IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 01, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Planning, Designing and Implementation of IT Networks using Network
Infrastructure and Security measures

Er.Gagandeep Singh Kahlon1 Er.Sukhwinder Kaur2 Dr. R.C Gangwar3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Information Technology
CT Group of Institutions3Beant College of Engg. & Tech

Abstract— This paper gives you a brief idea about how we
can design, plan and implement computer networks. The
knowledge of this makes you a solid, well-rounded network
designer. It trains you in multiple levels and areas regarding
the ability to work with routed and switched networks. It
includes the decision about which networking device to
choose. How to assign IP addresses and what are the various
schemes available for the same. What are the various security
measures which are there for a network? It includes detailed
knowledge about all the devices which we can use for
designing a network. It fully develops your networking
knowledge and helps you add value to any organization’s
Key words: IDS, Router, switch, Subnetting
Welcome to the exciting world of internetworking which
have made data sharing very easy and fast ranging from big
multinational corporations to a single user and is a widely
used practice which provides multiple benefits to the people
utilizing it. By reading this paper you will develop a
complete understanding of the network devices, protocols,
security measures which are necessary to plan, design and
implement a complete computer network. The network
design and planning is a step by step process in which we
are concerned with the topological design of the network,
the size and number of network components to be used and
also calculating the capacity requirements and how to ensure
reliability within a network. The task of a network engineer
is first of all to choose the right devices needed for setting
up the network. The different networking devices which are
required to set up a network are routers, switches, hubs,
networking cables, firewalls, modems, access points, clients
and servers. To efficiently and effectively set up a network
using these networking devices require a rational decision to
be made for using them.
A. Function of each networking device and the place where
it can be used:
1) Routers
A router is a device that forwards data packets along
networks. A router is connected to at least two networks,
commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's
network. A router is simply a device which connects two
different networks together. The main functions of a router
is to forward data packets from source to destination which
is known as routing and packet filtering which is avoiding
those requests and packets which are useless for the
intended network. The router is having number of ports in it
which can be used for router to router connectivity and
router to switch connectivity. The console port of the router
is used to do all the configurations on the router. The picture
1 depicts the ports a router is having.

Fig. 1:
The router works on the command line interface
and this picture(Fig 1) shows how many ports a router is
having and whether the IP address is given to a particular
port or not? The router is having its own operating system
installed in it which is IOS (Internetworking Operating
System). The router is the most important component of the
network on which different routing protocols are assigned
depending upon the requirements of the network. Router is
only used when we have to connect different networks

Fig. 2:
This figure shows the basic layout of a network
components attached. In this figure if we want to have
connectivity between departments or we want to have
connectivity within a network then we will make use of
switches as the network components but if we want to
connect two different networks then we can proceed with
the help of a router. In this figure you can see that there are
two routers, one is at the Office A and the other is at the
Office B. There are total three networks present in the above
figure. One network is between two routers. The other two
networks are connected to the routers with the help of
switches, one is on the left hand and other is at the right
hand side. In this research paper all the explanations are
given based on the above scenario.
2) Switches
Switches are the networking devices which works on MAC
addresses assigned to them. Switches work on data link
layer. Switches are used when we want to have connectivity
within a department, within a network, within a lab of a
college. Switches are intelligent devices which are having
their own operating system installed in it. Switches store all
the MAC addresses in their memory. Just like routers
switches are having ROM, buffer memory installed in them.
Switches make use of store and forward technology to send
data among different computers. All the MAC addresses of
computers are stored in the MAC table of the computers and
the data is sent using MAC addresses assigned to the PC.
The quality of a switch is that they don’t send data to all the

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Planning, Designing and Implementation of IT Networks using Network Infrastructure and Security measures
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 01/2016/008)

computers connected to them whereas in case of hubs they
are performing broadcasting. The data is sent to the entire
PC connected with it. Hence in case of hubs there is wastage
of bandwidth of the network. In case of switches the data is
sent to only the intended receiver of the message and it is
not sent to the entire network. Switches can work by sending
data in multicasting and unicasting manner. We can define
VLANs in the switches which is a very important aspect of
networking. An Ethernet switch operates at the data link
layer (layer 2) of the OSI model to create a separate
collision domain for each switch port. Each device
connected to a switch port can transfer data to any of the
other ones at a time, and the transmissions will not interfere
– with the limitation that, in half duplex mode, each switch
port can only either receive from or transmit to its connected
device at a certain time. In full duplex mode, each switch
port can simultaneously transmit and receive, assuming the
connected device also supports full duplex mode.

