressing and How Addressing Helps IP Routing 84 Routing Protocols 85 IPv4 Addressing 86 Rules for IP Addresses 86 Rules for Grouping IP Addresses 87 Class A. B.

Clearing) 161 MAC Address Tables with Multiple Switches 162 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management 166 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 166 Foundation Topics 168 Securing the Switch CLI 168 Securing User Mode and Privileged Mode with Simple Passwords 169 Securing User Mode Access with Local Usernames and Passwords 173 Securing User Mode Access with External Authentication Servers 175 Securing Remote Access with Secure Shell 176 Enabling IPv4 for Remote Access 179 Host and Switch IP Settings 179 Configuring IPv4 on a Switch 181 .xiv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Accessing the Cisco Catalyst Switch CLI 128 Cisco Catalyst Switches 128 Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 129 Cabling the Console Connection 130 Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 133 User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 133 Password Security for CLI Access from the Console CLI Help Features 136 The debug and show Commands 137 Configuring Cisco IOS Software 138 Configuration Submodes and Contexts 139 Storing Switch Configuration Files 141 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching 135 143 146 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 146 Foundation Topics 148 LAN Switching Concepts 148 Overview of Switching Logic 149 Forwarding Known Unicast Frames 150 Learning MAC Addresses 153 Flooding Unknown Unicast and Broadcast Frames 154 Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 154 LAN Switching Summary 155 Verifying and Analyzing Ethernet Switching 156 Demonstrating MAC Learning 156 Switch Interfaces 158 Finding Entries in the MAC Address Table 159 Managing the MAC Address Table (Aging.

Duplex. and no ip domain-lookup Commands 184 Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces 190 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 190 Foundation Topics 192 Configuring Switch Interfaces 192 Configuring Speed. and Description 193 Configuring Multiple Interfaces with the interface range Command 195 Administratively Controlling Interface State with shutdown 195 Removing Configuration with the no Command 197 Autonegotiation 198 Autonegotiation Under Working Conditions 198 Autonegotiation Results When Only One Node Uses Autonegotiation 200 Autonegotiation and LAN Hubs 201 Port Security 202 Configuring Port Security 203 Verifying Port Security 205 Port Security Violation Actions 207 Port Security MAC Addresses as Static and Secure but Not Dynamic 207 Part II Review Part III 212 Ethernet LANs: Design. and Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs 217 218 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 218 Foundation Topics 220 Analyzing Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 220 Ethernet Collision Domains 220 10BASE-T with Hub 220 Ethernet Transparent Bridges 221 Ethernet Switches and Collision Domains 222 The Impact of Collisions on LAN Design 223 Ethernet Broadcast Domains 224 Virtual LANs 225 The Impact of Broadcast Domains on LAN Design Analyzing Campus LAN Topologies 227 Two-Tier Campus Design (Collapsed Core) 227 226 . VLANs.xv Configuring a Switch to Learn Its IP Address with DHCP 182 Verifying IPv4 on a Switch 183 Miscellaneous Settings Useful in Lab 184 History Buffer Commands 184 The logging synchronous. exec-timeout.

1Q and ISL VLAN Trunking Protocols 248 Forwarding Data Between VLANs 249 Routing Packets Between VLANs with a Router 249 Routing Packets with a Layer 3 Switch 251 VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 252 Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 252 VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration 253 VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration 256 VLAN Trunking Protocol 257 VLAN Trunking Configuration 258 Implementing Interfaces Connected to Phones 262 Data and Voice VLAN Concepts 262 Data and Voice VLAN Configuration and Verification 264 Summary: IP Telephony Ports on Switches 266 Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs 270 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 271 Foundation Topics 274 Perspectives on Applying Troubleshooting Methodologies 274 Troubleshooting on the Exams 275 A Deeper Look at Problem Isolation 275 Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 277 Analyzing Switch Interface Status and Statistics 278 Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 279 Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 282 278 .xvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide The Two-Tier Campus Design 227 Topology Terminology Seen Within a Two-Tier Design 228 Three-Tier Campus Design (Core) 230 Topology Design Terminology 232 Analyzing LAN Physical Standard Choices 233 Ethernet Standards 234 Choosing the Right Ethernet Standard for Each Link 235 Wireless LANs Combined with Wired Ethernet 236 Home Office Wireless LANs 236 Enterprise Wireless LANs and Wireless LAN Controllers 238 Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 242 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 242 Foundation Topics 244 Virtual LAN Concepts 244 Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 246 VLAN Tagging Concepts 246 The 802.

0.16. 200 Subnets.xvii Predicting Where Switches Will Forward Frames 284 Predicting the Contents of the MAC Address Table 284 Analyzing the Forwarding Path 286 Analyzing Port Security Operations on an Interface 287 Troubleshooting Shutdown Mode and Err-disabled Recovery 288 Troubleshooting Restrict and Protect Modes 289 Analyzing VLANs and VLAN Trunks 292 Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 292 Access VLANs Not Being Defined 293 Access VLANs Being Disabled 294 Mismatched Trunking Operational States 294 Part III Review Part IV 298 IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 301 302 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 302 Foundation Topics 304 Introduction to Subnetting 304 Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 305 Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 306 Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 306 Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 306 Determining the Number of Subnets 308 Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 309 One Size Subnet Fits All—Or Not 310 Defining the Size of a Subnet 310 One-Size Subnet Fits All 311 Multiple Subnet Sizes (Variable-Length Subnet Masks) 312 This Book: One-Size Subnet Fits All (Mostly) 312 Make Design Choices 313 Choose a Classful Network 313 Public IP Networks 313 Growth Exhausts the Public IP Address Space 314 Private IP Networks 315 Choosing an IP Network During the Design Phase 316 Choose the Mask 316 Classful IP Networks Before Subnetting 316 Borrowing Host Bits to Create Subnet Bits 317 Choosing Enough Subnet and Host Bits 318 Example Design: 172. 200 Hosts 319 Masks and Mask Formats 319 Build a List of All Subnets 320 .0.

and C Networks Address Formats 330 Default Masks 331 Number of Hosts per Network 331 Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 332 Unusual Network IDs and Network Broadcast Addresses 334 Practice with Classful Networks 334 Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 335 Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 335 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 337 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 337 Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks 340 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 340 Foundation Topics 342 Subnet Mask Conversion 342 Three Mask Formats 342 Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 343 Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 344 Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 346 Practice Converting Subnet Masks 346 Identifying Subnet Design Choices Using Masks 347 Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 348 Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 349 Classless and Classful Addressing 350 Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 350 Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 352 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 354 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 354 Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets 356 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 356 329 .xviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Plan the Implementation 321 Assigning Subnets to Different Locations 322 Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 323 Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 326 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 326 Foundation Topics 328 Classful Network Concepts 328 IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 328 The Number and Size of the Class A. B.

0.xix Foundation Topics 358 Defining a Subnet 358 An Example with Network 172.0 and Four Subnets Subnet ID Concepts 360 Subnet Broadcast Address 361 Range of Usable Addresses 361 Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 362 Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 362 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 364 Binary Practice Problems 364 Shortcut for the Binary Process 366 358 Brief Note About Boolean Math 367 Finding the Range of Addresses 367 Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 368 Analysis with Easy Masks 368 Predictability in the Interesting Octet 369 Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 370 Resident Subnet Example 1 370 Resident Subnet Example 2 371 Resident Subnet Practice Problems 372 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 372 Subnet Broadcast Example 1 372 Subnet Broadcast Example 2 373 Subnet Broadcast Address Practice Problems 374 Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 374 A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 374 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 375 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 376 Part IV Review Part V 378 Implementing IPv4 Chapter 17 383 Operating Cisco Routers 384 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 384 Foundation Topics 386 Installing Cisco Routers 386 Installing Enterprise Routers 386 Cisco Integrated Services Routers 387 Physical Installation 388 Installing Internet Access Routers 389 Enabling IPv4 Support on Cisco Router Interfaces 390 Accessing the Router CLI 390 .16.

xx CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Router Interfaces 391 Interface Status Codes 393 Router Interface IP Addresses 394 Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces Router Auxiliary Port 398 Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes 396 402 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 403 Foundation Topics 405 IP Routing 405 IPv4 Routing Process Reference 405 An Example of IP Routing 408 Host Forwards the IP Packet to the Default Router (Gateway) 409 Routing Step 1: Decide Whether to Process the Incoming Frame 409 Routing Step 2: De-encapsulation of the IP Packet 410 Routing Step 3: Choosing Where to Forward the Packet 410 Routing Step 4: Encapsulating the Packet in a New Frame 411 Routing Step 5: Transmitting the Frame 412 Configuring IP Addresses and Connected Routes 412 Connected Routes and the ip address Command 413 The ARP Table on a Cisco Router 415 Routing Between Subnets on VLANs 415 Configuring Routing to VLANs Using 802.1Q on Routers 416 Configuring Routing to VLANs Using a Layer 3 Switch 420 Configuring Static Routes 422 Static Route Configuration 422 Static Host Routes 424 Static Routes with No Competing Routes 425 Static Routes with Competing Routes 425 Static Default Routes 427 Troubleshooting Static Routes 428 Troubleshooting Incorrect Static Routes that Appear in the IP Routing Table 429 The Static Route Does Not Appear in the IP Routing Table 429 The Correct Static Route Appears but Works Poorly 429 Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 434 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 435 Foundation Topics 437 RIP and Routing Protocol Concepts 437 History of Interior Gateway Protocols Comparing IGPs 438 Distance Vector Basics 439 437 .

with Many IP Networks 445 RIP Configuration Example. with One IP Network 446 RIPv2 Verification 447 Examining RIP Routes in the IP Routing Table 447 Comparing Routing Sources with Administrative Distance 449 Revealing RIP Configuration with the show ip protocols Command 450 Examining the Best RIP Routes Using RIP Database 451 Optional RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 452 Controlling RIP Updates with the passive-interface Command 452 Supporting Multiple Equal-Cost Routes with Maximum Paths 453 Understanding Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 454 Verifying Optional RIP Features 456 RIPv2 Default Routes 458 Learning Default Routes Using Static Routes and RIPv2 458 Learning a Default Route Using DHCP 460 Troubleshooting RIPv2 461 Symptoms with Missing and Incorrect network Commands 463 Issues Related to Passive Interfaces 464 Issues Related to auto-summary 465 RIP Issues Caused by Other Router Features 466 Summary of RIP Troubleshooting Issues 466 Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts 470 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 471 Foundation Topics 473 Implementing and Troubleshooting DHCP 473 DHCP Concepts 473 Supporting DHCP for Remote Subnets with DHCP Relay 475 Information Stored at the DHCP Server 476 DHCP Server Configuration on Routers 478 IOS DHCP Server Verification 480 Troubleshooting DHCP Services 481 DHCP Relay Agent Configuration Mistakes and Symptoms 481 .xxi The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 439 Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 440 Split Horizon 441 Route Poisoning 441 Summarizing RIPv2 Features 442 Core RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 443 Configuring Core RIPv2 Features 443 Understanding the RIP network Command 444 RIP Configuration Example. 517 Example 2: Network 192.xxii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide IOS DHCP Server Configuration Mistakes and Symptoms 482 IP Connectivity from DHCP Relay Agent to DHCP Server 484 LAN Connectivity Between the DHCP Client and Relay Agent 484 Summary of DHCP Troubleshooting 485 Detecting Conflicts with Offered Versus Used Addresses 485 Verifying Host IPv4 Settings 486 IP Address and Mask Configuration 487 Name Resolution with DNS 488 Default Routers 489 IPv4 Address Types 490 Review of Unicast (Class A.224 518 Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 519 Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 520 Process with 9–16 Subnet Bits 520 Process with 17 or More Subnet Bits 522 .255.0.255. Mask 255.168. B.0.1. and C) IP Addresses 491 IP Broadcast Addresses 491 IPv4 Multicast Addresses (Class D Addresses) 492 Comparing and Contrasting IP Address Types 494 Part V Review Part VI 498 IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting Chapter 21 Subnet Design 503 504 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 504 Foundation Topics 506 Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 506 Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 507 No Masks Meet Requirements 508 One Mask Meets Requirements 509 Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 510 Finding All the Masks: Concepts 510 Finding All the Masks: Math 511 Choosing the Best Mask 512 The Formal Process 512 Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 513 Practice Problems for Choosing a Subnet Mask 513 Finding All Subnet IDs 513 First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 514 Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 515 A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 515 Example 1: Network 172.255. Mask 255.

xxiii Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 523 Practice Problems for Finding All Subnet IDs Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 524 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 524 Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks 523 528 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 528 Foundation Topics 530 VLSM Concepts and Configuration 530 Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 530 VLSM Configuration and Verification 531 Finding VLSM Overlaps 532 Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM 533 An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap 534 Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps 536 Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design 536 An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet 537 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 539 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 539 Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools 542 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 543 Foundation Topics 543 Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 543 Ping Command Basics 543 Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 544 Testing Longer Routes from Near the Source of the Problem 545 Using Extended Ping to Test the Reverse Route 547 Testing LAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 549 Testing LAN Neighbors with Extended Ping 550 Testing WAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 551 Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 552 Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 553 traceroute Basics 553 How the traceroute Command Works 554 Standard and Extended traceroute 556 Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 557 .

xxiv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Telnet and SSH 559 Common Reasons to Use the IOS Telnet and SSH Client IOS Telnet and SSH Examples 560 Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing 559 564 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 565 Foundation Topics 565 Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 565 Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 566 Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 566 Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 569 567 Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 570 Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 570 DHCP Issues 571 Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 573 Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 574 IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 575 Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 577 show ip route Reference 577 Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 579 Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 579 Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 579 Overlaps When Using VLSM 581 Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 582 Pointers to Related Troubleshooting Topics 583 Router WAN Interface Status 583 Filtering Packets with Access Lists 584 Part VI Review Part VII 586 IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists 591 592 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 592 Foundation Topics 594 IPv4 Access Control List Basics 594 ACL Location and Direction 594 Matching Packets 595 Taking Action When a Match Occurs 596 Types of IP ACLs 596 Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 597 List Logic with IP ACLs 598 Matching Logic and Command Syntax 599 575 .

xxv Matching the Exact IP Address 599 Matching a Subset of the Address with Wildcards 600 Binary Wildcard Masks 601 Finding the Right Wildcard Mask to Match a Subnet 602 Matching Any/All Addresses 602 Implementing Standard IP ACLs 602 Standard Numbered ACL Example 1 603 Standard Numbered ACL Example 2 604 Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 606 Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 607 Practice Building access-list Commands 608 Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 611 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 612 Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists 608 614 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 615 Foundation Topics 616 Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 616 Matching the Protocol. Source IP. and Destination IP 617 Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 618 Extended IP ACL Configuration 621 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 622 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 623 Practice Building access-list Commands 624 Named ACLs and ACL Editing 625 Named IP Access Lists 625 Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 627 Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 629 ACL Implementation Considerations 630 Troubleshooting with IPv4 ACLs 631 Analyzing ACL Behavior in a Network 631 ACL Troubleshooting Commands 633 Example Issue: Reversed Source/Destination IP Addresses 634 Steps 3D and 3E: Common Syntax Mistakes 635 Example Issue: Inbound ACL Filters Routing Protocol Packets 635 ACL Interactions with Router-Generated Packets 637 Local ACLs and a Ping from a Router 637 Router Self-Ping of a Serial Interface IPv4 Address 637 Router Self-Ping of an Ethernet Interface IPv4 Address 638 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 641 .

xxvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Chapter 27 Network Address Translation 642 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 642 Foundation Topics 645 Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability 645 CIDR 645 Private Addressing 646 Network Address Translation Concepts 647 Static NAT 648 Dynamic NAT 650 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting 653 Static NAT Configuration 653 Dynamic NAT Configuration 655 Dynamic NAT Verification 657 NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration 660 NAT Troubleshooting 662 Part VII Review Part VIII Chapter 28 652 666 IP Version 6 671 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 672 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 672 Foundation Topics 674 Introduction to IPv6 674 The Historical Reasons for IPv6 674 The IPv6 Protocols 676 IPv6 Routing 677 IPv6 Routing Protocols 679 IPv6 Addressing Formats and Conventions 680 Representing Full (Unabbreviated) IPv6 Addresses 680 Abbreviating and Expanding IPv6 Addresses 681 Representing the Prefix Length of an Address 683 Calculating the IPv6 Prefix (Subnet ID) 683 Finding the IPv6 Prefix 683 Working with More-Difficult IPv6 Prefix Lengths 685 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 686 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 687 Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting 688 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 688 Foundation Topics 690 Global Unicast Addressing Concepts 690 A Brief Review of Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 690 .

xxvii Review of Public IPv4 Addressing Concepts 690 Review of Private IPv4 Addressing Concepts 692 Public and Private IPv6 Addresses 692 The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix 693 Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses 695 IPv6 Subnetting Using Global Unicast Addresses 696 Deciding Where IPv6 Subnets Are Needed 696 The Mechanics of Subnetting IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses Listing the IPv6 Subnet Identifier 698 List All IPv6 Subnets 699 Assign Subnets to the Internetwork Topology 699 696 Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet 700 Unique Local Unicast Addresses 701 Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses 701 The Need for Globally Unique Local Addresses 702 Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers 704 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 705 Foundation Topics 706 Implementing Unicast IPv6 Addresses on Routers 706 Static Unicast Address Configuration 707 Configuring the Full 128-Bit Address 707 Enabling IPv6 Routing 708 Verifying the IPv6 Address Configuration 709 Generating a Unique Interface ID Using Modified EUI-64 711 Dynamic Unicast Address Configuration 715 Special Addresses Used by Routers 715 Link-Local Addresses 716 Link-Local Address Concepts 716 Creating Link-Local Addresses on Routers 717 Routing IPv6 with Only Link-Local Addresses on an Interface 718 IPv6 Multicast Addresses 719 Local Scope Multicast Addresses 719 Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 720 Anycast Addresses 722 Miscellaneous IPv6 Addresses 723 IPv6 Addressing Configuration Summary 723 Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 725 Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 726 Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 728 728 .

xxviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Foundation Topics 730 The Neighbor Discovery Protocol 730 Discovering Routers with NDP RS and RA 731 Discovering Addressing Info for SLAAC with NDP RS and RA 732 Discovering Neighbor Link Addresses with NDP NS and NA 733 Discovering Duplicate Addresses Using NDP NS and NA 734 NDP Summary 735 Dynamic Configuration of Host IPv6 Settings 735 Dynamic Configuration Using Stateful DHCP and NDP 736 Differences Between DHCPv6 and DHCPv4 736 DHCPv6 Relay Agents 737 Using Stateless Address Auto Configuration 739 Building an IPv6 Address Using SLAAC 739 Combining SLAAC with NDP and Stateless DHCP 740 Troubleshooting IPv6 Addressing 741 Verifying Host IPv6 Connectivity from Hosts 741 Verifying Host Connectivity from Nearby Routers 744 Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing 750 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 750 Foundation Topics 752 Connected and Local IPv6 Routes 752 Rules for Connected and Local Routes 753 Example of Connected IPv6 Routes 753 Examples of Local IPv6 Routes 755 Static IPv6 Routes 756 Static Routes Using the Outgoing Interface 756 Static Routes Using Next-Hop IPv6 Address 758 Example Static Route with a Global Unicast Next-Hop Address 758 Example Static Route with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 759 Static Default Routes 760 Static IPv6 Host Routes 761 Floating Static IPv6 Routes 762 Default Routes with SLAAC on Router Interfaces 763 Troubleshooting Static IPv6 Routes 765 Troubleshooting Incorrect Static Routes That Appear in the IPv6 Routing Table 765 The Static Route Does Not Appear in the IPv6 Routing Table 767 Part VIII Review Part IX 772 Network Device Management Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Foundation Topics 780 779 777 778 .

and Client/Server Mode 789 NTP Using a Loopback Interface for Better Availability 791 Analyzing Topology Using CDP and LLDP 793 Examining Information Learned by CDP 793 Configuring and Verifying CDP Itself 796 Implementing Link Layer Discovery Protocol 797 Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 802 Foundation Topics 804 Securing IOS Passwords 804 Encrypting Older IOS Passwords with service password-encryption 805 Encoding the Enable Passwords with Hashes 806 Interactions Between Enable Password and Enable Secret 806 Making the Enable Secret Truly Secret with a Hash 807 Improved Hashes for Cisco’s Enable Secret 808 Hiding the Passwords for Local Usernames 810 Cisco Device Hardening 810 Configuring Login Banners 810 Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 812 Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs 813 Firewalls 814 Typical Location and Uses of Firewalls 814 Security Zones 815 Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 820 Foundation Topics 822 Managing Cisco IOS Images and Upgrades 822 The IOS File System 822 Upgrading IOS Images 824 Copying a New IOS Image to a Local IOS File System Using TFTP 825 Verifying IOS Code Integrity with MD5 827 .xxix System Message Logging (Syslog) 780 Sending Messages in Real Time to Current Users 780 Storing Log Messages for Later Review 781 Log Message Format 782 Log Message Severity Levels 783 Configuring and Verifying System Logging 784 The debug Command and Log Messages 786 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 787 Setting the Time and Timezone 788 Implementing NTP Clients. Servers. CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Copying Images with FTP 828 Copying Images with SCP 829 The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 830 The Configuration Register 831 How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 831 Verifying the IOS Image Using the show version Command Password Recovery 835 The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 836 A Specific Password Reset Example 837 Managing Configuration Files 839 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 839 833 Traditional Configuration Backup and Restore with the copy Command 840 Alternatives for Configuration Backup and Restore 841 Erasing Configuration Files 843 Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 843 Chapter 36 IOS License Management 848 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 848 Foundation Topics 850 IOS Packaging 850 IOS Images per Model. and per Software Version/Release 850 Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 851 New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 851 IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 852 The Future: Cisco ONE Licensing 854 Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 854 Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 855 Example of Manually Activating a License 857 Showing the Current License Status 857 Adding a Permanent Technology Package License 859 Right-to-Use Licenses 861 Part IX Review Part X 864 Final Review Chapter 37 Final Review 867 868 Advice About the Exam Event 868 Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial Think About Your Time Budget Versus Number of Questions 869 A Suggested Time-Check Method 870 Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 870 Exam-Day Advice 871 868 .

xxxi Reserve the Hour After the Exam in Case You Fail 871 Exam Review 872 Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 873 Take Practice Exams 874 Practicing Taking the ICND1 Exam 875 Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 876 Taking Other Practice Exams 877 Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 877 Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 879 Review Mind Maps from Part Review 880 Do Labs 880 Assess Whether You Are Ready to Pass (and the Fallacy of Exam Scores) 881 Study Suggestions After Failing to Pass 882 Other Study Tasks 883 Final Thoughts 884 Part XI Appendixes 887 Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates Glossary Index 889 895 897 928 DVD Appendixes Appendix C Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes Appendix D Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks Appendix E Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks Appendix F Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets Appendix G Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design Appendix H Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Appendix I Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists Appendix J Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6 Appendix K Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers Appendix L Mind Map Solutions Appendix M Study Planner Appendix N Classless Inter-domain Routing Appendix O Route Summarization Appendix P Implementing Point-to-Point WANs Appendix Q Topics from Previous Editions Appendix R Exam Topics Cross Reference .

simply register your product. you will find any available bonus content under Registered Products. . *Be sure to check the box that you would like to hear from us to receive exclusive discounts on future editions of this product. go to www. To start the registration process. Enter the product ISBN 9781587205804 and click Submit.xxxii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Reader Services To access additional content for this and log in or create an account*. After the process is complete.

■ Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. ■ Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element. ■ Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). . mutually exclusive elements.xxxiii Icons Used in This Book Printer PC Laptop Server Phone IP Phone Router Switch Frame Relay Switch Cable Modem Access Point ASA DSLAM WAN Switch CSU/DSU Hub PIX Firewall Bridge Layer 3 Switch Network Cloud Ethernet Connection Serial Line Virtual Circuit Ethernet WAN Wireless Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). ■ Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. ■ Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice.

Cisco certification makes perfect sense. you can take a sample quiz just to get accustomed to the PC and the testing engine. using forums. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer. Anyone who has user-level skills in . early in the year 2016.Introduction About the Exams Congratulations! If you’re reading far enough to look at this book’s Introduction. 200-105 ICND2. you sit in a quiet room with a PC. networking equals Cisco. The Exams to Achieve CCENT and CCNA R&S Cisco announced changes to the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certifications. In many geographies and markets around the world. the exams in Figure I-1 will likely be called version 3 (or v3 for short). you need to know Cisco. you’ve probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification. for instance. you have a chance to do a few other tasks on the PC. At the testing center. Cisco has a ridiculously high market share in the router and switch marketplace. as shown in Figure I-1: pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry at all. Types of Questions on the Exams The ICND1. You also pick up the CCENT certification by going through the two-exam path. but you do not when working through the single-exam option. Cisco gives you two options to achieve CCNA R&S certification. or just pass the CCNA exam. just make sure to use the correct exam number as shown in the figure. However. and registering for the test. and the related 100-105 ICND1. Historically. with more than 80 percent market share in some markets. Simple enough. If that form holds true. but the two-exam path does so spread over two exams rather than one. and CCNA exams all follow the same general format. dating back to 1998. Both paths cover the same exam topics. Most everyone new to Cisco certifications begins with either CCENT or CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S). 100-105 ICND1 CCENT 200-105 ICND2 200-125 CCNA Figure I-1 CCNA Routing and Switching (CCNA R&S) Cisco Entry-Level Certifications and Exams Note that Cisco has begun referencing some exams with a version number on some of their web pages. the paths to certification are not quite obvious at first. and 200-125 CCNA exams. ICND2. when looking for information. The CCENT certification requires a single step: pass the ICND1 exam. Before the exam timer begins. To make sure you reference the correct exam. the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam is the seventh separate version of the exam (which warrants a different exam number).

a lab scenario. learn the exam user interface by using the Cisco Exam Tutorial. Although the first four types of questions in the list should be somewhat familiar from other tests in school. To find the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial.” This PDF appendix lists two cross references: one with a list of the exam topics and the chapters that include something about each topic. You can find out more about what’s on the exam from two primary sources: this book and from the Cisco website. and your verification and troubleshooting skills with simlet questions. someone would always ask. so that you control and use simulated Cisco devices. whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon. Just go to www. Like a sim question. Cisco wants the public to know both the variety of topics. Instead of changing/fixing the the goal is to know what to study xxxv . Your job is to fix a problem with the configuration. What’s on the CCNA Exams—And What’s in the Book? Ever since I was in grade school. “What’s on the test?” Even in college. like a testlet. Both use a network simulator to ask questions. Simlet questions: This style combines sim and testlet question formats. and can access the devices. This tool walks through each type of question Cisco may ask on the exam. you answer questions about the current state of the network. as well as the reverse: a list of chapters. and navigate until you see the exam topics in Appendix R. a lab scenario. and an idea about the kinds of knowledge and skills required for each topic. multiple-answer ■ Testlet (one scenario with multiple multi-choice questions) ■ Drag-and-drop ■ Simulated lab (sim) ■ Simlet Before taking the test. and what to not study at all. At heart. Cisco tells the world the specific topics on each of their exams. However. look for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching pages. The Cisco Published Exam Topics First. the last two are more common to IT tests and Cisco exams in particular. you also see multiple multiple-choice questions. search for “exam tutorial” at www. and can access the devices. people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams. These two question styles with the simulator give Cisco the ability to test your configuration skills with sim questions. single-answer ■ Multiple-choice. with the exam topics included in each chapter. you see a network “Exam Topic Cross Reference. for every Cisco certification exam. what to study a little. The question types are ■ Multiple-choice.Introduction getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment. In particular: Sim questions: You see a network topology.

Look for notices about the use of unscored items. about three-quarters of the chapter is about the technology. plus additional subtopics that further define that technology area. The ICND1 book (and ICND1 100-105 exam topics) covers about half of the topics listed for the CCNA 200-125 exam.xxxvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Cisco does more than just list the topic (for example. It also highlights the most important topics in each chapter as key topics. this book covers about one-half of the CCNA exam topics. this Introduction discusses the book features introduced by chapter. The “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter contains rich content to explain the topics on the exam and to show many examples. And if to do that. and for final review. For example. verify. Most of the book’s features tie in some way to the need to study beyond simply reading the “Foundation Topics” section of each chapter. you need to understand concepts. Note that the list of exam topics provides a certain level of depth. and the similar CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide. and then by part (a part contains multiple chapters). the ICND1 100-105 exam topic list has 41 primary exam topics (topics with verbs). This Book: About the Exam Topics This book provides a complete study system for the Cisco published exam topics for the ICND1 100-105 exam. and troubleshoot). in the technology chapters of the book. CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. All the topics in this book either directly relate to some ICND1 exam topic or provide more basic background knowledge for some exam topic. and about one-quarter is for the related study features. verify. those details are implied. For example. go beyond what you would find in a simple technology book. for content. For those of you thinking more specifically about the CCNA R&S certification and the CCNA 200-125 single-exam path to CCNA. part. To do that. which describes one of the most important topics in both CCENT and CCNA R&S: Configure. . and troubleshoot. IPv4 addressing). and the fact that Cisco intends the exam topics to be a set of general guidelines for the exams. verify. and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting Note that this one exam topic has three verbs (configure. Book Features This book. The rest of this section works through these book features. The scope of the book is based on the exam topics. The exam questions will attempt to assess whether you can configure. and the ICND2 book (and the ICND2 200-105 exam topics) cover the other half. So. and you need to have other knowledge. These books give you a study system designed to help you not only learn facts but also to develop the skills need to pass the exams. In short. You should take the time to not only read the exam topics. consider the following exam topic. The primary exam topics each list one or more verbs that describe the skill level required. so you know what to master first in your study. but they also list the depth to which you must master the topic. And because the book organizes your study by chapter. but read the short material above the exam topics as listed at the Cisco web page for each certification and exam. This section makes extensive use of figures. with lists and tables for comparisons. and to troubleshoot problems when it is not working. and then a final review at the end of the book. you should be able to not only configure IPv4 addresses and subnets. but you should understand them well enough to verify that the configuration works.

2) Companion Website 3) DVD Three Primary Tasks for a First Pass Through Each Chapter In addition to these three main chapter features. While all content matters. However.. so you can work on memorizing the content. and practice skills-based content in the chapter. ■ Key Terms You Should Know: You do not need to be able to write a formal definition of all terms from scratch. and troubleshooting. use the chapter review tasks to start working on mastering your memory of the facts and skills with configuration. The app shows the table with some content removed. some tables have been marked as memory tables. You can use the score to determine whether you already know a lot.” and “troubleshoot”. for the purpose of later review and mastery. connect ideas. xxxvii . ■ Labs: Many exam topics use verbs list “configure. and then reveals the completed table. verification. DIKTA Quiz Take Quiz Figure I-2 High Score Low Score Foundation Topics Chapter Review (Skim) Foundation Topics (Read) Foundation Topics 1) In-Chapter. and use the DVD Glossary to cross-check your own mental definitions. organized for reading and study. scan the chapter for these items to review them.” “verify. ■ Complete Tables from Memory: Instead of just rereading an important table of information. The Introduction’s upcoming section titled “About Building Hands-On Skills” discusses your options. or. so these items are noted as key topics. Make sure you have a good understanding of each term. each “Chapter Review” section uses a variety of other book features. as follows: “Do I Know This Already?” quizzes: Each chapter begins with a prechapter quiz. or needs more review to master. When finished.. more important to learn. Chapter Review: This section includes a list of study tasks useful to help you remember concepts. some is. of course. Figure I-2 shows how each chapter uses these three key elements. the Key Topic icon appears next to the most important items. Foundation Topics: This is the heading for the core content section of the chapter. you do need to understand each term well enough to understand exam questions and answers. The chapter review refers you to these other tools. and determine how to approach reading the Foundation Topics (that is. all these refer to skills you should practice at the user interface (CLI) of a router or switch. or not so much. the technology content in the chapter). These tables exist in the Memory Table app that is available on the DVD and from the companion website. The chapter review lists the key topics in a table. You start with the DIKTA quiz.Introduction Chapter Features and How to Use Each Chapter Each chapter of this book is a self-contained short course about one small topic area. including the following: ■ Review Key Topics: Inside the “Foundation Topics” section. The chapter review lists the key terminology from the chapter.

The chapter review asks you to do additional practice problems as found in DVD-only PDF appendixes. to help you think about topics from multiple chapters. but also use them for study—just cover one column of the table. along with an explanation. ■ Mind Maps: Mind maps are graphical organizing tools that many people find useful when learning and processing how concepts fit together. The part review suggests that you repeat the DIKTA questions. (For more information about mind maps. and to build the skills needed for the more challenging analysis questions on the exams. to connect show commands and the related networking concepts. ■ Review DIKTA Questions: Although you have already seen the DIKTA questions from the chapters in a part.”) . and even to connect terminology. re-answering those questions can prove a useful way to review facts. VLANs. The process of creating mind maps helps you build mental connections.xxxviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Command References: Some book chapters cover a large amount of router and switch commands. the part review includes some tasks meant to help pull the ideas together from this larger body of work. The chapter review includes reference tables for the command used in that chapter. Figure I-3 lists the titles of the parts and the chapters in those parts (by chapter number). and Troubleshooting (10-12) Network Fundamentals (1-5) The Book Parts (by Title). but using the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam software that comes with the book. 8 IP Version 6 (28-32) 4 IPv4 Addressing and Subnetting (13-16) 2 1 Figure I-3 5 Implementing IPv4 (17-20) Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs (6-9) 9 Network Device Management (33-36) 6 IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting (21-24) 7 IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT (25-27) 3 Ethernet LANs: Design. Use these tables for reference. One database holds questions written specifically for part review. see the section “About Mind Maps. and Chapter Numbers in Each Part Each book part ends with a “Part Review” section that contains a list of activities for study and review. much like the “Chapter Review” section at the end of each chapter. These questions tend to connect multiple ideas together. for extra practice in answering multiple choice questions on a computer. ■ Subnetting and Other Process Exercises: Many chapters in the ICND1 book ask you to perform various tasks that use math or use a particular process. The part review elements make use of mind maps in several ways: to connect concepts and the related configuration commands. The following list explains the types of tasks added to part review beyond the types mentioned for chapter review: ■ Answer Part Review Questions: The books comes with exam software and databases on questions. and see how much you can remember and complete mentally. However. Each part contains a number of related chapters. Part Features and How to Use Part Review The book organizes the chapters into parts. because the part review takes place after completing a number of chapters.

No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. using the shortcuts described in this book). we have included a special offer on a coupon card inserted in the DVD sleeve in the back of the book. You can take simulated ICND1 exams with the DVD and activation code included in this book. This is a great resource to practice building subnetting skills. To that end. (Check out the section “About Building Hands-On Skills” for information about lab options. PDF (for reading on your computer). this book. reviewing key topics. including the following: ■ DVD-based practice exam: The companion DVD contains the powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) exam engine. the “Final Review” chapter uses the same familiar book features discussed for the chapter review and part review elements. has additional study resources. xxxix . to experience the Cisco command-line interface (CLI). Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book. EPUB (for reading on your tablet. In addition to three versions of the eBook. along with a much larger set of practice questions. many “Part Review” sections have you perform other tasks with book features mentioned in the “Chapter Review” section: repeating DIKTA quiz questions.) ■ CCENT ICND1 100-105 Network Simulator Lite: This lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson provides you with a means. Other Features In addition to the features in each of the core chapters. you also receive additional practice test questions and enhanced practice test features. and Mobi (the native Kindle version).) In addition to these tasks. Final Review The “Final Review” chapter at the end of this book lists a series of preparation tasks that you can best use for your final preparation before taking the exam.Introduction ■ Labs: The “Part Review” section will direct you to the kinds of lab exercises you should do with your chosen lab product. or Nook or other eReader). The “Final Review” chapter focuses on a three-part approach to helping you pass: practicing your skills. This offer enables you to purchase the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test at a 70 percent discount off the list price. and uncovering your weak spots. You can also do these same practice problems with applications that you can access from the DVD or the companion web site. right now. and doing more lab exercises. ■ Subnetting videos: The companion DVD contains a series of videos that show you how to calculate various facts about IP addressing and subnetting (in particular. as a whole. ■ Subnetting practice: The companion DVD contains five appendixes (D–H) with a set of subnetting practice problems and answers. practicing answering exam questions. labs that would be more appropriate for this stage of study and review. mobile device. ■ eBook: If you are interested in obtaining an eBook version of this title. (You can take simulated ICND2 and CCNA R&S exams with the DVD in the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide.

com/title/9781587205804 posts upto-the-minute materials that further clarify complex exam topics. all chapter review activities use the book chapter. most every activity that can be done at chapter review can now be done with an application. blogs. look to blog. This book (and the CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide) are the first Cisco Press Cert Guides with extensive interactive applications. Start at www. Basically. about the following topics: switch basics. or the chapter plus a DVD-only appendix. You can also do these same practice problems with applications that you can access from the DVD or the companion website. and other certification preparation tools from the industry’s best authors and trainers. study pages that correspond to each chapter of this book and the ICND1 book.and process-oriented activities in the The website www.certskills. The site lists information to help you build your own lab. Use these for more practice on the particulars with some of the math. router configuration. Check this site regularly for new and updated postings written by the author that provide further insight into the more troublesome topics on the exam. these new apps provide you with an easy to use. The advantages of using these apps are as follows: ■ Easier to use: Instead of having to print out copies of the appendixes and do the work on paper. with links to the pages with the labs related to this book. you might want to consider purchasing the CCNA Network Simulator. ■ Author’s website and blogs: The author maintains a website that hosts tools and links useful when studying for CCENT and CCNA. but the content is static. interactive experience that you can easily run over and over. To help you with your studies. and VLANs. You can purchase a copy of this software from Pearson at or other retail outlets.ciscopress. You can get this mapping guide for free on the Extras tab of the companion website. . for a page about the blogs in is a great resource for all things IT-certification related. ■ Mentoring videos: The DVD included with this book includes four other instructional videos. ■ Companion website: The website www. Readers tell us they find that content useful.xl CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ Other practice: The companion DVD contains four other appendixes (I–K) that each contain other practice problems related to a particular chapter from the book.certskills. Check out the great CCNA articles. ■ PearsonITCertification. and links to the author’s CCENT Skills blog and CCNA Skills blog. A Big New Feature: Review Applications One of the single biggest additions to this edition of the book is the addition of study apps for many of the chapter review activities. and review content from one of your recently finished chapters. The applications can be found both on the DVD that comes with the book and on the book’s companion website. I have created a mapping guide that maps each of the labs in the simulator to the specific sections in these CCNA cert guides. go to the book’s CLI navigation. ■ Convenient: When you have a spare 5–10 minutes. ■ CCNA Simulator: If you are looking for more hands-on practice. In the past.

one per problem type Other Practice Appendixes I–K with practice problems and answers A variety of apps. or clicking inside an app to navigate. If you buy the Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test from Cisco Press. but static. you can get the DVD files by registering your book on the Cisco Press website. After you have registered your book. Just spin the DVD and use the disk menu that should automatically start to explore all content. Table I-1 Book Features with Both Traditional and App Options Feature Traditional App Key Topic Table with list. one with completed tables) Memory Table app Key Terms Listed in each “Chapter Review” section. go to your account page and click the Registered Products tab. with the Glossary in the back of the book Glossary Flash Cards app Subnetting Practice Appendixes D–H.ciscopress.Introduction ■ Untethered from Book/DVD: Because these apps are available on the book’s companion web page in addition to the DVD. and have a DVD drive. with the appendixes often being located on the DVD. to help keep you focused on the activity. To do so. and make them both more useful and more interesting. with practice problems and answers A variety of apps. but that not everyone uses the “Chapter Review” sections consistently. we want to increase the number of people using the review tools. Tactile learners may do better by at least typing answers into an app. and select Access Bonus Content to access the book’s companion website. So. Our in-depth reader surveys show that readers who use the chapter review tools like them. you can access your review activities from anywhere—no need to have the book or DVD with you. From there. flip pages to find Key Topics Table app Config Checklist Just one of many types of key topics Config Checklist app Memory Table Two static PDF appendixes (one with sparse tables for you to complete. xli . all chapter review activities use the book chapter plus appendixes. your book will automatically be registered on your account page. click the Access Bonus Content link to get access to the book’s companion website. simply go to www. But most of that content is static: register and enter the ISBN of the print book: 9781587205804. Simply go to your account page. Table I-1 summarizes these new applications and the traditional book features that cover the same content. If you buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. ■ Good for tactile learners: Sometimes looking at a static page after reading a chapter lets your mind wander. If you buy the print book. click the Registered Products tab. you have all the content on the DVD. one per problem type How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book Traditionally.

“Fundamentals of WANs. “Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs. ■ Chapter 12.” covers the concepts and terms used for the data link layer for WANs. Book Organization. such as remote access using Telnet and SSH.” examines various ways to design Ethernet LANs.xlii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide If you buy the eBook from some other bookseller. The steps are the same as noted earlier for those who buy the print book but do not have a DVD drive. “Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs.” introduces the central ideas and terms used by TCP/IP. . the very last page of your eBook file will contain instructions for how to register the book and access the companion website. Chapters. and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 10. Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND1 exam. focusing on TCP and applications.” shows how to use the Cisco CLI to verify the current status of an Ethernet LAN and how it switches Ethernet frames. The core chapters are organized into sections. ■ Chapter 11. “Introduction to TCP/IP Networking. and contrasts the TCP/IP networking model with the OSI model. “Configuring Basic Switch Management. ■ Chapter 8.” introduces the concepts and terms used when building Ethernet LANs. The core chapters cover the following topics: ■ ■ ■ Part I: Networking Fundamentals ■ Chapter 1. ■ Chapter 3. “Using the Command-Line Interface. “Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing”: IP is the main network layer protocol for TCP/IP. and Appendixes This book contains 36 core chapters. This chapter introduces the basics of IPv4. including duplex/speed and port security. Chapters 1 through 36. “Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs. “Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs”: This chapter explains the concepts and configuration surrounding virtual LANs. Part II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs ■ Chapter 6. “Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching. Part III: Ethernet LANs: Design. ■ Chapter 9. ■ Chapter 4. including IPv4 addressing and routing. VLANs. “Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications”: This chapter completes most of the detailed discussion of the upper two layers of the TCP/IP model (transport and application). mainly through the use of show commands. including VLAN trunking. and explains common design terminology. ■ Chapter 7.” focuses on how to tell whether the switch is doing what it is supposed to be doing.” explains how to configure Cisco switches for basic management features. ■ Chapter 2.” explains how to access the textbased user interface of Cisco Catalyst LAN switches. ■ Chapter 5. with Chapter 37 as the “Final Review” chapter. “Configuring Switch Interfaces. including HDLC. discussing the pros and cons.” shows how to configure a variety of switch features that apply to interfaces.

