What is CCNA? CCNA is a popular certification in computer networking developed by Cisco Systems.

Cisco created the CCNA to recognize basic competency in installation and support of medium-tolarge sized networks. Topics covered on the CCNA exam include
• • • • •

LAN and WAN design (including the OSI model) IP addressing routers and routing protocols (including OSPF, EIGRP and RIP) VLAN (virtual LAN) and WLAN (wireless LAN) network security and management (including ACLs)

What is computer network? Network is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allow sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices.

“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi”
Contact @ 9753338888, 9926210940, email: - manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com

Network elements:1. communication Device = pc, laptop, printer, scanner, mobile. 2. communication media = there are two types of communication media. a. wired == coaxial cable, twisted pair cable, fiber optic cable b. wireless == infrared, Bluetooth, radio waves, microwaves 3. connectivity device == hub, switch, route 4. common language == Tcp/IP protocol suite 5. device identification == A. physical address (mac (media access control) address) B. logical address (ip address) C. service address (port no.)

“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi”
Contact @ 9753338888, 9926210940, email: - manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com

Types of Cable:1. coaxial cable :- A type of wire that consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire. The shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference.

Types of coaxial cable:Cable type Ethernet network Speed Signal type Segment Length Standard Connector Terminator Thinnet coaxial cable 10 base 2 10 mbps Baseband 185 meter RG 58 BNC (British naval connector) 50 ohm Thicknet Coaxial cable 10 base 5 10 mbps Baseband 500 meter RG 8 AUI (attachment user interface) 50 ohm

“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi”
Contact @ 9753338888, 9926210940, email: - manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com

with a frequency Limitation of 20 MHz E. Suitable for up to 4Mbps. Category 5 Suitable for up to 100 Mbps. it is immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). with a frequency Limitation of 10MHz. Category 5e Suitable for up to 1000 Mbps. 9926210940. Category 4 Suitable for up to 16 Mbps. It has pros and cons just as the other cable types. Category 6 Suitable for up to 1Gbps.fiber-optic cable transmits digital signals using light impulses rather than electricity. upports signals limited to a frequency of 1MHz. with a frequency Limitation of 100 MHz F.manish. it’s called unshielded twistedpair (UTP).Twisted Pair Cable: . There are two types of Twisted pair cable :A.Twisted-pair cable consists eight wires that are twisted together in pairs. Category 3 Suitable for up to 10 Mbps. Category 2 Four twisted wire pairs (eight wires). you see cable without outer shielding. C. UTP cable is rated in the following categories: A. Here are the pros: “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. utp (unshielded twisted pair cable) B. B. multimode fiber is used for shorter-distance applications and single-mode fiber for longer distances. D. with a frequency Limitation of 250 MHz Connector for Twisted pair cable: RJ 45 (registered jack 45) Fiber-Optic Cable: .com . The cable itself comes in two different styles: • single-mode fiber (SMF) • multimode fiber (MMF). Voice grade (not rated for data communications). with a frequency Limitation of 100 MHz G. stp (shielded twisted pair cable) A metallic shield is placed around the twisted pairs. More commonly. Hence. Category 1 Two twisted wire pairs (four wires). with a frequency Limitation of 16 MHz. the name shielded Twisted-pair (STP).

“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.• Is completely immune to EMI or RFI • Can transmit up to 40 kilometers (about 25 miles) Here are the cons of fiber-optic cable: • Is difficult to install • Requires a bigger investment in installation and materials • Fiber-Optic Connectors: Fiber-optic cables can use different connectors.manish. but the two most popular and recognizable are the straight tip (ST) and subscriber (or square) connector (SC) connectors. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com . 9926210940.