Fig. 3:
3) How to assign IP addresses to the computers in a
There are two schemes used in subnetting, one is fixed
length subnet mask and the other is variable length subnet
mask. In fixed length subnet mask when we are assigning
the IP addresses to the computers then some IP addresses
got wasted. But in case of variable length subnet mask there
is very less wastage of IP addresses because we are
providing IP addresses according to their requirements.
There are many reasons to perform subnetting. Some of the
benefits of subnetting include the following:
4) Reduced network traffic
We all appreciate less traffic of any kind. Net- works are no
different. Without trusty routers, packet traffic could grind
the entire network down to a near standstill. With routers,
most traffic will stay on the local network; only packets
destined for other networks will pass through the router.
Routers create broadcast domains. The smaller broadcast
domains you create, the less network traffic on that network
5) Optimized network performance
This is a result of reduced network traffic.
6) Simplified management
It’s easier to identify and isolate network problems in a
group of smaller connected networks than within one
gigantic network.
To assign IP addresses to all the networking
devices a network engineer have to first identify the number
of networks and hosts present in the network. In the second
step, the numbers of bits are reserved according to the
number of networks. Let us take the given scenario and
assign IP addresses to them accordingly. The method to
assign the IP addresses is as given below.

Numbers of networks are: 3
Formula for finding out the number of networks is 2n.
(Where n is the number of Ones in the network).
2n=3. Here we choose the value of n to be 2 because we
can consider a slightly greater value but if we take n to
be 1 then it will not satisfy the equation.

Now let us suppose that we have given the class C for
performing subnetting then we will first of all consider
its subnet mask. The mask of class C is
 is converted into binary form which
become 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000.
 Now we are having the value of n to be 2. Then the
 Convert the above subnet mask into decimal for that
comes out to be
 Then block size is calculated which comes out to be 256192=64.
 Now the subnets are: If we are taking class C for
 If we want to find out how many hosts are there in a
subnet then the formula for the same will be 2n-2. Here
the number of hosts comes out to be 62.
 Now we can assign address to three networks given in
the above scenario by using the calculated subnets and
Network security is a very complex area which can only
be tackled by people who are well trained in this. There are
many types of network threats which are there in the field of
network security. With cyber-threats becoming a daily
headache for IT security staff, it helps to have some advice,
or at least know what to look out for. The ways that the
networks can be compromised five years ago internally,
certainly still exist. It’s just that today, that list is really
growing, and that’s why this is ongoing research. The
various threats are as follows:
The top 10 internal network vulnerabilities are:
1) USB drives.
2) Laptops and netbooks.
3) Wireless access points.
4) Miscellaneous USB devices (digital cameras, MP3
players, etc.)
5) Employees borrowing others’ machines or devices.
6) The Trojan Human (attackers who visit sites disguised
as employee personnel or contractors)
7) Optical media (CDs, DVDs, etc.)
8) Lack of employee alertness.
9) Smartphone.
10) E-mail.
There is a simple method of defining the Access
Control Lists on the routers so as to filter the unwanted IP
addresses to the network. An access control list (ACL), with
respect to a computer file system, is a list of permissions
attached to an object. An ACL specifies which users or
system processes are granted access to objects, as well as
what operations are allowed on given objects.
7) Types of IP ACLs
Standard ACLs
Standard ACLs are the oldest type of ACL. Standard ACLs
control traffic by the comparison of the source address of
the IP packets to the addresses configured in the ACL. The
standard access control lists in common do the filtering
based on IP addresses of the computers.

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Planning, Designing and Implementation of IT Networks using Network Infrastructure and Security measures
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 01/2016/008)

Extended ACLs
Extended ACLs control traffic by the comparison of the
source and destination addresses of the IP packets to the
addresses configured in the ACL. The extended access
control lists does the filtering based on protocols also.

Fig. 4:
The following table shows the numbers which we
can assign to the access control lists. We can use numbers
from 1 to 99 for standard access control lists. Moreover we
can use firewalls and Intrusion detection systems for
protecting our network from unauthorized access. A firewall
is a hardware or software system that prevents unauthorized
access to or from a network. They can be implemented in
both hardware and software, or a combination of both.
Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized
Internet users from accessing private networks connected to
the Internet. All data entering or leaving the Intranet pass
through the firewall, which examine search packet and
blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.
Internet security has become a major concern as
many businesses now make their transactions online. It
therefore means that the internet must be secured for
business to be done. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is
a device or software application that monitors network or
system activities for malicious activities or policy violations
and produces reports to a management station. IDS come in
a variety of “flavours” and approach the goal of detecting
suspicious traffic in different ways. There are network based
(NIDS) and host based (HIDS) intrusion detection systems.
So nowadays to keep our databases and knowledge bases
secure is the most important criteria of designing computer
networks. The main difference between a firewall and an
intrusion detection system is that the firewall cannot detect
an attack which arises from within a network but on the
other hand an intrusion detection system is capable of
detecting an attack that arises from within a network.
The main concern is the choice of right networking devices
and if proper implementation of a network is done it acts as
a system that provides unique capabilities to its users. In
today’s computer world it had become mandatory for an
engineer to properly administer and maintain the computer
network. The important criterion while designing is that
network must be robust, scalable and reliable. It validates
one's ability to work in small and medium sized businesses
and organizations that use less extensive networks.
[1] The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography.
[3] Pajek, http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek

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