” focuses on how to use two key troubleshooting tools to find routing problems: the ping and traceroute commands. what subnet IDs exist. “Analyzing Subnet Masks. “Operating Cisco Routers. This chapter explores all things related to address classes and the IP network concept created by those classes.” discusses how hosts can be configured with their IPv4 settings. ■ Chapter 15. and C. Part VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT ■ Chapter 25.” walks you through the entire concept of subnetting. B. and how they can learn those settings with DHCP. “IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools. “Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2.” shows how an engineer can analyze the key facts about a subnetting design based on the subnet mask. This chapter also shows how to configure the RIPv2 routing protocol for use with IPv4. ■ Chapter 19.” looks at the most common IPv4 problems and how to find the root causes of those problems when troubleshooting. ■ Chapter 23. Part VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting ■ Chapter 21. This chapter shows how to take those two facts and find key facts about the IP subnet in which that host resides. “DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts. focusing on basic device management. ■ Chapter 20.” discusses how to add IPv4 address configuration to router interfaces and how to configure static IPv4 routes. This chapter begins with a classful IPv4 network.” takes a design approach to subnetting. ■ Chapter 24. “Subnet Design. ■ Chapter 18. “Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting.” explains how routers work together to find all the best routes to each subnet using a routing protocol. and if chosen. and asks why a particular mask might be chosen. This chapter shows how to look at the mask and IP network to determine the size of each subnet and the number of subnets. B. “Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing. “Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes. ■ Chapter 16. ■ Chapter 14. “Variable-Length Subnet Masks. “Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists”: This chapter examines how standard IP ACLs can filter packets based on the source IP address so that a router will not forward the packet. “Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks”: IPv4 addresses originally fell into several classes. Part V: Implementing IPv4 ■ Chapter 17. ■ Chapter 22.” moves away from the assumption of one subnet mask per network to multiple subnet masks per network—which makes subnetting math and processes much more challenging.” is like Chapter 8. “Analyzing Existing Subnets”: Most troubleshooting of IP connectivity problems starts with an IP address and mask. from starting with a Class A. xliii .Introduction ■ ■ ■ ■ Part IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting ■ Chapter 13. or C network to a completed subnetting design as implemented in an enterprise IPv4 network. This chapter explains those challenges. with unicast IP addresses being in Class A. but it focuses on routers instead of switches.

verification. “IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting.” shows how to configure IPv6 routing and addresses on routers. the appendix lists download instructions. CDP. ■ Chapter 35.” takes the discussion of device passwords a step deeper. NTP. “CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates. and both standard and extended IP ACLs. “Managing IOS Files. Part VIII: IP Version 6 ■ Chapter 28. ■ Chapter 34.” works through the two branches of unicast IPv6 addresses—global unicast addresses and unique local addresses—that act somewhat like IPv4 public and private addresses. “Device Management Protocols. and LLDP.” discusses the most basic concepts of IP version 6. “IOS License Management. “Fundamentals of IP Version 6. while adding details of how IPv6 uses Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC). focusing on key files like the IOS and configuration files.” shows how to add static routes to an IPv6 router’s routing table.” explains the IOS file system.” discusses the Cisco per-device license management practices through the use of PAK licensing.” works through the complete concept. “Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts. . Always check online for the latest PDF version of this appendix. including how it helps conserve public IPv4 addresses. ■ Chapter 30. Part X: Final Review ■ ■ Chapter 37.” discusses the concepts and configuration of some common network management tools: syslog.” mirrors Chapter 20’s discussions of IPv4 on hosts. “Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers. ■ Appendix B. and troubleshooting sequence for the router NAT feature. Part XI: Appendixes (In Print) ■ Appendix A. “Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists”: This chapter examines both named and numbered ACLs. The chapter shows how to upgrade IOS and to backup/restore the configuration file. “Network Address Translation. configuration. ■ Chapter 31.” suggests a plan for final preparation after you have finished the core parts of the book. “Device Security Features. “Final Review. while discussing a variety of special IPv6 addresses. focusing on the rules for writing and interpreting IPv6 addresses. ■ Chapter 27. ■ The Glossary contains definitions for all the terms listed in the “Key Terms You Should Know” sections at the conclusion of Chapters 1 through 36. including a binary-to-decimal conversion table and a list of powers of 2. “Implementing IPv6 Routing. ■ Chapter 36. ■ Chapter 29. Part IX: Network Device Management ■ Chapter 33.xliv CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ Chapter 26. and examines how to better secure devices through device hardening. respectively. ■ Chapter 32. “Numeric Reference Tables.” lists several tables of numeric information.” is a place for the author to add book content mid-edition.

Introduction ■ Part XII: DVD Appendixes The following appendixes are available in digital format on the DVD that accompanies this book: ■ Appendix C. ■ Appendix R. includes the rights to use the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test (PCPT) software. “Topics from Previous Editions. make sure to note the final page of this introduction. I included this chapter for reference if you need a little more depth about serial links. “Route Summarization. PCPT allows has many options. including the option to answer xlv . along with rights to use some exam questions related to this book. Install the Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions This book.” includes the explanations to all the questions from Chapters 1 through 36.” is a collection of information about topics that have appeared on previous versions of the CCNA exams.” is an extra chapter for anyone interested in reading more about the concepts. ■ Appendix O. “Practice for Chapter 28: Fundamentals of IP Version 6” ■ Appendix K. “Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks” ■ Appendix I. like many other Cisco Press books. You may read these when you first use the book. In particular. the concepts are still of interest to someone with the CCENT or CCNA certification. “Exam Topics Cross Reference.” is a copy of the ICND2 book’s chapter about serial WANs. “Practice for Chapter 25: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists” ■ Appendix J. including how to get in touch with Cisco Press. ■ Appendix Q. but you may also skip these topics and refer back to them later. and math related to CIDR.” is a spreadsheet with major study milestones. “Implementing Point-to-Point WANs. “Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks” ■ Appendix E. and you may not have a copy of the ICND2 book. “Practice for Chapter 16: Analyzing Existing Subnets” ■ Appendix G. “Practice for Chapter 30: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers” ■ Appendix L. but was removed for this edition. ■ Appendix D.” shows an image of sample answers for all the part-ending mind map exercises. ■ Appendix M. you may want to use serial WAN links.” provides some tables to help you find where each exam objectives is covered in the book. “Study Planner.” is a copy of a chapter that was in the previous edition of this book. Reference Information This short section contains a few topics available for reference elsewhere in the book. which lists several contact details. where you can track your progress through your study. ■ Appendix P. “Answers to the ‘Do I Know This Already?’ Quizzes. “Classless Inter-domain Routing. “Practice for Chapter 15: Analyzing Subnet Masks” ■ Appendix F. ■ Appendix N. terminology. “Practice for Chapter 21: Subnet Design” ■ Appendix H. While no longer within this exam’s topics. and for instructors who may need the chapter for their existing course. “Mind Map Solutions. It is included here for anyone who has interest. In a lab environment.

” or four different sets of questions. When you install the PCPT software and type in the activation code. DIKTA (“Book”) ICND1 Exam #1 Part Review ICND1 Exam #2 Figure I-4 PCPT Exams/Exam Databases and When to Use Them You can choose to use any of these exam databases at any time. For those with a print book. both in study mode and practice exam mode. NOTE The right to use the exams associated with this book is based on an activation code. However. This book’s Part Review sections ask you specifically to use PCPT. ■ Save the remaining exams to use with the “Final Review” chapter at the end of the book. on the opposite side from the exam activation code. using study mode. the code is in the DVD sleeve at the back of the book. Note that if you purchase an eBook version from any other source. use PCPT to review the DIKTA questions for that part. The questions come in different exams or exam databases. For those who purchase a Kindle edition. using study mode. you get four different “exams. or to take a simulated exam that mimics real exam conditions. use the questions built specifically for part review (the part review questions) for that part of the book. and you can even take the DIKTA chapter pre-quizzes using PCPT. NOTE Also on this same piece of paper. many people find it best to save some of the exams until exam review time. you will find a one-time-use coupon code that gives you 70 percent off the purchase of the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. Figure I-4 begins to suggest a plan. Do not lose the activation code. so you can see the answers and explanations for each question as you go along. or to view questions in flash card mode. after you have finished reading the entire book. For those who purchase the Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test directly from the Cisco Press website. PCPT Exam Databases with This Book This book includes an activation code that allows you to load a set of practice questions. the practice test is not included. where all the answers are stripped out. . as other vendors are not able to vend the required unique access code. Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test. the PCPT software downloads the latest version of all these exam databases. challenging you to answer questions from memory. ■ During part review.xlvi CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide questions in study mode. the access code will be supplied directly from Amazon. the code will be populated on your account page after purchase. spelled out here: ■ During part review. as listed in Figure I-4. And with the ICND1 book alone. You should install PCPT so it is ready to use even for the earliest chapters.

This selects the “book” questions (that is.Introduction The two modes inside PCPT give you better options for study versus practicing a timed exam event. you can see the answers immediately. or use the PCPT software. xlvii . How to View Part Review Questions The exam databases you get with this book include a database of questions created solely for study during the part review process. you can view questions from only the chapters in one part of the book. with the letter answers on the page following the quiz. with a timed event. It gives you a preset number of questions. Select any other options on the right side of the window. and look more like real exam questions. Then select the box beside each chapter in the part of the book you are reviewing. the DIKTA questions from the beginning of each chapter). Practice exam mode also gives you a score for that timed event. Step 3. The part review questions instead focus more on application of those facts to typical real scenarios. you can choose a subset of the questions in an exam database. you need to select Book Questions. as follows: Step 1. The top of the next window that appears should list some exams. In study mode. with a name like CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide. To view these DIKTA questions inside the PCPT software. you might want to keep that PDF handy. and uncheck the other boxes. Also. The book lists the questions. Also. check the ICND1 Book Questions box. On this same window. from all chapters. so you can study the topics more easily. lists the answers along with an explanation. which is the way PCPT references questions found inside the printed book. You can use the DIKTA quiz as printed in the book. take it again during chapter review for more practice. Step 5. select the item for this product. How to View Only DIKTA Questions by Chapter or Part Most chapters begin with a “Do I Know This Already?” (DIKTA) quiz. Then you have to deselect all chapters (with a single click). and then select one or more chapters. to help you determine whether you know the facts contained within the chapter. the explanations to the questions are conveniently located in the PCPT software. and the “Part Review” sections even suggest that you repeat the questions from all chapters in that part. for instance. click at the bottom of the screen to deselect all objectives (chapters). on the DVD. Using PCPT for these questions has some advantages. Appendix C. Start the PCPT software. Step 2. It gives you a little more practice in how to read questions from testing software. PCPT practice mode lets you practice an exam event somewhat like the actual exam. From the main (home) menu. You can take the quiz to start a chapter. Step 6. Click Start to start reviewing the questions. Step 4. and click Open Exam. DIKTA questions focus more on facts.

You can also use mind maps to improve how your brain organizes concepts. For instance. Any concepts that can be grouped should be put near each other. www. and organize your ideas into a mind map. ideas. most mind maps will not go beyond a couple of levels. When you spend time thinking about an area of commands. . reorganize them.thinkbuzan. About Mind Maps Mind maps are a type of visual organization tool that you can use for many purposes. follow the same process as you did with DIKTA/book questions.xlviii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide To view these questions. you can create deeper and deeper branches. mind maps help you internalize what you learn. but Tony Buzan often gets credit for formalizing and popularizing mind maps. I personally find a huge improvement in learning new areas of study when I mind map. starting with the big topic of “IPv6 addressing. For example. with branches that move out in any direction. whatever idea needs to be represented.” and then writing down random terms and ideas. pictures. You can learn more about mind maps at his website. Figure I-5 shows a sample mind map that begins to output some of the IPv6 content from Part VIII of the ICND1 book. You might create this kind of mind map when reviewing IPv6 addressing concepts. you strengthen existing mental connections and create new connections. In short. The branches contain smaller concepts. As you start to organize them mentally. and eventually reach the point where you believe the organization of ideas makes sense to you. all into your own frame of reference. Figure I-5 Sample Mind Map Mind maps may be the least popular but most effective study tool suggested in this book. I hope you will make the effort to try these tools and see if they work well for you too. PCPT has a clear name for this database: Part Review Questions. As need be. Mind maps improve your brain’s connections and relationships between ideas. You then add a large central idea. Each mind map begins with a blank piece of paper or blank window in a mind mapping application. but select the Part Review database rather than the book database. you draw lines connecting the ideas. you can use mind maps as an alternative way to take notes. NOTE Many books have been written about mind maps. although for this book’s purposes.

which has free versions for Windows. blog. I have used Mind Node Pro on a Mac. You job is to create the configuration. This next section walks through the options of what is included in the book. in which combination. To answer sim and simlet questions on the exams. Note that the Config Lab posts should show an image like this in the summary: Figure I-6 Config Lab Logo in the Author’s Blogs xlix . Each lab presents a sample lab topology.certskills. so feel free to look around. Also for the first time. you type a command. navigate to Hands On… Config Lab Both blogs are geared toward helping you pass the exams. Config Lab Exercises Some router and switch features require multiple configuration commands. with some requirements. introduced as a new feature in this edition of the book. and you have to decide what to configure on each device. specifically the Cisco command-line interface (CLI). and then check your answer versus the supplied answer. which ones are To reach my blog sites for ICND1 content or for ICND2 content (two different blogs). or find and download a mind map application. The Cisco CLI is a text-based command-and-response user interface.Introduction Finally. for mind mapping tools. with a brief description of lab options outside the book. this edition places the content not only outside the book but also onto the author’s blog Wendell’s CCNA (ICND2): In the menus. So. and we build the sample mind maps with XMIND. navigate to Hands On… Config Lab blog. and the device (a router or switch) displays messages in response. and click from there. you can start at my blog launch site (blog. and which ones are optional.certskills. The answer then shows a sample configuration. you can just draw them on a blank piece of paper. And getting good at that kind of task requires practice. helps provide that practice. Linux. you need to know a lot of commands.certskills. The Config Labs feature. You have to choose which commands to use. About Building Hands-On Skills You need skills in using Cisco routers and Wendell’s CCENT (ICND1): In the menus. the challenge level goes beyond just picking the right parameters on one command. typically on multiple devices. and OS X. Part of the skill you need to learn is to remember which configuration commands work together. and you need to be able to navigate to the right place in the CLI to use those commands.

However. with Part II being the first part with commands. Part I includes concepts only. Self-assessment: As part of final review. and easy comments by you. and with confidence. Reader surveys tell us that those people who use the Simulator along with the book love the learning process. right now. to experience the Cisco CLI. make sure and use the NetSim Lite to learn the basics of the CLI to get a good start. or if you get lost. Two outcomes. so you can easily use these at both chapter review and part review. which provides you with a means. you can still learn from the labs that come with NetSim Lite while deciding about what options to pursue. both good: Practice getting better and faster with basic configuration. from any web browser. each with labs that match the book content. NOTE The ICND1 and ICND2 books each contain a different version of the Sim Lite product. If you bought both books. No need to go buy real gear or buy a full simulator to start learning the CLI. . Either way. it focuses on learning for the exam by providing a large number of useful lab exercises. make sure you install both Sim Lite products. without help. from your phone or 10-minute exercise if all you are doing is typing in a text editor or writing your answer on paper. you have discovered a topic that you can now go back and reread to complete your knowledge. you need more than those two tools. one reason that NetSim Lite comes on the DVD is that the publisher hopes you will buy the full product. This simulator product simulates Cisco routers and switches so that you can learn for the CCENT and CCNA R&S certifications. The Pearson Network Simulator The Config Labs and the Pearson Network Simulator Lite both fill specific needs. The single best option for lab work to do along with this book is the paid version of the Pearson Network Simulator. you are a step closer to being ready for the exam! Blog format: Allows easy adds and changes by me. including the following: Untethered and responsive: Do them from anywhere. But more importantly. you should be able to do all the Config Labs. So. Just install it from the DVD in the back of this book. The labs with this latest version of NetSim Lite includes labs associated with Part II of this book. Of course. However. This book comes with a lite version of the best-selling CCNA Network Simulator from Pearson. and rave about how the book and Simulator work well together. A Quick Start with Pearson Network Simulator Lite The decision of how to get hands-on skills can be a little scary at first.l CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide These Config Labs have several benefits. untethered from the book or DVD. See the “Your Study Plan” element that follows the Introduction for more details about those review sections. The good news: You have a free and simple first step to experience the CLI: Install and use the Pearson NetSim Lite that comes with this book. even if you do not use the full product. Designed for idle moments: Each lab is designed as a 5. and they both come with the book. Note that the blog organizes these Config Lab posts by book chapter.

GNS3 is not a Cisco product. You can buy them. Note that the Simulator and the books work on a different release and consider all the options. This book does not tell you what option to use. However. So during that time. and CCNA 200-120). lets you create a lab topology. For a time in 2016. or try and re-create examples from the book. the Virtual Internet Routing Lab (VIRL. http://virl. li .cisco. when you want to do labs when reading a chapter or doing part during the months in 2016 for which the Simulator is the older edition listing the older exams in the title. So. the Simulator will be the Simulator created for the previous versions of the exams (ICND1 100-101. Cisco intends Packet Tracer for use by people currently enrolled in Cisco Networking Academy and another for CCNA R&S (which includes all the labs in the CCENT product. Try the Lite version. ICND2 200-101. you still need hands-on Just look for “Sort by Chapter” tab in the Simulator’s user interface. but you should plan on getting some handson practice somehow. and connect to real router and switch OS images. More Lab Options If you decide against using the full Pearson Network Simulator. All these previously mentioned options cost some money. Check out in an offering called Cisco Learning Labs (www. the Simulator organizes the labs to match the book. new or for more information. you can get a great idea of how the full Simulator product works by using the Pearson Network Simulator Lite product include with the book.ciscopress. On a practical note.Introduction Of course. First. There is a full product for CCENT only. and cannot provide you with the IOS images for legal reasons. If you have the right mix of gear. and the same types of labs. You can even rent virtual Cisco router and switch lab pods from Cisco. but the next two are generally free to the user. you need to make a decision for yourself. You can find that PDF on the book product page under the Downloads tab here: www. This tool. and not for the general public. definitely use Packet Tracer. The important thing to know is that most people need to practice using the Cisco CLI to be ready to pass these exams. the Simulator is still very useful. That product includes approximately 80 percent of the CLI topics in the ICND1 100-105 and 200-105 books. You can rent them for a fee. creating a virtual environment running real Cisco IOS. and check out the full product. Thankfully. if you are part of a Cisco Academy. However. you will need to refer to a PDF that lists those labs versus this book’s organization. First. GNS3 works somewhat like VIRL. Cisco offers a virtualization product that lets you run router and switch operating system (OS) images in a virtual environment. or borrow them at work. you could even do the Config Lab exercises from my blog on that gear. You should plan to use some lab environment to practice as much CLI as possible. Cisco also makes a simulator that works very well as a learning tool: Cisco Packet Tracer. but with a different catch for each. you can use real Cisco routers and switches. However. plus others for the ICND2 parts of the content). start the topology. Both have the same base code and same user interface.

com/go/ccna and . Just go to the website. We at Cisco Press believe that this book certainly can help you achieve CCNA submit them via www. The CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide helps you attain CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching certification. select Contact Us.ciscopress. and type your message. You should always check for the latest This is the CCNA ICND1 certification book from the only Cisco-authorized publisher. but the real work is up to you! I trust that your time will be well spent.lii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide For More Information If you have any comments about the book. Cisco might make changes that affect the CCNA certification from time to time.

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ICND2 200-105. Your study will go much better if you take time (maybe 15 minutes) to think about a few key points about how to study before starting on this journey.” Stop to read this section about how to create your own study plan for the exam(s) you plan to take (ICND1 100-105. The more challenging questions on these exams work a lot like a jigsaw puzzle. like some pieces of the jigsaw puzzle. To do that. but it takes more than just a quick read through the book and the cash to pay for the exam. and CCNA R&S exams. For instance. You must be able to analyze and predict what really happens in a network. these Cisco exams also require deep skills. you have to mentally re-create the missing pieces. Most anyone can study and pass these exams. . And you must be ready to troubleshoot problems when the network does not work correctly. but with enough of the puzzle filled in. the ICND1 exam includes many troubleshooting topics. You have probably already read (or quickly skimmed) the Introduction. A simple question might ask you why a host cannot communicate with some server. IP addressing. exercises that help you build the skills to solve these networking puzzles. The challenge of these exams comes from many angles. and/or CCNA 200-125). but with four out of every five puzzle pieces not even in the room. The question would supply some of the information. some pieces of the puzzle may remain a mystery. For a given question. A Brief Perspective on Cisco Certification Exams Cisco sets the bar pretty high for passing the ICND1. These skills require that you prepare by doing more than just reading and memorizing what you read. Of course. ICND2. you should be able to answer the question. You must be able to configure Cisco devices to work correctly in those networks. But a big part of this book lists exercises beyond reading. as represented with the white pieces in Figure 1. To solve the puzzle. you must know each networking concept and remember how the concepts work together. Each of these exams covers a lot of concepts and many commands specific to Cisco devices. And some pieces will just remain unknown for a given question. and Ethernet LAN switching to the scenario in the question to come up with some of the other pieces of the puzzle. “Introduction to TCP/IP Networking. Beyond knowledge.Your Study Plan You just got this book. You have to apply your knowledge of IPv4 routing. That is what this section will help you do. You are probably now wondering whether to start reading here or skip ahead to Chapter 1. you need to read many pages in this book to learn many individual facts and how these facts relate to each other.

So break the task down into smaller tasks. within each part. You need to mentally link each idea with other related ideas. but many people pass them every day. So. you never sit down to read 900 pages in one study session. what do you need to do to be ready to pass. In short.Given: Output of show mac address-table Predict Output: show ip route Predict Configuration: RIPv2 on Routers Predict Output: show ip arp Given: Router Topology Drawing Figure 1 Calculate: IPv4 subnet IDs Filling In Puzzle Pieces with Your Analysis Skills Five Study Plan Steps These exams are challenging. Doing that requires additional work. but as 9 parts. Your study plan has you working through the chapters in each part. and then reviewing the material in that part before moving on. To help you along the way. Besides. beyond reading and remembering all the facts? You need to develop skills. . before you dive into this exciting but challenging world of learning networking on Cisco gear. This is a large book. So you cannot think about the book as one huge task or you might get discouraged. as shown in Figure 2. Then. the next few pages give you five key planning steps to take so that you can more effectively build those skills and make those connections. So the first step in your study plan is to visualize the book not as one large book. The good news here is that the book is designed with obvious breakpoints and built-in extensive review activities. Step 1: Think in Terms of Parts and Chapters The first step in your study plan is to get the right mindset about the size and nature of the task you have set out to accomplish. the book is more of a study system than a book. visualize an average of 4 chapters.


CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Part I

Part II

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Part VI

Chapter 21

Chapter 22

Chapter 23

Chapter 24


Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Part III

Part VII


Chapter 25

Chapter 26

Chapter 27


Chapter 10

Chapter 11


Chapter 12



Chapter 28

Chapter 29

Chapter 30

Chapter 31

Chapter 32

Figure 2

Part IV


Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Part V

Part IV

Chapter 33

Chapter 34

Chapter 35

Chapter 36

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Chapter 19

Chapter 20


Final Review


Practice Exams
Do Labs

Review Concepts
Practice Subnetting

9 Parts, with an Average of 4 Chapters Each, with Part Reviews

Now your plan has the following:
1 large task: Read and master all content in the book.
9 medium tasks/book: Read and master a part.
4 small tasks/part: Read and master a chapter.

Step 2: Build Your Study Habits Around the Chapter
For your second step, possibly the most important step, approach each chapter with the
same process: read it, and then study the chapter before moving on.
Each chapter follows the same design with three parts, as shown in Figure 3. The chapter
pre-quiz (called a DIKTA quiz, or Do I Know This Already? quiz) helps you decide how
much time to spend reading versus skimming the core of the chapter, called the Foundation
Topics. The Chapter Review section then gives you instructions about how to study and
review what you just read.
Take Quiz

Figure 3

High Score
Low Score

Foundation Topics

Chapter Review

(Skim) Foundation Topics
(Read) Foundation Topics

1) In-Chapter, or...
2) Companion Website
3) DVD

Suggested Approach to Each Chapter

The book has no long chapters, on purpose. They average just over 20 pages for the
Foundation Topics. By keeping the size reasonable, you can complete all of a chapter in one
or two short study sessions. Go into each study session that begins a new chapter thinking
that you have a chance to complete the chapter, or at least make a great start on it. And if
you do not have enough time, look for the major headings inside the chapter—each chapter

Your Study Plan
has two to three major headings, and those make a great place to stop reading when you
need to wait to complete the reading in the next study sessions.
The Chapter Review tasks are very important to your exam-day success. Doing these tasks
after you’ve read the chapter really does help you get ready. Do not put off using these
tasks until later! The chapter-ending review tasks help you with the first phase of deepening
your knowledge and skills of the key topics, remembering terms, and linking the concepts
together in your brain so that you can remember how it all fits together. The following list
describes most of the activities you will find in the “Chapter Review” sections:

Review key topics

Review key terms

Repeat the DIKTA questions

Review memory tables

Re-create config checklists

Review command tables

Do lab exercises

Do subnetting exercises

Check out the upcoming section titled “Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD?”
later in this planning section for more details.

Step 3: Use Book Parts for Major Milestones
Studies show that to master a concept and/or skill, you should plan to go through multiple
study sessions to review the concept and to practice the skill. The “Chapter Review” section
at the end of each chapter is the first such review, while the Part Review, at the end of each
part, acts as that second review.
Plan time to do the Part Review task at the end of each part, using the Part Review elements
found at the end of each Part. You should expect to spend about as much time on one Part
Review as you would on one entire chapter, or maybe a little more for some parts. So in
terms of planning your time, think of the Part Review itself as another chapter.
Figure 4 lists the names of the parts in this book, with some color coding. Note that Parts II
and III are related (Ethernet), and Parts IV through VII are also related (IP version 4). Each
part ends with a Part Review section of 2 to 4 pages, with notes about what tools and activities to use.

IP Version 6 (28-32)

4 IPv4 Addressing
and Subnetting (13-16)


Figure 4


IPv4 (17-20)

Implementing Basic
Ethernet LANs (6-9)

9 Network Device Management (33-36)
6 IPv4 Design and
Troubleshooting (21-24)

3 Ethernet LANs: Design, VLANs,
and Troubleshooting (10-12)

Network Fundamentals (1-5)

Parts as Major Milestones

7 IPv4 Services:
ACLs and NAT (25-27)



CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide
Chapter Review and Part Review differ in some ways. Chapter Review tasks tend to provide
a lot of context, so you can focus on mentally adding a specific piece of knowledge, or
practicing a specific skill. Part Review activities instead remove a lot of the context, more
like real life and the real exams. Removing that context means that you have to exercise
your own knowledge and skills. The result: You uncover your weaknesses. The better you
become at uncovering weaknesses, and then learning what you are missing in that area, the
better prepared you will be for the exam.
The Part Review sections use the following kinds of tools in additional to some of the same
tools used for Chapter Review:

Mind maps

Part Review questions with PCPT


Also, consider setting a goal date for finishing each part of the book (and a reward, as well).
Plan a break, some family time, some time out exercising, eating some good food, whatever
helps you get refreshed and motivated for the next part.

Step 4: Use the Final Review Chapter to Refine Skills and Uncover
Your fourth step has one overall task: Follow the details outlined in Chapter 37, “Final
Review,” at the end of this book for what to do between finishing the book and taking
the exam.
The “Final Review” chapter has two major goals. First, it helps you further develop the
analytical skills you need to answer the more complicated questions on the exam. Many
questions require that you connect ideas about concepts, configuration, verification, and
troubleshooting. The closer you get to taking the exam, the less reading you should do, and
the more you should do other learning activities; this chapter’s tasks give you activities to
further develop these skills.
The tasks in the “Final Review” chapter also help you uncover your weak areas. This final
element gives you repetition with high-challenge exam questions, uncovering any gaps in
your knowledge. Many of the questions are purposefully designed to test your knowledge
of the most common mistakes and misconceptions, helping you avoid some of the common
pitfalls people experience with the actual exam.

Step 5: Set Goals and Track Your Progress
Your fifth study plan step spans the entire timeline of your study effort. Before you start
reading the book and doing the rest of these study tasks, take the time to make a plan, set
some goals, and be ready to track your progress.
While making lists of tasks may or may not appeal to you, depending on your personality,
goal setting can help everyone studying for these exams. And to do the goal setting, you
need to know what tasks you plan to do.
NOTE If you read this, and decide that you want to try to do better with goal setting
beyond your exam study, check out a blog series I wrote about planning your networking
career here:

when you finish a task sooner than planned. or around the time you are reading the first few chapters. to help make a good start in the book.) However. as listed in the table of contents. (You could list every single task in every chapter-ending Chapter Review section. take a few more minutes for a few overhead actions that will help. Table 1 shows a sample for Part I of this book. When setting your goals. do not start skipping the tasks listed at the ends of the chapters! Instead. Find Review Activities on the Web and DVD The earlier editions of the book have used review activities that relied on the chapter. plus PDF appendixes found on the DVD. Before leaving this section. You should track at least two tasks for each typical chapter: reading the “Foundation Topics” section and doing the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. contains a complete planning checklist like Table 1 for the tasks in this book. If you miss a few dates. Use your goal dates as a way to manage your study. you do not have to use a detailed task list. Then. And. and so on— and either adjust your goals or work a little harder on your study. Some activities also rely on the PCPT testing software. look at some other tasks you should do either now. every task in the Part Reviews. “Study Planner. of course. commitment. This spreadsheet allows you to update and save the file to note your goal dates and the tasks you have completed.Your Study Plan As for the list of tasks to do when studying. move up the next few goal dates.” on the DVD that comes with this book. Pick reasonable dates that you can meet. and every task in the “Final Review” chapter. and not as a way to get discouraged if you miss a date. think about how fast you read and the length of each chapter’s “Foundation Topics” section. think about what is impacting your schedule—real life. listing the major tasks can be enough. Things to Do Before Starting the First Chapter Now that you understand the big ideas behind a good study plan for the book. 7 . Table 1 Sample Excerpt from a Planning Table Element Task Chapter 1 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 1 Do Chapter Review tasks Chapter 2 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 2 Do Chapter Review tasks Chapter 3 Read Foundation Topics Chapter 3 Do Chapter Review tasks Part I Review Do Part Review activities Goal Date First Date Completed Second Date Completed (Optional) NOTE Appendix M. do not forget to list tasks for Part Reviews and Final Review.

consider the number of topics. So. and matching PDF appendixes in some cases. and then make some comparisons. through prior experience or study. I hope you have a chance to pass many Cisco exams during your career. you can make a better decision about which path works better for you. and the ICND2 book for the ICND2 exam. there is no cost savings for most people with the one-exam path. you would be better off taking the two-exam path. Next. Should I Plan to Use the Two-Exam Path or One-Exam Path? You do not have to make this choice today. Both methods organize the review activities by chapter and by part. The two-exam path gets you to that first exam attempt sooner. At that point. In fact. but you can be mulling the decision while you study. the most compelling reason for the two-exam path is that you probably have no experience with Cisco exams yet. both paths require learning the same content. the cost is identical for both the ICND1 + ICND2 path and the CCNA path. and the exam experience teaches you things about the exam and yourself that no study tool can teach you. and CCNA. Or. Note that this book includes the traditional methods of review as well. with instructions in the book.8 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide This edition is the first Cisco Press certification guide to offer a large set of apps to use instead of the traditional study features. Also. Otherwise. To get a CCNA Routing and Switching certification. for ICND1. you can study the entire ICND1 book and all the while ponder whether to use the one-exam or two-exam path to CCNA R&S. Which should you use? The following is my opinion. and find the review apps there. spin the DVD. Thankfully. CCNA = ICND1 + ICND2. but it’s based on chatter and opinions from readers from many years. ICND2. or a final exam covering the whole year? It is just harder to prepare for an exam that covers more material. all the subnetting exercises can be done in an app. Next. I encourage you to go ahead and access the book’s companion website to find the review apps and explore. but those same exercises exist in DVD-only appendixes— you choose which works better for you. Study Options for Those Taking the 200-125 CCNA Exam Studying for the two-exam path has an obvious approach: just use the ICND1 book for the ICND1 exam. Simple enough. so the two-exam path gain has an advantage. The Introduction’s section titled “A Big New Feature: Review Applications” detailed some of the reasons. For instance. Finally. the costs are identical. Assume you pass the tests on the first try: traditionally. in my opinion. ■ You have already proven that you are excellent at learning through self-study. which would you rather have done in school: take a final exam over a single semester’s material. From a content perspective. you do not have to decide now. . You can consider the one-exam path if ■ You already know about half the topics well. assume that you fail each exam once: again. Check the exam prices in your country. First. you choose either a one-exam or twoexam path.

You have two reasonable options when going with the one-exam option: ■ Complete all the ICND1 book. based on topics. then the Ethernet part in ICND2. you complete the IPv4 parts in ICND1. VLANs. However. Similarly. ICND1 ICND2 I: Networking Fundamentals II: Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs III: Ethernet: Design. The only question is when to read each part of the two books. but the second one is less obvious. The first option is pretty obvious. ■ Move back and forth between the ICND1 and ICND2 books. and then moving on to the ICND2 book. then move on to the ICND2 book. Figure 5 shows a study plan in which you complete the Ethernet parts in the ICND1. and then the final part in both books. I am a fan of completing the ICND1 book completely. you have a couple of study options. First.Your Study Plan If you do plan to take the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam. then ICND2. 9 . So. by part. using both the ICND1 and ICND2 books covers everything for the 200-125 CCNA R&S exam. for those of you with a large amount of experience already. to be clear: The 200-125 CCNA exam covers the topics in the combined ICND1 and ICND2 books. as shown in Figure 5. and then the IPv6 part in both books. this alternate reading plan may work well. Troubleshooting 1 I: Ethernet LANs IV: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting 2 V: Implementing IPV4 VI: IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting VII: IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 3 II: IPv4 Routing Protocols III: Wide Area Networks IV: IPv4 Services: ACLs and QoS 4 VIII: IP Version 6 V: IPv4 Routing and Troubleshooting 5 6 VI: IP Version 6 IX: Network Device Management 7 Figure 5 VII: Miscellaneous Alternate Reading Plan for CCNA: Moving Between Books by Part Personally.


CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide

Other Small Tasks Before Getting Started
You need to do a few overhead tasks to install software, find some PDFs, and so on. You
can do these tasks now or do them in your spare moments when you need a study break
during the first few chapters of the book. But do these early. That way, if you do stumble
upon an installation problem, you have time to work through it before you need a particular
Register (for free) at the Cisco Learning Network (CLN,
and join the CCENT/CCNA R&S study group. This group allows you to both lurk and participate in discussions about topics related to the ICND1 exam, ICND2 exam, and CCNA
R&S exam. Register (for free), join the groups, and set up an email filter to redirect the
messages to a separate folder. Even if you do not spend time reading all the posts yet, later,
when you have time to read, you can browse through the posts to find interesting topics (or
just search the posts from the CLN website).
Explore the electronic elements of this book, as detailed in the Introduction’s section titled
“How to Get the Electronic Elements of This Book.” That includes the installation of the
PCPT and Sim Lite software.
Also find my blog site as listed in the Introduction, and bookmark the pages that list the
config labs, to have those handy for later study. (The URL is

Getting Started: Now
Now dive in to your first of many short, manageable tasks: reading the relatively short
Chapter 1. Enjoy!

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Variable-Length Subnet Masks
This chapter covers the following exam topics:
1.0 Network Fundamentals
1.8 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting

IPv4 addressing and subnetting use a lot of terms, a lot of small math steps, and a lot of
concepts that fit together. While learning those concepts, it helps to keep things as simple
as possible. One way this book has kept the discussion simpler so far was to show examples
that use one mask only inside a single Class A, B, or C network.
This chapter removes that restriction by introducing variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).
VLSM simply means that the subnet design uses more than one mask in the same classful
network. VLSM has some advantages and disadvantages, but when learning, the main challenge is that a subnetting design that uses VLSM requires more math, and it requires that
you think about some other issues as well. This chapter walks you through the concepts, the
issues, and the math.

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
Take the quiz (either here, or use the PCPT software) if you want to use the score to help
you decide how much time to spend on this chapter. The answers are at the bottom of the
page following the quiz, and the explanations are in DVD Appendix C and in the PCPT
Table 22-1

“Do I Know This Already?” Foundation Topics Section-to-Question Mapping

Foundation Topics Section


VLSM Concepts and Configuration


Finding VLSM Overlaps


Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design


1. Which of the following routing protocols support VLSM? (Choose three answers.)








would not be considered an overlapping VLSM subnet? a.1.224. 10. 192. Vector-length subnet mask e.0 10. Vociferous longitudinal subnet mask d.0 255.168.0 255.0 255.0/20 d.144/28 b. 172.16.5. Which of the following answers lists a subnet that overlaps with this subnet? a.255.0 d.168.0 command. 10.168.0 c.16. if you wanted to add a subnet that uses a /28 mask? a. Variable-length subnet mask b.0. Which of the following subnets is the numerically lowest subnet ID that could be added to the design.16.255. e. Very long subnet mask c.0 d.168. Vector loop subnet mask 3.0/22. R1 has configured interface Fa0/0 with the ip address 10. and 192.112/28 c.5.96/28 .0 b.16. 172.16.0/21 b.1. 192.255. Which of the following subnets.11.0/25 255.16. when configured on another interface on R1.168.1.0/23 c.160/29. 172. 192.0. 192.254. R4 has a connected route for 172.5.6. A design already includes subnets 192.1. What does the acronym VLSM stand for? a.8.

5.3.2. By wasting fewer addresses. mainly related to how you allocate and use your IP address space. B.0 uses only one mask.0 uses only one mask. Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” quiz: 1 B.2. This flexibility reduces the number of wasted IP addresses in each subnet.1.0.2. you must first use a routing protocol that supports VLSM.0 mask.530 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Foundation Topics VLSM Concepts and Configuration VLSM occurs when an internetwork uses more than one mask for different subnets of a single Class A.4. With private networks.0 use a 255. Class A network 10. However.0 /24 10.0 use a 255. as defined in RFC 1918.0 /24 10.0.0 /24 With public networks.0.6. Without mask information. the design does not use VLSM.252) on point-topoint serial links.1.255. with mask /24 (255.255. the address savings help engineers avoid having to obtain another registered IP network number from regional IP address assignment authorities. Because a mask defines the size of the subnet (the number of host addresses in the subnet). the router receiving the update would be confused. for subnets that need fewer addresses. For example. D 2 A 3 A 4 D 5 C .1. more space remains to allocate more subnets.4. but the benefits are more dramatic with public networks. all subnets of network VLSM can be helpful for both public and private IP addresses.240. with two masks being used. a common mistake occurs when people think that VLSM means “using more than one mask in some internetwork” rather than “using more than one mask in a single classful network. In that case. or C network. VLSM allows engineers to better match the need for addresses with the size of the subnet. C.0. VLSM provides many benefits for real networks.0. the design uses two different masks. the engineer uses a mask with fewer host bits. All subnets are of Class A network 10.0. so the subnet has fewer host IP addresses. and all subnets of network 11.0 /30 S0/1 S0/0 Seville 10.2. 10.0 /24 10. Figure 22-1 shows an example of VLSM used in Class A network 10.0 /30 S0/1 Yosemite Albuquerque S0/0 10.” For example.0 /24 10.0 /24 mask.3. if in one internetwork diagram.2. To support VLSM.0) on the LAN subnets.0: Masks /24 and /30 Figure 22-1 shows a typical choice of using a /30 prefix (mask 255.0 /24 Figure 22-1 VLSM in Network 10. therefore meeting the definition of VLSM. Oddly enough. the routing protocol must advertise the mask along with each subnet. because you can always grab another private network from RFC 1918 if you run out. running out of addresses is not as big a negative. Classless and Classful Routing Protocols Before you can deploy a VLSM design. and Class A network 11.0 /24 10.0.0 /24

as noted in Table 22-2.1. what does that mean? Is that subnet 10.1. Resulting in VLSM Yosemite# configure terminal Yosemite(config)# interface Fa0/0 Yosemite(config-if)# ip address 10.252 The use of VLSM can also be detected by a detailed look at the output of the show ip route command. Example 22-1 shows two of the interfaces from router Yosemite from Figure 22-1.1. but with no mask information. enable or disable it. For example.1.0/30? The dotted-decimal number 10. and classful routing protocols do not. There is no command to enable or disable the fact that classless routing protocols include the mask with each route. The only configuration choice you must make is to use a classless routing protocol. Example 22-1 Configuring Two Interfaces on Yosemite. VLSM Configuration and Verification Cisco routers do not configure VLSM. Table 22-2 Classless and Classful Interior IP Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Is It Classless? Sends Mask in Updates? Supports VLSM? Supports Manual Route Summarization? RIPv1 No No No No RIPv2 Yes Yes Yes Yes EIGRP Yes Yes Yes Yes OSPF Yes Yes Yes Yes Beyond VLSM itself. Routers collectively configure VLSM by virtue of having IP addresses in the same classful network but with different masks.1 255.4.1. Not only do these more advanced classless routing protocols support VLSM.8. the routing protocols do not have to be configured to support VLSM or to be classless. which allows a routing protocol to advertise one route for a larger subnet instead of multiple routes for smaller subnets. B. but they also support manual route summarization. The classless routing protocols. The example shows the IP address assignments on two interfaces. and because multiple masks can be used with VLSM. if a router learned a route for 10. and 22 . the router has no good way to make an educated guess. 10. This command lists routes in groups. by classful network. Just look down the list. classless routing protocols advertise the mask with each advertised route. or need any configuration to use it. are the newer. By definition. VLSM is simply a side effect of using the ip address interface subcommand.1.255.1. so that you see all the subnets of a single Class A.255.8. more advanced routing protocols. From a configuration perspective.0. To effectively support VLSM. one with a /24 mask and one with a /30 mask.8. or C network all in a row.0 happens to be a valid subnet number with a variety of masks.255.0. the routing protocol needs to advertise the correct mask along with each subnet so that the receiving router knows the exact subnet that is being advertised.0.8.0 Yosemite(config-if)# interface S0/1 Yosemite(config-if)# ip address 10.0/24? 10. both with IP addresses in Class A network 10.8.1 255.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 531 For example.

0.2. to work with VLSM.1. 00:00:34.532 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide look to see.1. The rest of this chapter examines the skills to apply VLSM and provides some practice for these two key areas: ■ Finding VLSM overlaps ■ Adding new VLSM subnets without overlaps Finding VLSM Overlaps Regardless of whether a design uses VLSM. As a result. 3 masks D 10.1. . For example.0/24 is directly connected.4. Serial0/1 D 10. FastEthernet0/0 L 10. and to design using VLSM from scratch—in other words.2. Example 22-2 Albuquerque Routing Table with VLSM Albuquerque# show ip route ! Legend omitted for brevity 10. to apply VLSM to real networks—takes skill and practice.1.4.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.1.3. Serial0/1 D 10.1/32 is directly connected.4.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.2. a design that uses overlapping subnets is considered to be an incorrect design and should not be used.6.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. to find problems with it. Example 22-2 lists the routing table on Albuquerque from Figure 22-1.1. the subnets used in any IP internetwork design should not overlap their address ranges. [90/2172416] via is directly connected.4.1.1. Serial0/0 D 10. 00:00:56. Serial0/0 D 10. 00:00:56.6.0/30 is directly connected. ignore the /32 “local” routes that a router automatically creates for its own interface IP addresses.1.0/30 is directly connected. 00:00:56.2. Albuquerque uses masks /24 and /30 inside network 14 subnets.2. Routers clearly cannot route packets correctly in these cases.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10. Serial0/1 C 10. as noted in the highlighted line in the example.1. how many different masks are listed.6. hosts in different locations can be assigned the same IP address.0.3. 00:00: [90/2172416] via 10. but it took a mere three to four pages to fully describe it. When subnets in different locations overlap their addresses.1/32 is directly connected. Serial0/1 C 10. Serial0/1 D 10. Serial0/0 L 10.2. Serial0/0 NOTE For the purposes of understanding whether a design uses VLSM. In short. This chapter is devoted to VLSM.1.0. To do these same tasks on the exam requires skill and practice. 00:00:56.2. 00:00:34. Serial0/1 L 10. Serial0/0 D 10.0.6. if any.3.4. So ends the discussion of VLSM as an end to itself.5.4.1. 00:00:34. to add subnets to an existing design. Why the entire VLSM chapter? Well.3.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.0/8 is variably subnetted. a router’s routing table entries overlap.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.1. FastEthernet0/0 C 10. Serial0/0 D 10.

16. to meet the requirements for different sizes of different subnets. Now expand your thinking about subnet IDs to a VLSM design. and /24 Masks The drawing shows the first few subnet IDs available with each mask. Chapter 21. 172. .0 /24 172.16.0 /22 172. but with a Class B network and a /24 mask. “Subnet Design.0 /23 172. with Class B network 172. then each subnet ID must be a valid subnet ID given the mask that you use for that subnet.16. other subnets with another mask. .0.0 /24 Possible Subnet IDs of Network 172. you would decide that you need some subnets with one mask. or at least draw the ideas. For instance.” discusses how to find those subnets in depth.6.16.0 /24 172.16.0. 172.16.2. the subnet ID must be a subnet ID that you could choose if you subnetted the whole Class B network with that same mask.0 /23 172. you remove some subnets from the other lists because subnets cannot overlap.4. .6. .4.0 /23 172.0. and so on.16.16. Overlapping subnets are subnets whose range of addresses include some of the same addresses. up through 172.0.16. with /22.16.4. to drive home the ideas behind VLSM overlaps.0 /24 172. As soon as you choose to use one subnet from any column.0 /24 . imagine you start with a brand-new VLSM design.16. To create a subnet with a /24 mask. by looking at existing designs and trying to find any existing overlaps.0. but you cannot use all subnets from all three lists in a design. You plan to have some subnets with /22 masks.16. Figure 22-2 List of /23 Subnets List of /24 Subnets 172.255. 22 .0.0.0. you have to be much more careful in choosing what subnets to use. whatever masks you use in a VLSM design.16.0 (the zero subnet). each subnet ID has a host field of all binary 0s. and some with /24.2.16. 172.16. 172. with something like Figure 22-2.16. . /23. If you use the math and processes to find all subnet IDs per Chapter 21.0 /23 172.16.0 /22 .3.0. “Analyzing Existing Subnets”: In binary.16. You might develop then a planning diagram.0. and so on.16. the possible subnet IDs should be easy to calculate by now: 172. To begin.16. .16.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 533 This section begins with a short discussion about VLSM design. NOTE Subnet IDs must always follow this important binary rule as noted back in Chapter 16. Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM When creating a subnetting plan using VLSM.0. .0.0 /24 172.16. List of /22 Subnets 172. consider a subnet plan for Class B network 172. First.3. It then gets into an operational and troubleshooting approach to the topic. For example.0 /24 172.2.0 /24 172. all those subnet IDs happen to have binary 0s in the host fields. some with /23.

16. and /30. The subnets with a dark gray shading and an X in them can no longer be used because they have some overlapping addresses with the subnets that have check marks ( /24 172. as was the case in this most recent example with the subnets across the top of Figure 22-3. These address overlaps are easier to see when not using VLSM.16. /23. should not allow subnets whose address ranges overlap. that is.3.16.0 /23 172.0/24 and 172.16.16. Figure 22-3 shows the same list of the first few possible /22. with VLSM. subnet 172.16. With VLSM. overlapped subnets have identical subnet IDs. first look at subnet .4. the 172. That subnet overlaps with the two subnets referenced to the left.0 /23 on paper. you just have to look at the subnet IDs. and /24 subnets of Class B network 172.16.0. As you can see just by looking at the subnet IDs to the right.16.0/24 subnet. If overlapping subnets are implemented. .16.16. because: A subnetting design.0. because it uses three different masks: /23.16. and compare the range to the other subnets in the design.0 /24 . all the subnets referenced with the arrowed lines are within that same range of addresses.0.0). .16.5.3. the person making the subnetting plan has decided to use these two subnets somewhere in the network.4.7.0/22 subnets could not be used without causing problems.16.3.0/24. It uses a single Class B network (172.0/23 and 172. 172.0. .16.255 including the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address.16.0.16. List of /22 Subnets 172. overlapped subnets may not have the same subnet ID.0. whether using VLSM or not. Figure 22-3 List of /23 Subnets List of /24 Subnets 172. from subnet ID to subnet broadcast address.0 /24 172.3.3. so to find overlaps.2.534 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide As an example.16.0 /22 . . /23 172. imagine that a practice question for the CCENT exam shows Figure 22-4.0 through the subnet broadcast address of 172. /24.0 /23 172.0 on the lower left.0 /24 172.0–172.3. For instance.0/22). to subnet 172. That subnet includes addresses from the subnet ID of 172. it shows a check mark beside two subnets that have been allocated for use. But because there is some overlap. An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap For example.16. However.0–172.16. routing problems occur and some hosts simply cannot communicate outside their subnets.6. The subnet has a range of 172. . you have to look at the entire range of addresses in each subnet.3.1. When not using VLSM. Now look to the upper right of the figure. once the design has allocated the 172. To find these overlaps.0 /24 172.16.0/22 includes the range from 172.4.4. .16.16.0 /24 /22 172.0.0 /24 Selecting Two Subnets Disallows Other Subnets in Different Columns Just to complete the example.16. .0 /24 172.

3 R1-R3 serial 172.16.9. This type of question might simply tell you that some hosts cannot ping each other.9.16. note that if two adjacent entries in the list overlap.2. Scan the list from top to bottom.16.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 172.5.9. Step 172. As for the process. The two subnets already marked as overlapped can overlap with the next subnet in the list. which gives you the range of addresses in that subnet.16. List the subnet IDs in numerical order (along with their subnet broadcast addresses).0 172. Calculate the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address of each subnet. For example. in numerical order based on the subnet IDs.9. If you 22 .16.16.255 R2 LAN 172. compare three entries at the next step. none of the subnet numbers are identical.16.9. in this case.1 /23 Address Range? Address Range? 172.7 The VLSM design is invalid in this case because of the overlap between R2’s LAN subnet and R3’s LAN subnet. comparing each pair of adjacent entries. to see whether their range of addresses overlaps.0 172. Note that.1 /23 Fa0/0 R1 172. The design is invalid because of the overlap.9. listing the subnet IDs and subnet broadcast addresses.4.2.255 R3 LAN 172.9. and one of these two subnets would need to be changed. Step 2. Step 3 states the somewhat obvious step of comparing the address ranges to see whether any overlaps occur.5.255 R1-R2 serial 172. you could follow this simple but possibly laborious process: Step /30 S0/1/0 172. the three subnets in the following list overlap in that the first subnet overlaps with the second and third subnets in the list.16.16. or it might not even mention that the root cause could be that some of the subnets overlap.16.3. Table 22-3 completes the first two steps based on Figure 22-4. To answer such a question. For example.1 /24 VLSM Design with Possible Overlap Now imagine that the exam question shows you the figure.5 /30 172.16.6 /30 S0/0/1 Address Range? Figure 22-4 535 R2 Fa0/0 Address Range? Address Range? R3 Fa0/0 172. As far as the three-step process works.4 172.1 /30 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 172.5. in Numerical Order. from Figure 22-4 Subnet Number Broadcast Address R1 LAN 172. but two entries (highlighted) do overlap.5.0 172. and either directly or indirectly asks whether overlapping subnets exist. Table 22-3 Subnet Subnet IDs and Broadcast Addresses.4.

for both real life and for the CCENT and CCNA Routing and Switching exams. The question might also say. broadcast 10. with a /23 prefix length.” Table 22-4 VLSM Overlap Practice Problems Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 10.1.253/30 10.168. However.1.1. The answers can be found near the end of this chapter.1.1.33/30 192.1/21 172.1.0/24 (subnet ID 10.57/27 192. So. you can use IP Address Management (IPAM) tools that help you choose a new subnet so that you do not cause an overlap. broadcast 10. Table 22-4 lists three practice problems. consider the internetwork shown earlier in Figure 22-2.0.16. broadcast 10.1. 10. To that end.255) 10.9/22 172. you need to pick a new subnet and not make a mistake! For example. so you would then also need to check the next subnet in the list to find out if it overlapped.0 would work. 172.1.151/22 192. in the section “Answers to Earlier Practice Problems.16. This list outlines the specific steps: Step 1. An exam question might suggest that a new subnet. with classful network 172.” In other words. Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps As typical of anything to with applying IP addressing and subnetting. “Pick the numerically lowest subnet number that can be used for the new subnet. practice helps.16.536 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide followed the process shown here.168.1. and then follow the three-step process outlined in the previous section to find any VLSM overlaps. you need to be ready to do the mental process and math of choosing a subnet that does not create an overlapped VLSM subnet condition.23.1. use based on the design requirements (if not already listed as part of the question). rule out the ones that would cause an overlap. Calculate all possible subnet numbers of the classful network using the mask from Step 1. . you would have first noticed the overlap between the first two subnets in the list.122/30 Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design The task described in this section happens frequently in real networks: choosing new subnets to add to an existing design.126.125/30 10. In real life.1. along with the subnet broadcast addresses. Step 2.255) and then check to see whether the question guides you to pick either the numerically lowest (or highest) subnet ID.1. needs to be added to the design.0.0/24 (subnet ID 10.1.0/16 (subnet ID 10.151/20 192.250.245/29 10.200.200. Just start with the five IP addresses listed in a single column. you really have a couple of tasks: To find all the subnet IDs that could be used.101/23 172.254/22 172.255.0 and 10. if both 172.0. Pick the subnet mask (prefix length) for the new subnet.0.1/30 In other words.

Network 172. subnet numbers.2 /30 S0/1/0 172.0. 172.16.255 Third 172.1 /23 Fa0/0 R1 Fifth 172.16. and subnet broadcast addresses. To do so.1 /24 Internetwork to Which You Need to Add a /23 Subnet.1 /30 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 172.16.16.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks Step 22 . at Step 3.9. which gives you 9 host bits.0 172.2. you need to list all the subnet numbers and broadcast addresses of 172.16.16. Compare the existing subnets to the candidate new subnets to rule out overlapping new subnets. Table 22-6 summarizes that information.16.5 /30 172. Table 22-5 shows the results.6 /30 S0/0/1 R2 R3 Figure 22-5 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 172.0 172.255 Next. Imagine that the question tells you to use the smallest subnet (least number of hosts) to meet that requirement.16.5. Figure 22-5 shows an existing internetwork that uses VLSM. do the usual math to take an IP address/mask to then find the subnet ID and subnet broadcast address. but you need the list for comparison to the existing subnets. just follow the steps listed before Figure 22-5. paying attention to whether the question asks for the numerically lowest or numerically highest subnet ID. Table 22-5 Subnet First Five Possible /23 Subnets Subnet Number Subnet Broadcast Address First (zero) 172.0 At this point. For Step 2.16.0 172.16. Step 4. at least for the first five possible /23 subnets.0 172.16.9. assuming the /23 mask. /23 172. list the existing subnet numbers and broadcast addresses.0 172. including the locations.5. (The figure uses the same IP addresses as shown in Figure 22-4.255 Second 172.8. you have already been given the mask (/23).16. Choose the new subnet ID from the remaining subnets identified at Step 4.6. 537 An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet For example.3. You will not use all these subnets.16.255 Fourth 172. For Step 1.9.16. for 29 – 2 = 510 hosts in the subnet. as shown earlier in Figure 22-5.7. you need to add a new subnet to support 300 hosts.0.9. You use some math and logic you learned earlier in your study to choose mask /23. but with R3’s LAN IP address changed to fix the VLSM overlap shown in Figure 22-4. Make a list of existing subnet IDs and matching subnet broadcast addresses.) In this case. Step 5.

This particular example asks for the numerically lowest subnet number. Refer to the “Your Study Plan” element for more details. assume that the zero subnet can be used. Chapter Review One key to doing well on the exams is to perform repetitive spaced review sessions.16.9.4 172.0 172.16. Which of the possible new /23 subnets (Table 22-5) overlap with the existing subnets (Table 22-6)? In this case.255 R1-R2 serial 172. you have all the information you need to look for the overlap at Step 4.0 172.16.6. happens to be a zero subnet. DVD/website . PCPT Review memory tables Book.538 CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide Table 22-6 Existing Subnet IDs and Broadcast Addresses from Figure 22-5 Subnet Subnet Number Subnet Broadcast Address R1 LAN 172.16. the zero subnet should be avoided if (a) the question implies the use of classful routing protocols or (b) the routers are configured with the no ip subnet-zero global configuration command.0/23. DVD.0. DVD/website Practice adding new VLSM subnets DVD Appendix H.16.16. DVD/website Repeat DIKTA questions Book.16.255 R3 LAN 172. 172.0 172.2.9.) Step 5 has more to do with the exam than with real network design. and asking for the numerically lowest or highest subnet does that. Otherwise.3. Simply compare the range of numbers for the subnets in the previous two tables. DVD/website Practice finding VLSM overlaps DVD Appendix H.5. the second through fifth subnets in Table 22-5 overlap. or interactive tools for the same material found on the book’s companion website. Table 22-7 outlines the key review elements and where you can find them. which in this case is 172. To better track your study progress.16.9.7 At this point.0/23.16. Multiple-choice questions sometimes need to force you into a single answer. so rule those out as candidates to be used.4. but it is still worth listing as a separate step. (Table 22-5 denotes those subnets with gray highlights. Table 22-7 Chapter Review Tracking Review Element Review Date(s) Resource Used Review key topics Book. record when you completed these activities in the second column.16. Review this chapter’s material using either the tools in the book.3 R1-R3 serial 172. DVD/website Review key terms Book.6.255 R2 LAN 172.9.0. NOTE The answer.16.16. For the exam.0 172.

1.29. variable-length subnet masks (VLSM) Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes For additional practice with finding VLSM overlaps and adding a new subnet to a VLSM design.0 10. “Practice for Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks.1.255 5 10.1. the second and third subnet IDs listed in Table 22-9 happen to overlap. Table 22-9 VLSM Overlap Problem 1 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 10.1.255 3 10.32.1. classless routing protocol.1.255 2 10.20.0 10. overlapping subnets.Chapter 22: Variable-Length Subnet Masks 539 Review All the Key Topics Table 22-8 Key Topics for Chapter 22 Key Topic Element Description Page Number Table 22-2 Classless and classful routing protocols listed and compared 531 Text Rule about subnetting designs cannot allow subnets to overlap 532 List Steps to analyze an existing design to discover any VLSM overlaps 535 List Steps to follow when adding a new subnet to an existing VLSM design 536 Key Terms You Should Know classful routing protocol. The second subnet’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the third subnet.23.9/22 10.255 22 .0.254/22 10.1. Note that the tables that list details of the answer reordered the subnets as part of the process.1.29.” Answers to Earlier Practice Problems Answers to Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps This section lists the answers to the three practice problems in the section “Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps.0 10. In Problem 1.0 practice the same problems found in both these apps using DVD Appendix H.1/21 10.1. you may do the same set of practice problems using your choice of tools: Application: Use the Variable-Length Subnet Masks application on the DVD or companion website.34.255 4 10.1/20 10. PDF: Alternatively.” as listed earlier in Table 22-4.1.0 10.23.

33/30 172.168.122/30 192.1. and again. so for the process in this book to find all the overlaps.1.122.120 192.1. you should compare the next entry in the table (3) with both of the two known-to-overlap entries (1 and 2). as shown in Table 22- 192. after you find that the first two subnets overlap.1.1/30 172.124. three subnets overlap.57/27 172. so the overlap is more obvious.0 172.168.168. again the second and third subnet IDs (listed in Table 22-10) happen to overlap. CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide In Problem 2.16.0 172. Subnet 1’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the second and third subnets.1.16.252 3 192.1. the second subnet’s range completely includes the range of addresses in the third subnet.168.127. Table 22-10 VLSM Overlap Problem 2 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 172.35 4 172.16.127 2 .1.16.124 5 Also.16.0 Table 22-11 VLSM Overlap Problem 3 Answers (Overlaps Highlighted) Reference Original Address and Mask Subnet ID Broadcast Address 1 192.255 5 172.240 192. the second and third subnet IDs are the same value.32 172.255 In Problem 3.151/22 172.16.127 4 2 172. Note that the second and third subnets do not overlap with each other. 192.253/30 192.128.112 3 172.32 172.

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252. 640 comparison of. 621 2-switch topology. 599 configuration examples. 599. 292-293 access-list command. 43 access VLANs (virtual LANs). 597. 640. 232 1000BASE-LX. 602-603 3-tier campus design. 600-601 . 598-599 building ACLs with. 228. 618 100BASE-T. 602. 681 A AAA (authentication. 43. 596-597 controlling Telnet and SSH access with. 51 ACK flags. 617-620. 594 :: (double colon). 813-814. 602 deny keyword. 594-595 matching packets. 595-596 named ACLs. 611.1Q. 599. 248-249 access switches. 608 command syntax. 602 list logic. 602-603 matching exact IP address. See ACLs access interfaces. 608 matching any/all addresses. 602-606 any keyword. 618 802. 43 tcp keyword. 136-137 ACLs (access control lists). 621 upd keyword. 43. 41 802.Index Symbols examples and logic explanations. 616-621 implementation considerations. and accounting) servers. 293-294 1000BASE-T. 220-221 reverse engineering from ACL to address range.1A. 630-631 location and direction. 608-610 10GBASE-T. authorization. 48-50 extended numbered ACL configuration commands. 584. 819 access control lists. 162-163 log keyword. 48-50. 606 2-tier campus design. 230-232 10BASE-T. 228-230 permit keyword. 813-814 extended numbered ACLs. 625-629 standard numbered ACLs. 110 ? command. 175-176 abbreviating IPv6 addresses. 416-419 access points (APs). 599-600 matching subset of address. 681-682 access-class command. 629-630 access-list command.

367 any keyword. 840-842 activating software. 606-607 verification. 454. 602 finding range of addresses. 819 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). 198-202 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 608-610 troubleshooting. 601 administrative distance (AD). 646 architecture (networking).reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 22 addresses. 681 binary masks. 84. 51 ACL behavior in network. 810-812 binary/hexadecimal conversion chart (IPv6). 367 archive command. 841. 99-100 Berners-Lee. 99-100. 635-636 reversed source/destination IP address. 415. 155 TCP/IP. 600-602 troubleshooting. login. 490. 814 banner command. 367 archiving configuration files. 175-176 auto-mdix. 364-366 all-subnets broadcast addresses (IPv4). CSMA/CD. 449-450 to/from DDN masks. See IPv4 addresses. 397-400 AD (administrative distance). 449-450 bandwidth setting. 343-344 all-hosts broadcast addresses (IPv4). 344-345 algorithms. 367 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). 24-25 binary wildcard masks. 845-846 Boolean math. 18 Boolean AND. 633-634 auto-summary command. 34 blocking. authorization. 366-367 binary-to-hexadecimal conversion. 398 Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewall. 497 ASA (Adaptive Security Appliance) firewall. 631 arp -a command. and accounting (AAA) servers. 84. 362-363 APs (access points). 490 boot sequence (IOS). 491 Boolean math. 22-23 blocks (CIDR). 841 Boolean OR. 830-833 . 41 application layer shortcut for binary process. 465. 722-723 finding subnet IDs. 634-635 troubleshooting commands. 602 binary practice problems. 57 to/from prefix masks. See software activation bandwidth command. 468 B backups. 631-633 autonegotiation. 398-399 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. converting adjacent-layer interaction. IPv6 addresses banners. 606-607 wildcard masks. 491 binary subnet analysis all IP addresses. 454-455 common syntax mistakes. 635 auxiliary ports (routers). 367 any/all IP addresses. 602 finding subnet broadcast addresses. matching. Tim. 810-812. 814 authentication. 892 OSI. 637-639 autosummarization (RIPv2). matching. 364 anycast addresses (IPv6).

46-47 cache (ARP). See MAC address table broadcast addresses. 474 cdp enable command. 64-65 Cisco Learning Network (CLN). 491-492 discovering information about neighbors. See leased-line WANs Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewall. 100 Class A networks. 387-388 DTE (data terminal equipment) cables. 801 browsers. 51 Cisco Unified Communication Manager (CUCM). 114 channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU). 645-646 circuits. 334 unusual addresses. 845 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) bridges. 334 . 814 Cisco Binary Game. 868-869 cable Internet. 114. 41 Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. 801 broadcast subnet. 344 physical console connection. See CDP DCE (data communications equipment) cables. 114-115 CIDR (classless inter-domain routing). 221 number and size. 343. 328 three-tier campus design. 518 cdp run command. 796-797 bridging table. 65 browsing web DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 43-46 Cisco ONE Licensing. 331-332 topology design terminology. See exam tips cables. See MAC address table address formats. 796-797 broadcast flags. 128-129 C Cisco Certification Exam tips. 854-855 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair). 331 calculating hosts per network. 130-132 Cisco License Manager.930 boot system command boot system command. 66 Cisco IOS. 48-50 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 230-232 carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD). 330 campus LANs default masks. 57. 66 Cisco integrated services routers. See IOS (Internetwork Operating System) leased-line cabling. 855-857 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 344 Cisco Catalyst switches. 329-330 reserved networks. 263 UTP Ethernet links. 793-796 broadcast domains. 854 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 831-833. 227-230 first octet values. 88-91 CAM (Content-Addressable Memory) tables. 117-118 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 232-233 dividing addresses into three parts. 329. 224-227 verification. 76-77 Cisco Discovery Protocol. 221-222 configuration. 53-54. 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 349-350 two-tier campus design.

176-179 public IP networks. 330 before subnetting. 328 clear ipv6 neighbor command. 329 clear mac address-table dynamic command. 126-128 privileged EXEC mode. 331 local username/password configuration. 343. 141-143 configuration mode. 340 CLI skills. practicing. 328 classful IP addresses. 162-164 unusual addresses. 530-531 default masks. 135-136 calculating hosts per network. 745 number and size. 350 Telnet clients. 88-91 address formats. 139-141 help. 659. 329-330 simple password configuration. 497 dividing addresses into three parts. 330 CLI (command-line interface) accessing. 315-316 SSH (Secure Shell). 328 number and size. 138-139 configuration submodes and contexts. 329-330 reserved networks. 332-333 number and size. 645-646 calculating hosts per network. 173-175 network number and related numbers. 530-531 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 390-391 password security. 329-330 clear logging command. 329 unusual addresses. 169-173 private IP networks. 133 931 . 137 common command prompts. 486. 175-176 classes in. 88-91 address formats. 334 Class D networks. 316-317 calculating hosts per network. 316 external authentication servers. 349-350 classful IP networks. 331 clear ip dhcp conflict command. 129-130. 133-135 security. 331 physical console connection. 651. 879-881 unusual addresses. 665 first octet values.clients Class B networks. 330 classless inter-domain routing (CIDR). 133-135 subnet masks. 331-332 classless routing protocols. 140 configuration files. 328 Class E networks. 334 Class C networks. 128-129 command edit and recall. 454. 331-332 Telnet. 334 clients classful routing protocols. 313-315 user EXEC mode. 88-91 address formats. 136-137 overview. 785 reserved networks. 130132 dividing addresses into three parts. 133 Cisco Catalyst switches. 331-332 default masks. 789-791 classless addressing. 349-350 SSH (Secure Shell). 328-329 default masks. 133 first octet values. 349-350 clear ip nat translation command. 168-169 choosing.

810-812 shorter VLAN configuration example. See individual commands (for example. 140 NTP (Network Time Protocol) client/ server. 202-208 removing configuration. 252-253 data and voice VLANs. 602-606 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). 723-724 host settings. 420-422 login banners. 626 trunking. 193-194 duplex. 735-741 port security. 344 dynamic NAT. 220-221 impact on LAN design. 715 extended numbered ACLs. 264-266 full VLAN configuration example. 845 configuration. 831. 173-175 simple passwords. 182-183. 717-718 ACLs (access control lists). 843 storing configuration files. 422-428 static unicast addresses. 256-257 named ACLs (access control lists). 796-797 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 709-711 switch interfaces. 195 copying configuration files. 400 clock set command. 138-139 enabling/disabling interfaces. 854-855 NAT (Network Address Translation) CLN (Cisco Learning Network). 220 10BASE-T with hub. 789. 181-183 IPv6 address configuration summary. 66. 582-583 passwords local passwords. 784-786 VLANs (virtual LANs). 397. 66. 143 erasing configuration files. 788-789 PAT (Port Address Translation). See CLI commands. 258-262 . access-list command) config-register command. 789. 654-655 clock timezone command. 789-791 numbered ACLs (access control lists). 195-197 configuration submodes and contexts. 707 configuring full 128-bit address. 193-194 configuration mode. 800 static NAT. 660-662 clock summer-time command. 711-714 verifying. 708 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 141-143 IPv4.932 CLM (Cisco License Manager) CLM (Cisco License Manager). 227-230 collision domains. 443-447 static routes. 139-141 multiple interfaces. 143 initial configuration. 253-256 routing. 198-202 description. 655-657 clock rate command. 193-194 Syslog. 222-223 transparent bridges. 621-624 IOS software common command prompts. 221-222 command-line interface. 396-397 collapsed core design. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 478-480 dynamic unicast addresses (IPv6). 223-224 switches. 629-630 overlapping VLSM subnets. 169-173 RIPv2. 197-198 speed. 800 clocking. 190-192 autonegotiation.

27. 142 storing. 143-145. 403. See MAC address table context-setting commands. 841. 263 configure terminal command. 786 933 . 531-532 configuration files IOS images. 485-486 confreg command. 30-32 data link layer Ethernet. 455 copy command. 139 contiguous networks. 828. 838. 731. 841 CPE (customer premises equipment). 171. 221 CSU/DSU (channel service unit/data service unit). 841-842 crypto key command. 846 copy tftp flash command. 831. 839-841 DCE (data communications equipment) cables. 130-132 data communications equipment (DCE) cables. 846 CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection). 818 startup-config. 138-139 configuration register. 836-837 connected routes. 857-859 conflicts (DHCP). 148 console connection cabling. 734-735 connectionless protocols. 87. 825-830 switch configuration files. 801 debug ip nat command. 169 Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) tables. 659. 839-841 crossover cable pinout. 342-346 debug command.debug ip rip command VLSM (variable length subnet masks). 413-414. 57. 34 copy ftp flash command. 139. 46 replacing. 187. 825 copy tftp startup-config command. 138. 783. 142 crypto key generate rsa command. 665 debug ip rip command. 44. 840 copying configuration files. 141-143 configuration mode (CLI). 825. 176-178. 65 D connection-oriented protocols. 841 CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager). 177 running-config. 35 TCP/IP terminology. 110-111 customer premises equipment (CPE). 831 configure replace command. showing. 841 current license status. 230-232 archiving. 846 data terminal equipment (DTE) cables. 839-840. 65 configure restore command. 66 copy startup-config running-config command. 843 crosstalk. 841-842. 391. 143. 753-755 connection establishment and termination (TCP). 51-52 OSI. 205. 65 copying. 111 DAD (Duplicate Address Detection). 66 DDN (dotted-decimal notation). 66 console passwords. 828 data-link protocols. 256. 143-145. 143 core design. 143. 145. 66-67 copy running-config startup-config command. 839. 846 data encapsulation OSI terminology. 786-787. 50 erasing. 111 data centers.

406. 476-477 . 786-787 log message format. 784-786 debug command. 812-813 DHCP pools. 471-475 definition of. 816 login banner configuration. 602-603. 814-817 demilitarized zone (DMZ). 478-480 unused switch interface security. 489-490 controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 83. 331 default-router command. 473 firewalls. 641 IOS passwords. 736-737 relay agents. 806-809 destination IP. 813-814 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 475-476 troubleshooting.dat command. 83. 93. 787-788 client/server configuration. 810 delete vlan. 796-797 discovering information about neighbors. 810-812 denial of service (DoS) attack. 810-812 configuration. 814-817 broadcast flags. 805-806 device hardening hiding for local usernames. 782 log message security levels. 600-601 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 788-789 Syslog configuration. 737-739 information stored at DHCP server. 107 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 796-797 LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol). 93. See DDN (dotted-decimal notation) decimal subnet analysis analysis with easy masks. 571 supporting. 156 firewalls. 810 advantages of. 210. 596. matching. 810 controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 374 decimal-to-binary conversion. 797-799 DHCP Relay. 793-796 verification. 781-782 verification. 474 login banner configuration. 804 description command. 783 sending messages to users. 481-482 DHCPv6. 193. 369-370 reference table: DDN mask values and binary equivalent. 368-369 finding subnet broadcast addresses.934 decimal masks decimal masks. 791-793 setting time and timezone. 372-374 finding subnet IDs. 410 default gateways. 812-813 deny command. 815 unused switch interface security. 370-372 predictability in interesting octet. 253 definition of. 789-791 loopback interfaces. 736 compared to DHCPv4. 784-786 device security device hardening default routers. 400 encoding with hashes. 813-814 default VLANs. 406 default masks. 617-618 destination port numbers. 323. 478 device management protocols CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) configuration. 626-628. 780-781 storing log messages for review. 182-183. 889-891 decimal wildcard masks. 496 NTP (Network Time Protocol).

736-739 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration) building IPv6 addresses with. 87. 133-135 configuring on switch interfaces. 400 Duplicate Address Detection (DAD). 27. 228. 171. 18. 391. 29 combining with NDP and DHCP. 485 diagrams. 484 LAN connectivity. 454-455 disk file systems. 806-809. choosing. 734-735 duplicate addresses. 66 EIGRPv6 (EIGRP for IPv6). 569 dynamic unicast address configuration. 569-570 dynamic ranges per subnet. 484-485 duplex command. 100 DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer). 816 dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). 480-481 troubleshooting. 109. 819 duplex mismatch. 76 echo requests (ICMP). 201 enable passwords. 320. 740-741 digital subscriber line (DSL). 74-76 dir command. 679 dual stack. 76 echo replies (ICMP). 655-657 verification. 133. 819 935 . 594-595 disable command. 715 DoS (denial of service) attack. 294 discontiguous classful networks. 482-484 IP connectivity. 488-489. 739-740 summary. 279-282 enable secret command. 193-194 enable password command. 491 direction (ACLs). 169-170 duplex enable mode. 100 DTE (data terminal equipment) cables. 815 dotted-decimal notation (DDN). network. See DHCP dynamic IP address configuration. 863 directed broadcast addresses. 439-440 distribution switches.enable secret command pools. 115-117. 846. 98-99. 735 DHCPv6. 342-346 dynamic windows. 731. 824 distance vector. 806. 496. 182-183 dynamic NAT (Network Address Translation). 193-194. 169 troubleshooting. 679 enable command. 323-324 dns-server command. 826. 657-659 dynamic port numbers. 209. 571-572 conflicts. 145 disabled VLANs. 112-113 DRAM (dynamic random-access memory). 145. 141 DNS (Domain Name System). 74-76 DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM). 481. 481-482 DHCP server configuration. 297. 107 DMZ (demilitarized zone). 188. 650-651 configuration. 478 server verification. 232 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. 485-486 DHCP Relay agent configuration. 734-735 dynamic configuration of IPv6 host settings. 279-281. 141 E DSL (digital subscriber line). 171.

156 enterprise networks. 17-18 hubs. 145. 230-232 home office wireless LANs. 238-240 overview. 55 encryption. 136 enterprise LANs. 205-206 violation actions. 70-71 eq 21 parameters. 55. 44 OSI terminology. 234 three-tier campus design. 154 enterprise routers. 805-806 full-duplex logic. 111-112 choosing. 203-205 MAC addresses. 35 Ethernet physical layer standards. 146-149 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS). 236-237 topology design terminology. 104 switching logic. 55-56 end command. 843. 234 two-tier campus design. 233-234 error recovery. and segment lengths. 70-72 enterprise wireless LANs. 235 campus LANs history of. 846 switch interfaces. 42-43 encapsulation. 46 encapsulation command. 410 Ethernet data link protocols. 41 enterprise LANs. 843. 207-208 verifying. 44. 30-32 Ethernet ports. 29. 307 flooding. 54 encoding schemes. 207 SOHO (small office/home office) LANs. 235-236 Ethernet emulation. 288-289 verifying. 145 half-duplex logic. 453 summary. 42-43 analyzing. 227-230 collision domains. 104. 154-155 equal-cost load balancing. 220 10BASE-T with hub. 223-224 switches. 153-163 enterprise wireless LANs. 418 Ethernet Type field. media. 220-221 impact on LAN design. 619 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 386-388 MAC address table. 453-454 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 56-58 end-user perspectives on networking. 51-52 IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). 156 error detection. 220 LAN switching. 45 FCS (Frame Check Sequence) field. 43 TCP/IP terminology. 202-203 configuration. 158-159 err-disabling recovery. 150-153 erase nvram command. 52-54 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 222-223 transparent bridges. 149-150 physical standards. 238-240 Ethernet LANs. 232-233 table of.936 enable secret love command enable secret love command. 145. 17. 38-40 broadcast domains. 156. 41-42 . 224-227 Ethernet types. 155-156 equal-cost routes. 411-412 Ethernet addressing. 83-84 Ethernet frames. 846 erase startup-config command. 221-222 port security.

195-197 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 872-873 problem isolation. 874-877 subnetting and other math-related skills. 877-879 VLANs (virtual LANs). 185. 871-872. 870-871 UTP Ethernet links. 278-279 Layer 1 problems. 616 VLAN IDs. 193-194 Ethernet emulation. 76-77 removing configuration. 74-76 speed. 328 trunking. 284-286 Internet as a large WAN. 882-883 VLANs (virtual LANs). 252-257 default VLANs. 246 configuration.extended numbered IPv4 ACLs switch interface configuration. 292-296 hands-on CLI skills. 879-881 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables. 139. 244-246 configuration. 197-198 DSL (digital subscriber line). 73-74 troubleshooting. 287-292 predicting contents of MAC address table. 279-282 interface status codes. 262-267 privileged EXEC. 195 cable Internet. 70-71 Internet access. 246-248 exit command. 193-194 Internet access links. 599-600 exam tips assessing whether you are ready to pass. 621-624 937 . 188 tagging. 70-72 enabling/disabling interfaces. 54 EUI-64 (extended unique identifier). 143-145 troubleshooting. 286-287 definition of. 249-252 exec-timeout command. 190-192 autonegotiation. 43-46 practice exams. 274-275 port security. 282-284 methodologies. 69-70 duplex. 48-50 other study tasks. 573-574 analyzing forwarding paths. 869-870 EXEC modes. 133-135 routing between. 46-47 study suggestions after failing to pass. 133-135 native VLANs. 72 multiple interfaces. 169-173 IP telephony. 711-714 exact IP address matching. 873-874 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 248 user EXEC. 271 interface speed and duplex issues. 253 time management. 72-73 EtherType. 292-296 experimental addresses. 275-277 finding knowledge gaps. 871 exam review. 868-869 exam-day advice. 70-71 Ethernet WANs (wide area networks). 883-884 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 246-249. 881-882 Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial. 198-202 description. 193-194 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 51 pre-exam suggestions. 257-262 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs.

175-176 F flash memory. 154 flow control (TCP). 253-256 G startup-config. 83. 233 full update messages. 143. IPv6 routing forwarding path. 394 configuration files. 55-56 files configuration files. 617-618 first usable IP addresses. 43 FCS (Frame Check Sequence) field. 142 storing. 87-88 . 23. 143. 112-113 forward acknowledgment. 695 upgrading IOS images. See FTP frames. 29-31. 394 management. 426. source IP. 53 groupings (IP address). 111 forward-versus-filter decisions. 762-763 extended ping testing LAN neighbors with. 43 IOS software boot sequence. 830-835 global routing prefix (IPv6). See IPv4 routing. 286-287 Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field. 758-759 firewalls. 822-824 File Transfer Protocol. 229. and destination IP. 820-822 G0/1 status code. 822-824 Gigabit Ethernet. 696-699 first octet values. 440-441 full VLAN configuration example. 117-118 definition of. 142 full mesh topology. 43 file system. 412 FTP (File Transfer Protocol).938 extended numbered IPv4 ACLs matching protocol. 882-883 Fast Ethernet. 154 transmitting. 692-693 FIN bits. 152 forwarding packets. 843 replacing. 547-549 external authentication servers. 332-333 matching TCP and UDP port numbers. 141-143 G0/0 status code. 700-701 transferring. 44 deciding to process incoming frames. 824-830 assigning to hosts. 680 full-duplex logic. 835-838 address ranges for. 141. 814-817 subnetting with. 409-410 flooding. 55 failed exam attempts. 550-551 testing reverse routes with. 851 fiber-optic cabling. 871-872. 693-695 global unicast addresses password recovery/reset. 841-842 running-config. 117 IOS file system. 823 flooding. 110 IPv6 static routes with. 841 copying. 828-829 full addresses (IPv6). 839-841 erasing. 55 feature sets. 839-842 GET requests. 839 archiving. 618-621 floating static routes. 328 group addresses.

733-734 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 220-221 autonegotiation and. 688 IP address and mask configuration. 156. 489-490 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). IPv6 dynamic configuration. 879-881 hashes. 730-731 half-duplex logic. 330. 67 headers (HTTP). 306-309 10BASE-T. 67 RS (Router Solicitation). 114-118 hubs host part (of IP addresses). 188 from hosts.ICMPv6 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 733 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion. 340. 645. IPv4. 100 troubleshooting. 233 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). practicing. 22-23. 310 IPv4 settings. 179-181. 114-118 I assigning addresses to. 236-237 host addresses. 700-701 calculating per subnet. 201-202 Huston. 741-744 home office wireless LANs. 635 hosts. 739-741 H NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 141-145. 67 headers discovering routers. 184. 229. 86. 52 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 892 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 736-739 ICMPv6. 23 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 350-352 host bits. 731 High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). 735 DHCPv6. 744-747 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 486 default routers. 188 hostname Fred command. 348-349 host routing logic. 676 939 . 139 hostnames. 56-58 discovering duplicate addresses. 310 host forwarding logic. 82. 732-733 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 731-732 Ethernet. 178. 184 verifying host connectivity history size command. 22-23. 688 IBM SNA (Systems Network Architecture). 734-735 hands-on CLI skills. 488-489 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). 406 hostname command. 81 analyzing subnet needs. 731 history buffer commands. 566-570 icmp keyword. 733 RA (Router Advertisement). Geoff. 331-332 host bits. 19 DNS name resolution. 27. 98 hosts. 675 hybrid topology. 487-488 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). 806 discovering neighbor link addresses. 681. 93-94 from nearby routers.

362-363 finding with decimal math. 566. 195. 519-520 interface command. 833-835 displaying. 698 Interface loopback command. 520-522 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 513 enterprise routers. 198-202 description. 829-830 verifying. 514 IPv6 subnet IDs. 288-289 with SCP. 824-830 clock rate. 400 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 487. 202-203. 360-361. 393-394 inside global addresses. 265. 145. 387-388 IPv4 subnet IDs. 253. 515-519 interface ethernet command. 391. 209. 392 interface IDs. 437-438 interface fastethernet command. 850 violation actions. 246 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). 393-396 infinity. 851-853 bandwidth. 20 ifconfig command. 292-293 Layer 1 problems. 421 interfaces access interfaces. 279-282 input errors. 139 interface vlan command. 649-650 autonegotiation. 209. 748 IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 649-650 switch interface configuration. 369-370. 441 speed and duplex issues. 255 interface subcommands.940 IDs IDs installation of routers interface IDs. 203-205 images (IOS) MAC addresses. 396-397 verifying. 370-372 finding with magic number. 800 interface range command. 828-829 restrict mode. 698 Cisco integrated services routers. 187 interface vlan vlan_id. 278-279. 392 interface gigabitethernet command. 193-194 . 289-292 with FTP. 386-388 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 515 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 320. 515 zero subnet. 742. 827. 288-289 protect mode. 282 status codes. 207 router interfaces universal images. 398 upgrading. 522 Internet access routers. 698-699 VLAN IDs. 391-393 incoming frames. 851 one image per model/series. 207-208 copying err-disabled recovery. 310. 825-827 shutdown mode. 409-410 interface status codes. 287-288 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). 190-192 inside local addresses. 437 configuration. 205-206 one image per feature set. 139. 389-390 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). 20 interesting octet. 392 finding with binary math. 282-284 port security. 497. 289-292 to local file system.

831 ip access-group command. 854-855 software activation with universal images. 688 software activation Internetwork Operating System.ip dhcp pool command duplex. 621. 307 manual activation. 413-414. 843 removing configuration. 839-842 ip access-list command. 187 ip dhcp excluded-address command. 138-139 configuration submodes and contexts. 640 verifying IOS image. 531. 810 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 195-197 password recovery/reset. 854-855 internetworks. 804 encoding with hashes. 851-853 password security. 193-194 IOS file system. 478. 855-860 software activation with Cisco License Manager. 734. 611. 820-822 configuration files. 143 erasing configuration files. 195 initial configuration. 437 International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 496 941 . 566. 100 hiding passwords for local usernames. 833-835 configuration common command prompts. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 248-249 with right-to-use licenses. 582-583 IP ARP table. 631. 831-833 ip -6 neighbor show command. 389-390 Internet as a large WAN. 805-806 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). 197-198 license management. 645. 835-838 upgrading IOS images. 74-76 Internet access links. 852-853 packaging one image per model/series. 85. 748 configuration register. 496 ip dhcp pool command. 394. 421. 400. 424. 855-860 Inter-Switch Link (ISL). 141-143 file management. 852-853 versions versus releases. 478-479. See ACLs (access control lists) ip address command. 688 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 861-862 IOS (Internetwork Operating System) boot sequence. 824-830 multiple interfaces. 193-194 interior gateway protocols (IGPs). 626-627. 143 storing configuration files. 187. 830-831 with universal images. 415 ip default-gateway command. 182. 640 IP ACLs (access control lists). 19 Internet access. 851 universal images. 604. 182. 418. 72 DSL (digital subscriber line). 139-141 copying configuration files. 806-809 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). 848 speed. 73-74 Internet access routers. 437-438 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). 140 configuration mode. 72-73 manual software activation. 850 choosing IOS to load. See IOS with Cisco License Manager. 822-824 enabling/disabling interfaces.

262-264 private addresses. 78. 87-88 ip name-server command. 647-648 dynamic NAT. 84-85. 25-28. 660-662 exact IP address. 86-87 router interface IP addresses. 98-99 enabling IPv4 support on router interfaces bandwidth. 742. 653. 652-653. 394-396 ipconfig command. 829 ip ssh version 2 command. 403. 655-659 ip nat outside command. 391-393 . 514 network number and related numbers. 648-650. 646-647. 602 ip nat inside command. 645 IPv4 ACLs (access control lists). 413. 497. 178 troubleshooting. 655. 660-662 PAT (Port Address Translation). 330 broadcast addresses. 182-183 ip ftp username command. See ACLs (access control lists) unicast addresses. 491 IPv4 addresses. subnets address exhaustion. 331 ip ftp password command. 492-494 NAT (Network Address Translation). 332-333 IP telephony. 663 ip nat inside source static command. 570 comparison of address types. 422-424 static NAT. 570 unusual addresses within classes. 655. 480-483. 181-182 DNS (Domain Name System). 599-600 ip nat inside source command. 645-646 troubleshooting. 665 source NAT. 675 address formats. 182. 662-664 ip subnet-zero command. 405-407. 473-476. 178 default masks. 187. 329-330 data and voice VLAN concepts. 491-492 calculating hosts and subnets in network. 396-397 classless versus classful addressing. 566. 642. 266-267 rules for. 656. 570 matching addresses host settings. 662 subset of address. 654-655 ip scp server enable command. See also subnets ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). 262 number and size of networks. 334 IPv4 routing. 487. 571-572 grouping. 748 scalability. 648 ip route. 350-352 calculating hosts per network. 665 any/all addresses. 328-329 clock rate. 653. 653-655. 660-662 ip nat pool command.942 ip domain-lookup command ip domain-lookup command. 81. 690-692 data and voice VLAN configuration and verification. 600-601 multicast addresses. 665 ip nat inside source list command. 398 CLI access. 331-332 CIDR (classless inter-domain routing). 390-391 classes in. 845 dynamic IP address configuration. 486-490 ip nat command. 656. See also subnet masks. 845 ip helper-address command. 99-100 configuring on switch. 494-495 ip domain-name command. 660. 84. 650-651. 657. 264-266 public addresses. 350 displaying interfaces. 497. 690-692 summary.

83. 693-695 943 . 454-455 distance vector. 559-561 traceroute command. 93-94 IP routing tables. 569-570 LAN issues. 86 IP networks. 412 host and switch IP settings. 682 split horizon.IPv6 addresses interface status codes. 567-569 packet filtering with access lists. 566-567 transmitting frames. 579-583 encapsulating packets in frames. 573-574 mismatched masks. 706-707 configuration. 453-454 abbreviating. 699-700 dynamic configuration of host settings. 85-86. 438 IPv6 addresses. 454-455 ipv6 address link-local command. 739-741 key features. 441 global routing prefix. 408 troubleshooting. 183-184 ipv6 address command. 409-410 DHCP issues. 681-682 address configuration summary. 452-453 dynamic unicast address configuration. 583 SSH (Secure Shell). 575-578 hosts forward IP packets to default routers (gateway). 736-739 history of IGPs (interior gateway protocols). controlling. 394-396 router auxiliary ports. 707. 461-466 verification. 410-411 default router IP address setting. 85. 442-443 RIP updates. 83-84 host forwarding logic. 179-181 IP hosts. 559-561 Telnet. 398-399 examples of. 408 protocols. 753 routing tables. 564 choosing where to forward packets. 27. 409 mismatched IPv4 settings. 543-553 router WAN interface status. 553-559 verifying on switch. 571-572 de-encapsulation of IP packets. 570 deciding whether to process incoming frames. 735 full update messages. 723-724 assigning subnets to internetwork topology. 456-458 testing connectivity. 441-442 expanding addresses. 715-717. 94-95 ipv6 address dhcp command. 437 ipv6 address eui-64 command. 393-394 IP addresses. 83. 440-441 DHCPv6. 715 route poisoning. 81-83 data link layer encapsulation. 711. 411-412 IP forwarding issues. 88-91 IP packet encapsulation. 96-98 routing logic. 94-95 DNS problems. 439-440 equal-cost routes. 726. 437-438 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 584 ping command. 410 incorrect addressing plans. 100 troubleshooting. 718 comparison of IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 443-447 discontiguous classful networks. 447-451. 82. 714 autosummarization. 674. 726 RIPv2.

701-702 troubleshooting. 676-677 local routes. 698 link-local addresses. 741 verifying host connectivity from hosts. 695 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 748 ipv6 enable command. 731 troubleshooting. 709-711 definition of. 732-733 global unicast next-hop address. 720-721 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 759 IPv6 routing. 765-768 summary. 769 discovering routers. 756-757 static host routes. 761 RA (Router Advertisement). 708 static default routes. 756 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 701-702 unknown addresses. 734-735 discovering neighbor link addresses. 758-759 static unicast address configuration. 741-744 verifying host connectivity from nearby routers. 753-755 protocols. 677-680 floating static routes. 700-701 verifying. 692-693 importance of. 723 ipv6 dhcp relay command. 755-756 representing full IPv6 addresses. 761-762 troubleshooting. 752 prefix length. 681 history of. 759-760 enabling IPv6 routing. 702-703 subnetting with. 744-747 unique local addresses definition of. 733-734 subnetting with unique local addresses. 762 discovering SLAAC addressing info. 761 RS (Router Solicitation). 699 subnetting with. 756 routing. 696-699 hexadecimal/binary conversion chart. 731-732 floating static routes. 692-693 subnet router anycast addresses. 716-718 loopback addresses. 707-708 link-local next-hop address. 758 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 760-761 outgoing interface. 731 static host routes. 711-714 assigning to hosts. 723 multicast addresses anycast addresses. 719-720 solicited-node multicast addresses. 765-768 . 707 configuring full 128-bit address. 753. 738-739 ipv6 dhcp relay destination command. 762-763 site local addresses. 726 ipv6 route command.944 IPv6 addresses global unicast addresses address ranges for. 693 global unicast next-hop address. 733 static default routes. 683-685 connected routes. 730-731 discovering duplicate addresses. 718. 696-699 subnetting with global unicast addresses. 722-723 local scope multicast addresses. 674-676 interface IDs. 735 link-local next-hop address. 680 static routes. 733 outgoing interface. 756.

24-25 945 . 162 data link. 332-333 Layer 1 problems. 251-252 flooding. 28-30 summary. 197-198 speed. 248-249 switch interface configuration. 181. 420-422 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 288-289 verifying. 43 multiple switches. 19 autonegotiation. 106 MAC address table. 553-559 duplex. 84 L4PDU. 203-205 err-disabled recovery. WLANs LAN neighbors. 158-159. 193-194 knowledge gaps. 51-52 finding entries in. 156 L3 PDU (Layer 3 protocol data units). 193-194 J-K-L multiple interfaces. 22-23 compared to OSI. 106 LANs (local-area networks). 159-160 physical layer standards. 146-149 analyzing.layers ipv6 unicast-routing command. 150-153 switching logic. 289-292 restrict mode. 249 Layer 3 protocol data units (L3 PDU). 30-32 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 195-197 removing configuration. testing. 289-292 shutdown mode. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 156-157 port security. 190-192 ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 161 Ethernet clearing. 155-156 network layer. finding. 205-206 violation actions. 195 description. 207-208 protect mode. 150-153 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 181. 25-28 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 156 last usable IP addresses. 30 same-layer interaction. 249. 287-288 configuration. 162-163 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). 416 configuring routing to VLANs. 708. 154 Layer 4 PDU. 193-194 enabling/disabling interfaces. 24-25 application layer. 149-150 verifying. See Ethernet LANs. 202-203. 22-23 IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). 877-879 known unicast frames. 198-202 isolating problems with traceroute. 84 Layer 3 switches. 549-551 LAN switching. 44. 275-277. 153-154 layers aging. 288-289 MAC addresses. 207 TCP/IP adjacent-layer interaction. 33-35 showing. 25-28 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 154-155 link layer. 282-284 Layer 2 switches. 726 ISL (Inter-Switch Link).

818 login local command. See leased-line WANs link-local next-hop address. 855-857 IOS packaging. 854-855 Cisco ONE Licensing. 334. 187. 780 one IOS image per model/series. 171. 170-171 logging trap command. 185. 786-787 right-to-use licenses. 759-760 leased-line WANs (wide area networks) links. 818 line vty command. 800 line aux 0 command. 185. 857. 861-862 log message security levels. 850 configuration. hiding passwords for. 810-812 line console 0 command. 797-799 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). building. 719-720 local usernames. 800 License Manager (Cisco). 753-756 local scope multicast addresses. 187. 188.946 layers TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 785. 399 logging synchronous command. 861-862 license install command. 848 Cisco License Manager. 145. 799-801 license boot module command. 63-64 lldp run command. 598-599 connecting LANs via. 136. 606 logging with Syslog. 799-801 leased line terminology. 23-24 transport layer. 855-860 logging buffered command. 784-786 universal images. 723 . 139-140. 854-855 verification. 783 software activation sending messages to users. 716-718 leased circuits. 66 data-link protocols. 239 logging console command. 800 with universal images. 797-799 lease command. 782 debug command. 145. 188 line con 0 command. 854 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 800 line console command. 497 link-local addresses (IPv6). 851 local-area networks. 781-782 manual activation. 491 logging monitor command. 854-855 storing log messages for review. 491 local routes (IPv6). 64-65 list logic (IP ACLs). 851-853 log message format. 66-67 LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol). 187. 781. 800 limited broadcast addresses (IPv4). 115 cabling. 781. 67 lldp receive command. 863 license management. 320-321 creating in lab. 852-853 logging command. 62-63 list of subnets. See Ethernet LANs. 23-25 link layer (TCP/IP). 818 login banners. 391 login command. 810 location (ACLs). 818 loopback addresses. 187. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 170-171. 594-595 log keyword. 784-786 Lightweight AP (LWAP). 28-30 Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). 780-781 with Cisco License Manager. 68-69 lldp transmit command. 780. 799-801 routing. wireless LANs local broadcast addresses (IPv4).

20-21 same-layer interaction. 52 IPv4. 24-25 application layer. 141. 827 loops. 468 maximum transmission unit (MTU). 159-160 multiple switches. 32-35 TCP/IP. 52 wildcard masks. 567-569 mismatched trunking operational states. 492-494 IPv6. 600-601 MTU (maximum transmission unit). 600-602 multicast addresses maximum-paths command. 515 manual software activation Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 328. 161 clearing. 153-154 predicting contents of. 153-154 aging. 294-296 models. See MAC address table LWAP (Lightweight AP). showing. 24 transport layer. 284-286 showing. 859-861 masks. 154-155 Media Access Control. 855-857 current license status. 162 finding entries in. 595-596 matching parameters extended numbered ACLs. 279 magic number. 23-24 modified EUI-64 (extended unique identifier).multicast addresses loopback interfaces. 25-28 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 823 messages M full update messages. 599-600 MP BGP-4 (Multiprotocol BGP version 4). 207-208 sticky secure MAC addresses. 458. 20-21 adjacent-layer interaction. 24-25 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 617-621 standard numbered ACLs any/all addresses. 52-54. 440-441 log messages. 370. adding. 602 command syntax. 30 overview. 791-793 MD5 verification. 22-23 compared to OSI. 679 subset of address. 711-714 exact IP address. 453-454. 780-781 mismatched IPv4 settings. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 30-32 link layer. 28-30 network layer. 566-567 mismatched masks. 162-163 overview. 19-20 OSI model. 18-19 history of. 719 947 . avoiding with STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). networking definition of. 53-54. 599 sending to users. 156-157 MAC addresses port security. See subnet masks matching packets. 239 memory. 203 macrobending. 781-783 MAC address table. 857-859 permanent technology package licenses.

732-733 NICs (network interface cards). 648-650. 731-732 next-server command. 488-489 named ACLs. 480-483. 491 name resolution. 733 no auto-summary command. 731 .948 multicast addresses anycast addresses. 248 network routes. See network numbers name command. 34 TCP/IP. 268 network broadcast addresses. 679 N Neighbor Discovery Protocol. 731 no cdp run command. 18. testing LAN neighbors. 690 dynamic NAT. 551-552 netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors command. 454-455. See link layer (TCP/IP) network layer OSI. 25-28 NAT Overload. 654-655 troubleshooting. 29 discovering routers. 758-760 NA (Neighbor Advertisement). 819 RS (Router Solicitation). 733 network addresses. 733-734 multilayer switches. 312 multiplexing. 444-447. 253. 720-721 neighbor link addresses. 733 solicited-node multicast addresses. 676. 662-664 network command. 465 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 660-662 source NAT. 463-464. 249-252 multiple interfaces. 62 next-hop IPv6 address. 819 RA (Router Advertisement). 195 multiple subnet sizes. 734. 734. configuring. 18 discovering neighbor link addresses. 496 network file systems. 497 network access layer. 332-334. 733 neighbors. 62 network interface layer. 489. 733-734 networking diagrams. 181. 332-334 network interface cards (NICs). 106-108 Multiprotocol BGP version 4 (MP BGP-4). 642. 648 static NAT. See NTP networking architecture. 424 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). See link layer (TCP/IP) Network Address Translation. 650-651. 730-731 Network Time Protocol. 652-653. 719-720 Neighbor Advertisement (NA). 549-551 WAN neighbors. 625-629 NAT (Network Address Translation). 480 discovering SLAAC addressing info. See PAT (Port Address Translation) network numbers. 647-648. 458. 332-334 native VLANs. 824 network IDs. 748 local scope multicast addresses. 468. 748 netstat -rn command. 655-659 PAT (Port Address Translation). 796. 734-735 networking blueprint. 18 discovering duplicate addresses. 733 no cdp enable command. 722-723 ndp -an command. See NAT NA (Neighbor Advertisement). See NDP Neighbor Solicitation (NS).

787-788 client/server configuration. 756-757 port numbers. 332-334 outgoing interfaces. 141. 520-522 no duplex command. 789-791 loopback interfaces. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 24 outside local addresses. 27. 197-198. 32-35 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). 297. 791-793 setting time and timezone. 783 finding with decimal math. 627-629 no description command. 209. 889-891 hexadecimal-to-binary conversion.overlapping routes no debug all command. 514 finding with binary math. 400. 824 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). 197-198. 791. 370-372 finding with magic number. 370 objects. 733 ONE Licensing (Cisco). 188. 515-519 no ip subnet-zero command. 310. 87 magic number. 210 no enable password command. 630 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 185. See OSI operational view of subnetting. 783 no passive-interface command. 185. 892 no shutdown command. 733 NTP (Network Time Protocol). IPv6 static routes with. 575-578 949 . 819 no ip access-group command. 824 no speed command. 819 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 892 decimal-to-binary conversion. 145 sequence numbers. 306 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). 173 no service password-encryption command. 515 no logging monitor command. 629-630 numbers DDN (dotted-decimal notation). 854 one-size subnets. 182. 117 octets. 806 zero subnet. 360-361. 195-198. 391. 210 O nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). 141. 421. 468 no password command. 311-312 opaque file systems. 649-650 overlapping routes. 19. 800 ntp source command. 457. 819 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 838 NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM). 362-363 no logging console command. 800 ntp server command. 522 no enable secret command. 278-279 NS (Neighbor Solicitation). 210 subnet numbers. 570 no ip http server command. 94 OSPFv3. 320. 788-789 ntp master command. 94 Open Systems Interconnection. 514 numeric reference table binary-to-hexadecimal conversion. troubleshooting. 87 on-link. 107-108 outside global addresses. 785. 649-650 SEQ (sequence number). 288-289. 676. 824 nonworking states. 268. 800 numbered ACLs. 679 network numbers. 197-198. 492 no ip domain-lookup command. 519-520 no ip directed-broadcast command.

234 PID (product ID). 660-662 password faith command. 85-86. 136 passwords CLI (command-line interface).950 overlapping subnets overlapping subnets with VLSM. 850 one IOS image per feature set. 805-806 hiding passwords for local usernames. 851 one IOS image per model/series. 652-653. 81-83 data link layer encapsulation. See ACLs (access control lists) packet forwarding (IPv4). 804 encoding with hashes. 169-173 P console passwords. 602-603. 82. 234 home office wireless LANs. 464. 850-853 software activation permanent keyword. and segment lengths. 233 passive-interface command. 235-236 enterprise wireless LANs. 859-861 with Cisco License Manager. 35 IOS packaging. 848 Cisco License Manager. 854-855 path selection. 169 Telnet passwords. 135-136 local username/password configuration. 169 packaging (IOS). 238-240 Ethernet types. 425. 468 passive interfaces. 641 manual software activation. 805. 845 PAK (product authorization key) licensing. 579-581 overloading NAT (Network Address Translation). 170-171. 235 history of. 457. 854-855 permit command. 169 security. 113 partial mesh topology. 581-583 without VLSM. 464-465 password command. 229. 139. 660-663 routing protocols. 94-95 PAT (Port Address Translation). 855 . 806-809 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 262 Cisco ONE Licensing. 874 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 83. 852-853 PAR (Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission). 96-98 path command. 855-860 physical console connection. 145. 173-175 simple password configuration. media. 851-853 packet filtering. 854 PCPT (Pearson IT Certification Practice Test) exam software. 430 permanent technology package licenses. 835-838 shared passwords. 850 universal images. 82 PBX (private branch exchange). 233-234 choosing. 855-857 PDUs (protocol data units). 532-536. 625-628. 83-84 host forwarding logic. 468 passive-interface default command. 34 physical standards (Ethernet LANs). 810 recovery/reset. 187. 169 IP routing tables. 818 physical layer (OSI). 596. 452-453. 457. 236-237 table of. 93-94 enable passwords. 130-132 with universal images.

660-663 product authorization key (PAK) licensing. 100. 398-399 security. 275-277. 855 port numbers. 313-315 Q-R shutdown mode. 35 public addresses (IPv4). See PAK (product authorization key) licensing port-security command. 894 practice exams self-ping. 205 ports Ethernet ports. 683-685 prefix masks. 877 testing LAN neighbors with extended ping. 744-745 ping with names and IP addresses. 637. 647 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 340. 49 privilege level 15. See leased-line WANs privileged EXEC mode. 288-289 MAC addresses. 743-744. 543-544. 690-692 public IP networks. 874-877 testing longer routes from near source of problem. 107-108. 262 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 549-550 test-taking tips. 877-879 violation actions. 289-292 protect mode. 133-135 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3). 829 private IP networks. 748 private addresses. 330. 288-289 verifying. 343-346 prefix part of IP addresses. 637-639 additional test questions. 569-572. 51 private line. 545-547 testing reverse routes with extended ping. 207-208 protect mode. 289-292 protocol data units (PDUs). 881 testing LAN neighbors with standard ping. 34 ping6 command. 287-288 configuration. 690-692 pinouts private branch exchange (PBX). 551-552 question review. 554-559 Port Address Translation (PAT). 46 product ID (PID). 202-203.quit command ping command. 547-549 testing WAN neighbors with standard ping. 369-370 prefix length (IPv6). 347-350 presentation layer (OSI). 552-553 POST (power-on self-test). 550-551 exam scores. 150 951 . 203-205 err-disabling recovery. 855-857 router auxiliary ports. 48-50 private internets. 109 powers of 2 numeric reference table. 830 Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3). 618-621 Product License Registration Portal (Cisco). 748 IPv6. 145 switch ports. See leased-line WANs definition of. 315-316 point-to-point line. 877-879 predictability in interesting octet. 207 quit command. 289-292 restrict mode. 646-647. 109 problem isolation with traceroute. 205-206 question review. 276.

450-451. 93. 489-490 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) configuration. testing. 452-453 password recovery/reset.952 RA (Router Advertisement) RA (Router Advertisement). 443-447 default routers. 461-462 releases (IOS). 411 passive interfaces. 289-292 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 384 right-to-use licenses. 251. 830. 416 routers. 731 reversed source/destination IP address. 836 route poisoning. 83. 834. 23 ICMP echo replies. 441-442 router-on-a-stick (ROAS). 835-838 route poisoning. 156. 416 ROM (read-only memory). 641 other router issues. 437-438 recovery key features. 608-610 summary. 846 missing/incorrect network commands. 361-362 read-only memory (ROM). 99 HTTP GET requests. 466 remote subnets. 675 split horizon. 454-455 configuration. 334 resetting passwords. 441-442 Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). 398-399 RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2). 466 verification. 416 router rip command. 441 registered public IP networks. 437 CLI (command-line interface). 447 AD (administrative distance). 449-450 show ip protocols command. 626. 329. 251. 41. 442-443 err-disabling recovery. 133-134. 634-635 router VLAN trunking. 439-440 ranges equal-cost routes. 679 auxiliary ports. 547-549 Router Solicitation (RS). 100 reserved networks. 695 full update messages. 141 ROMMON. 390-391 autosummarization. 464-465 replies ARP. 440-441 of usable addresses. 731 discontiguous classful networks. 358 restrict mode. 850 auto-summary issues. 840. 141 distance vector. 141 IGPs (interior gateway protocols). 117 ICMP echo requests. controlling. 456-458 show ip route command. 453-454 for global unicast addresses. 835-838 resident subnets. 143-145. 465 reload command. 675 RJ-45 ports. 288-289 RIP updates. 447-449 RIRs (Regional Internet Registries). 454-455 RAM (random access memory). 415 RIPng (RIP next generation). 313-315 troubleshooting. 46 ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 100 requests ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) requests. 99 HTTP. 478-480 . 468 reverse routes. 463-464 remark command. 861-862 ARP table. 434.

717-718 security ROAS (router-on-a-stick). 813-814 link-local address configuration. 394 installation same-layer interaction. 829-830 enterprise routers. 813-814 definition of. IPv6 routing Routing Information Protocol Version 2. 289-292 restrict mode. 810-812 unused switch interface security. 24-25 Cisco integrated services routers. 288-289 953 . 173-175 password security. 289-292 shutdown mode. 830 scp command. 396-397 displaying. 387-388 SCP (SSH Copy Protocol). 403. 168-169 external authentication servers. 391-393 interface status codes. See RIPv2 routing tables. 202-203. 810 password recovery/reset. 398 clock discovering with NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol). 421 Internet access routers. 559-561. 394-396 router WAN interface status. 810 firewalls. 407 Secure Shell (SSH). 583 static unicast address configuration configuring full 128-bit address. 806-809 encrypting with service passwordencryption command. 447-449 RS (Router Solicitation). 715 S0/0/0 status code. 573-574 verifying IPv6 host connectivity from. 744-747 VLAN (virtual LAN) routing. 133. 731-732 S dynamic unicast address configuration. 236 routing. 288-289 MAC addresses. 176-179. 814-816 login banner configuration. 169-173 SSH (Secure Shell). 804 encoding with hashes. 709-711 troubleshooting DHCP issues. 829 CLI (command-line interface). 416 router interfaces bandwidth. 805-806 hiding for local usernames. 835-838 port security. 708 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 135-136 simple password configuration. 251. 249-251 wireless routers. See IPv4 routing. 812-813 IOS passwords. 176-179 device hardening controlling Telnet and SSH access with ACLs. 175-176 local username/password configuration. 142 RXBOOT. 203-205 err-disabling recovery. 571-572 LAN issues. 207-208 protect mode. 287-288 configuration. 389-390 IPv4. 393-394 IP addresses. 731 running-config file. 711-714 verifying. 386-388 sdm prefer lanbase-routing. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing.

392-393. 137 show ip dhcp pool command. 183. 158. 133 web servers. 205-206 show controllers command. 789-791 Telnet servers. 824-827. 801 show command. 497 show ip dhcp server statistics command. 655-662. 805-806. 641 session layer (OSI). 392 show interfaces status command. 611. 297. 401 violation actions. 266. 633 show ip nat statistics command. 843 show ip default-gateway command. 497 show ip interface brief command. 188 SEQ (sequence number). 797 show cdp neighbors command. 396. 800 show ip access-lists command. 260-262. 164. 482. 269. 486. 256-257 show ip dhcp conflict command. 819 service providers. 159. 401. 468 show ip interface command. 207 security levels (log messages). 611. 466. 478-484 external authentication servers. 604. 297. 655-665 show ip protocols command. See leased-line WANs show interfaces command. 188 security zones (firewall). 278-280. 34 show ip arp command. 794 show cdp neighbors detail command. 188 service sequence-numbers command. 633. 846 self-ping. 106 show flash command. 183. 183. 193-194. 293-297 show interfaces trunk command. 297 show interfaces switchport command. 783 show crypto key mypubkey rsa command. 480. 188 segments. 490. 278-281. 665 show ip nat translations command. 611. and accounting) servers. 794-796 show cdp traffic command. 188 shared passwords. 466. 604. 497 show access-lists command. 175-176 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers. 114 service password-encryption command. 497. 456-458. 396. 497 shorter VLAN configuration example. 259-262. 801 show cdp entry command. 567. 604. 753 serial number (SN). 397. 31. 269.954 security verifying. 392. 24. 794-796 show cdp interface command. 641 show arp command. 627-629 show interface switchport command. 64 show interfaces description command. 797. 468 . 211. 296-297 show interfaces vlan command. 797 show clock command. 196-197. 633. 846 Setup mode (IOS). 278. 627. 480. 480-481. 169 show ip dhcp binding command. 184. 265. 497 setup command. 413. authorization. 637-639 show history command. 815-817 show dhcp lease command. 293 serial line. 570 show cdp command. 450-451. 283. 175-176 NTP (Network Time Protocol). 401. 843. 628-630. 574 show interfaces loopback command. 855 servers AAA (authentication. 801 show interfaces serial command.

135.SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration) show ip route command. 401 show ipv6 route static command. 468. 863 show license udi command. 754. 824 show ipv6 route local command. 787 show protocols command. 207. 268. 801 show ipv6 interface command. 188 show mac address-table secure command. 738-739 show port-security command. 755 show ip route ospf command. 819 show mac address-table count command. 798 show vlan id command. 400. 575-578. 293-294. 188. 391. 424 show ip ssh command. 739-741 955 . 145. 288. 162-164. 603. 748 show port-security interface command. 311-312 site local addresses. 575-576 show ip route static. 846 show ipv6 routers command. 757. 210. 754. 419 show mac address-table aging-time command. 709-710. 770 show ipv6 route connected command. 791. 788. 297. 824. 746-748 show ssh command. 745. 395-396. 269. 731. 391. 801 show process cpu command. 288-291 show ipv6 route command. 798 show vlan brief command. 293. 210 show mac address-table vlan command. 813. 257. 710. 819. 360. 195-196. 726. 726. 109 show mac address-table dynamic command. 784. 627-629. 391 shutdown command. 709-710. 711. 161. 293. 164 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). 858. 254-257. 207-210. 182. 209. 205-206. 195. 164 show vtp status command. 755 show license feature command. 269. 207-210 show mac address-table static command. 285-286 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 288-289. 164 show mac address-table dynamic vlan command. 791. 717. 179. 255. 757-763 show running-config command. 164 single-size subnets. 211. 297. 293. 179. 531-532. 722. 717. 756 show ntp status command. 310-312 SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto Configuration). 781. 159. 160 show ipv6 interface brief command. 297 show lldp neighbors command. 188 show license command. 142-145. 109 show mac address-table dynamic interface command. 211. 726 show ntp associations command. 161. 801 show vlans. 785. 863 show lldp commands. 858863 show lldp entry command. 288-289 show mac address-table dynamic address command. 693 size of subnets. 297 show mac address-table command. 855-856. 447-449. 801 show version command. 160. 183. 297 show logging command. 164 shutdown mode. 423. 426-428. 164. 293. 413-414. 137. 720. 833-835. 156-157. 172-173. 297 show ipv6 neighbors command. 716. 857-863 show startup-config command. 799 show vlan command. 142. 297 show lldp interface command.

855 configuration examples. 756. 608 SN (serial number). 133. 854-855 reverse engineering from ACL to address range. 600-601 with Cisco License Manager. 112-113 SSH (Secure Shell). 279-281. 606-607 wildcard masks. 176-179. 815 Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC). 209. 756-757 static default routes. 741 static NAT (Network Address Translation). 598-599 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 855-857 current license status. 139-141 static routes SOHO (small office/home office) LANs. 813-814 small office/home office (SOHO) LANs. See SCP standard numbered IPv4 ACLs. 400. 323-324 configuration submodes and contexts. 193-194. choosing. 441 sliding windows. 107 software activation command syntax. 758-759 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). 574 outgoing interface. 648 global unicast next-hop address. 41-42 SMARTnet. 297. 17. 731. 17. 391. 403. 857-859 permanent technology package licenses. 608-610 manual activation. 739-741 stateless DHCPv6. 109 access-list command. 859-861 with right-to-use licenses. 711. 759-760 speed command. 19 list logic. 140 configuration files. adding. 41-42 solicited-node multicast addresses. 654-655 configuration mode. 597 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). showing. 606-607 Cisco Product License Registration Portal. 154-155 link-local next-hop address. 153 floating static routes. 861-862 with universal images. 762-763 source NAT (Network Address Translation). 617-618 IPv4. 233 startup-config file. 428-430 IPv6. 602 sockets. 141-143 verification. 426 troubleshooting. 760-761 static host routes. 852-853 software configuration common command prompts. 855-857 troubleshooting. 648-650. 761-762 troubleshooting. 424-428 configuring. 422-428 floating static routes.956 slash masks slash masks. 413. 142 stateful inspection. 109 matching any/all addresses. 138-139 static ranges per subnet. 139-141. 852 SSH Copy Protocol. 765-768 . 559-561. 720-721 source IP. 602-606 SNA (Systems Network Architecture). 600-602 star topology. matching. 599 matching exact IP address. 599-600 matching subset of address. 343 split horizon. 760-762 source MAC addresses. 229.

707 configuring full 128-bit address. 83. 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 519-520 subinterfaces. 139 subdivided networks. 531-532 definition of. 515 zero subnet. 370-372 borrowing host bits to create subnet bits. 530-531 classless routing protocols. 362-363 shortcut for binary process. See subnets subinterface numbers. 340 finding with decimal math. 342-343 mask formats. 278-279 sticky secure MAC addresses. See also subnet masks analyzing with binary math. 349-350 subnet router anycast addresses. 304. 362 binary practice problems. 510-512 formats for. 310. 708 configuration. 528 designing subnet plans with. 320. 48-49 subcommands. 372-374 957 . 364 finding subnet IDs. 154-155 straight-through cable pinout. 364-366 Boolean math. 536-538 classful routing protocols. 416 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 203 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). 316-317 converting between formats. 366-367 analyzing with decimal math analysis with easy masks. 521 finding with binary math. 515-519 subnet blocks. 418 overlapping subnets. 368-369 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 520-522 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 514 subnet part of IP addresses. 362-363 subnet masks. 347-350 sample design. 723 subnet zero. 340. 312. 91-93. 317-318 calculating hosts and subnets in network. 393-394 troubleshooting. 343-346 finding. 699. 709-711 recognizing when VLSM is used. 316-318. 532-536 verifying. 506-512 classful IP networks before subnetting. 367 finding range of addresses. 711-714 finding VLSM overlaps. 310.subnets static unicast address configuration (IPv6). 530-531 finding with magic number. 350-352 choosing. 531-532 subnet numbers. 360-361. 514 subnets. 319-320 mismatched masks. 530 adding new subnets to existing VLSM design. 579 status codes interface status codes. 367 finding subnet broadcast addresses. 319 VLSM (variable length subnet masking). 522 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. 533-534 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 567-569 prefix part. 581-583 verification.

521 subnet numbers. 316 classful networks. 698 Layer 1 problems. 249 . 358 finding with decimal math. 475-476. 182-183 assigning to internetwork topology. 369-370 size. 184 interfaces interface IDs. 701-702 speed and duplex issues. 232 subnet masks. 310. 481-482 Cisco Catalyst switches. 360-361. 41. 358 routing between VLANs. 579-581 with VLSM. 128-129 example of network with four subnets. 181. 362-363 definition of. 51 DHCP Relay. 699-700 with global unicast addresses. 506-512 auto-mdix. 350-352 finding with binary math. 316-320. 361 analyzing subnet needs subnet blocks. 282-284 with unique local addresses. 313-315 access switches. 522 which hosts are in which subnet. 581-583 troubleshooting. 315-316 subset of IP address. 370-372 design choices finding with magic number. 321-324 dynamic IP address configuration with DHCP. 515-519 calculating per network. 320-321 switches. 228. 179-181 remote subnets. 222-223 IPv6 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 182-183 range of usable addresses. 374 subnet broadcast. 320. 183-184 Layer 2 switches. 232 history buffer commands.958 subnets finding subnet IDs. 181-182 planning implementation. 696-699 configuration files. 278-279 operational versus design view of. 415-419 verifying on switch. 309 number of subnets. 310-312 reference table: DDN mask values and binary equivalent. 308-309 size of subnets. 310. 361-362 host and switch IP settings. 520-522 number of hosts per subnet. 278-284 IPv4 configuring on switch. 600-601 list of all subnets. 141-143 distribution switches. 228. 513 finding subnets with 9-16 subnet bits. matching. 310-313 finding subnets with 17 or more subnet bits. 320-321 finding subnets with less than 8 subnet bits. 519-520 building list of. 305 predictability in interesting octet. 305. 306-308 finding subnets with exactly 8 subnet bits. 279-282 status codes. See also LAN switching public IP networks. 306 overlapping subnets without VLSM. 358-359 collision domains and. 518 zero subnet. 411 resident subnets. 514 choosing IP network. 320. 370-372 simple example. 515 broadcast addresses.

269 autonegotiation. 168-169 switchport port-security maximum command. 260 switchport mode trunk command. 210. 175-176 local username/password configuration. 780 configuration. 203. 294 Systems Network Architecture (SNA). 268 switchport mode dynamic auto command. 193-194 sending messages to users. 269 switchport trunk encapsulation command. 295. 783 speed. 249-252 port security. 169-173 SSH (Secure Shell). 176-179 switchport port-security violation command. 284-287 switchport port-security mac-address sticky command.tables Layer 3 switches. 204-205. 207. 819 switchport mode command. 415. 262. 265-266. 203. 268. See MAC address table switchport access command. 210. 158-159 storing log messages for review. 210 external authentication servers. 819 switchport mode access command. 207 switchport mode dynamic desirable command. 293. 782 removing configuration. 210 security. 813. 258. 813. 287-288 configuration. 268. 258. 258. 264-266. 173-175 simple password configuration. 193-194 enabling/disabling interfaces. 190-192 switchport voice vlan command. 19 T T1. 204-206. 288-289 verifying. 202-203. 210 predicting where switches will forward frames. 203. 262 verification. 203-205 err-disabled recovery. 268 switch forwarding and filtering decisions. 253. 784-786 debug command. 110 Syslog. 195 log message format. 780-781 switch interfaces. See leased-line WANs tables ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) tables. 265-268. 203-205. 289-292 shutdown mode. 100. 181. 490 959 . 226 switchport access vlan command. 295 switchport port-security command. 207-208 restrict mode. 203-205 switchport port-security mac-address command. 150-153 switchport trunk native vlan command. 297 switchport trunk allowed vlan command. 287. 193-194 duplex. 786-787 multiple interfaces. 197-198 log message security levels. 195-197 SYN flags. 819 switch interface configuration. 288-289 MAC addresses. 813. 198-202 description. 256. 781-782 voice switches. 784-786 switching table. 253. 256-257. 417 switchport nonegotiate command. 205-206 violation actions.

28-30 network layer. 30 RFCs (Requests for Comments). 559-560 terminal history size command. 235 time. 284-286 showing. 230-232 topology design terminology. 133. 114-115 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 94-95 transport layer. 22-23 compared to OSI. 781. 447-449 tagging (VLAN). IPv6 addresses. 105-106 compared to UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 801 terminal no monitor command. 787. 159-160 multiple switches. 828 three-tier campus design. 230-232 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association). 161 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 104-105. 23. 23-24. 845 Time To Live (TTL). 788-789 link layer. 113-114 clearing. 108-109 port numbers. 554 history of. 232-233 two-tier campus design. 869-870 time-period command. 478. 83. 107 supported features. 114. 110-111 controlling access with ACLs. 111-112 passwords. 30-32 examples. 117-118 identifying receiving application. 14. 112-113 multiplexing. 104 DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 184. See troubleshooting TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol). 156-157 routing tables. 153-154 aging. 104-105 tcp keyword. 32-33 data encapsulation terminology. 20-21. 169 flow control. 618 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol). TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) application layer. 188 terminal monitor command. 109. 235 Telnet. See also IPv4 addresses. 559 connection establishment and termination. 246-248 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 20 topologies of campus LANs three-tier campus design. 227-230 . 106-108 popular applications. 162 web browsing finding entries in. 560-561 when to use. 801 testing. 554 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 106 sockets. 22-23 timezone. setting. 118-119 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 23-25 MAC address table. 162-163 predicting contents of. 19-20 Time-to-Live Exceeded (TTL Exceeded).960 tables IP routing tables. 107-108 segments. 25-28 original versus modern TCP/IP models. 788-789 time management for Cisco Certification Exam. 813-814 error recovery and reliability.

744-745. 112-113 mismatched masks. 569-570 connection establishment and termination. 109. See TCP Layer 1 problems. 744-747 methodologies. 748 traceroute6 command. 743-744. 748 troubleshooting definition of. 478. 573-574 flow control. 178. 52 Ethernet LANs. 34 transport layer (TCP/IP). 24-25 same-layer interaction. 105-106 compared to UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 178 transport layer (OSI). 564 default router IP address setting. 107 supported features. 552-553 961 . 631-633 transport input all command. 828 IP forwarding issues. 178 transport input telnet ssh command. 741-744 verifying host connectivity from nearby routers. 635 inbound ACL filters routing protocol packets. 108-109 port numbers. 279-282 transmitting frames. 543-544 ping with names and IP addresses. See TCP/IP speed and duplex issues. 282-284 transferring files. 104-105 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 104-105. 178 transport input ssh command. 107-108 segments. 282-284 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 391. 637-639 transport input command. 584 popular applications. 572. 818 transport input none command. 567-569 multiplexing. 579-583 error recovery and reliability. 583 IPv6 addressing verifying host connectivity from hosts. 271 tracert command. 274-275 with ping command. 187. 566-567 router WAN interface status. 178 ACL interactions with routergenerated packets. 278-279 IPv4 ACLs (access control lists) transparent bridges. 106-108 packet filtering with access lists. 117-118 interfaces Transmission Control Protocol. 104 common syntax mistakes. 106 sockets. 575-578 mismatched IPv4 settings. 635-636 reversed source/destination IP address. 634-635 troubleshooting commands. 23-24. 111-112 LAN issues. 23 adjacent-layer interaction. 481-485 trailer fields (Ethernet). 113-114 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 110-111 incorrect addressing plans. 748 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). 24-25 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).troubleshooting traceroute command. 633634 IPv4 routing. 553-559. 221-222 ACL behavior in network. 570 DHCP issues. 571-572 DNS problems. 412 status codes.

162-163 two-tier campus design. 461-466 with SSH (Secure Shell). 104-105 port security. 723 two-switch topology. 428-430. 554-559 unicast addresses. 292-296 trunking. 680 predicting where switches will forward frames. 559-561 standard numbered ACLs (access control lists). 328. 550-551 U testing LAN neighbors with standard ping. 711-714 unicast IP addresses. 114-115 configuration. 553-559 VLANs (virtual LANs). 358. 287-292 unabbreviated addresses (IPv6). matching. 53 TTL Exceeded (Time-to-Live Exceeded). 702-703 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 248-249 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). 104 testing WAN neighbors with standard ping. 708-711 generating unique interface ID with modified EUI-64. 554 universal images (IOS).962 troubleshooting testing LAN neighbors with extended ping.1Q. 547-549 compared to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). 701 definition of. 246-248 importance of. 688 RIPv2. 145 problem isolation with traceroute. 551-552 port numbers. 701-702 TTL (Time To Live). See UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables unused switch interface security. 855 mismatched trunking operational states. 606-607 static IPv4 routes. 545-547 UDP (User Datagram Protocol). 258-262 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). 452-453 . 257 subnetting with. 246. 284-287 undebug all command. 154 unshielded twisted-pair. 416-417 undefined VLANs. 113-114 testing reverse routes with extended ping. flooding. 22 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 851-853 tutorials for Cisco Certification Exam. 554 universal addresses. 293 dynamic unicast address configuration (IPv6). 227-230 Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs). 868-869 unknown addresses (IPv6). 549-550 UDI (unique device identifier). 707-708 enabling IPv6 routing. 765-768 with Telnet. 22 unknown unicast frames. 715 static unicast address configuration (IPv6) configuring full 128-bit address. 618-621 supported features. 855 testing longer routes from near source of problem. 53. 812-813 updates (RIP). 559-561 with traceroute command. 248-249 unique device identifier (UDI). 23. 275-277. 491 802. 692-693 VLAN tagging. 294-296 unique local addresses.

845 username password command. 253-256 Layer 3 switches. See VLANs verify /md5 command. 175-176 passwords local password configuration. 46-47 virtual LANs. 183-184 User Datagram Protocol. See UDP IPv6 host connectivity user EXEC mode. 133-135 user mode external authentication servers. 833-835 usbflash file systems. 796-797 data and voice VLANs. 829. 450-451. 655 port security. 262-267 963 . 827. 244-246 V configuration. 292-293 CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). 173-175 simple password configuration. 22. 744-747 NAT (Network Address Translation) dynamic NAT. 43-46 VLSM (variable length subnet masks). 253 IP telephony. 810 local username configuration. 810 show ip route command. 169-173 username command. 449-450 username privilege 15 command. 48-50 verify command. 606-607 static unicast address configuration. 114-115 host IPv4 settings.VLANs (virtual LANs) upgrading IOS images. 657-659 static NAT. 850 UTP Ethernet links. 846 VLANs (virtual LANs). 264-266 definition of. 486-490 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). 271 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers. 51 versions (IOS). 264-266 variable-length subnet masks. See VLSM verification access interfaces. 225-226. 174-175. 175. 447 AD (administrative distance). 846 cabling pinouts for 1000BASE-T. 829 show ip protocols command. 818. 824-830 Ethernet switching. 780-781 Syslog. 173. 420-422 shorter VLAN configuration example. 22 IOS images. 258-262 default VLANs. 156 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 827. 205-206 RIPv2. 824 IPv4 on switch. sending messages to. 709-711 users. 252-253 data and voice VLANs. 447-449 usernames hiding passwords for. 256-257 trunking. 741-744 from nearby routers. 173-175 standard numbered ACLs (access control lists). 784-786 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cables. 480-481 full VLAN configuration example. 827 from hosts. 810 IOS code integrity. 187. 531-532 cabling pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 456-458 username secret command.

66-67 HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control). 72-77 leased-line WANs cabling. 581-583 recognizing when VLSM is used. 528 designing subnet plans with. 64-65 connecting LANs via. 292-293 trunking. 238. 262 wired LANs. 38 vtp mode command. 530 adding new subnets to existing VLSM design. 249. 118-119 URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers). 114 web servers. 268 VLAN IDs. 114 web browsing DNS (Domain Name System) resolution. 237 . 68-69 WAN neighbors. 532-536 verification. 536-538 classful routing protocols. 248 routing. 114.964 VLANs (virtual LANs) native VLANs. 251-252 with routers. See Ethernet LANs (localarea networks) VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 66 data-link protocols. 551-552 WC masks. See WANs wildcard masks. 600-602 windowing. 293 verifying access interfaces. 579 W-X-Y-Z WANs (wide-area networks). 246 802. 240 home office wireless LANs. 114 web pages. 294-296 VLAN tagging. See wildcard masks web browsers. 265. 531-532 overlapping subnets. 415-419 with Layer 3 switch. 257 wireless LANs. 257 VLSM (variable length subnet mask). 258-262 ISL (Inter-Switch Link). 246 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). 70-71 Internet access. 312. 257 VLAN IDs. 253. 38. 530-531 classless routing protocols. testing. 248-249 configuration. 294 mismatched trunking operational states. 115-117 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). 246-248 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol). 246-248 troubleshooting. 114 wide-area networks. 530-531 configuration. 114-115 web clients. 70-72 Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS). 249-251 tagging. 236. 257. 60 Ethernet WANs.1Q. 62-63 creating in lab. 246 vlan command. 292 disabled VLANs. 531-532 definition of. 112-113 voice switches. 294-296 undefined VLANs. 67 leased line terminology. 69-70 Ethernet emulation. 533-534 finding VLSM overlaps. 239. 60 compared to LANs. 63-64 routing. 268 enterprise wireless LANs. 117-118 identifying receiving application. 248-249 troubleshooting.

145. 236-237 WLCs (Wireless LAN Controllers). 239 wireless routers. 841. 239 World Wide Web (WWW). 843. 109 zero subnet. 109 write erase command. 514 . 845 WWW (World Wide Web). 236 WLANs (wireless LANs) enterprise wireless LANs. 238-240 home office wireless LANs. 846 write-memory subnet 965 Wireless LAN Controllers (WLCs).

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