Means only two device can communicate at a time. • It works in Half Duplex Mode. And Creates software Based MAC address table. Means device can send and receive data simultaneously. one can send the data and another can receive the data. • It works in full duplex mode. your computer to the network. • It has less number of Ports compare to switch. • It works in full duplex mode. And Forward the Frame According to Mac address. Because it uses broadcast to make communication.Common Network Connectivity Devices: NIC (network interface card): . 9926210940.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • It uses Hardware Chip ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) to create mac address table.com . • It operates Data link layer of OSI Model.it is the expansion card you install in your computer to connect. • It is also called Multiport Repeater. Hub:• It is LAN or Same Network Connectivity Device. • It provides wired speed. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. email: . Switch: • It is also LAN or Same network connectivity Device. • Switch operates layer 2 (Data Link layer) of OSI model. • Bridge:• It is a network device that connects two similar network segments together.manish. • Hub operates layer 1 (physical) of OSI Model. It understands the Mac Address. • It is also called multiport Bridge. • It divides the transmission speed. or interface.

Bridge and Switch forward the Broadcast and Router break the broadcast.Router: • It is different network connectivity device. • It operates layer 3 (network layer ) of OSI model. path selection 4. • It understands the IP address and creates Routing Table. Packet filtering 3.by default Hub. email: . internetwork communication Note: . 9926210940. Function of router:1.com . “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.manish. Packet switching 2.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.

9926210940. Example: • Host to switch or hub • Router to switch or hub Addressing in computer Network:. First 24 bit for vendor id and last 24 bit for device serial no.) 1. logical address (IP address) 3. CSMA/CD was created to overcome the problem of those Collisions that occur when packets are transmitted simultaneously from different nodes. Ethernet Cabling: . email: . • It is 48 bit (12 digit). • Ethernet networking uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). Straight-through cable 2. Physical address (hardware address /MAC address) 2. Rolled cable Straight-Through Cable: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail.Ethernet Networking: • Ethernet is a contention media access method that allows all hosts on a network to share the same bandwidth of a link. • Switch understands the MAC address and Creates Mac table. Service address (Software port no.manish.com . 1. • It Divides in 2 Part.There are three types of address in computer network.The straight-through cable is used to connect dissimilar devices.Three types of Ethernet cables are available: 1. Crossover cable 3.1A-2B-34-54-2A-CD “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. hexa decimal number which is used to identify any host in LAN or Same network. • Example:. Physical address (hardware address /MAC address) :• A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment.

as well as the Autonomous System Numbers used for routing Internet traffic.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. ISPs obtain allocations of IP addresses from a local Internet registry (LIR) or National Internet Registry (NIR).manish. IPv4 addresses are 32-bit numbers often expressed as 4 octets in "dotted decimal" notation (for example. Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are generally assigned in a hierarchical manner. • IP address is divided into four octets separated by dots (. • Example: - IANA is responsible for global coordination of the Internet Protocol addressing systems.2. Users are assigned IP addresses by Internet service providers (ISPs).2. Deployment of the IPv6 protocol began in 1999. We represent this address in to decimal format. Its table holds best path to reach destination. 192. IPv6 addresses are 128-bit numbers and are conventionally expressed using hexadecimal strings (for example.).0. Currently there are two types of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in active use: IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6). 9926210940.com . • It has two portions. 2001:0db8:582:ae33::29). First portion is called network id and another is called host id. • Router understands the IP address and creates Routing Table. logical address (IP address): • It is 32 bit Binary Number which is used to identify any host in network. or from their appropriate Regional Internet Registry (RIR): “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. And every octet has value between 0-255. IPv4 was initially deployed on 1 January 1983 and is still the most commonly used version.53). email: .

9926210940. email: . Port 7 20 21 23 25 53 79 80 88 110 119 161 179 Application Echo FTP-Data FTP-CMD Telnet SMTP DOMAIN Finger HTTP Kerberos POP3 NNTP SMTP BGP Description Echo File transfer data port File transfer command port Telnet remote login port Simple Mail Transfer Protocol port Domain Name Service Obtains information about active users Hypertext Transfer Protocol port Authentication Protocol PC Mail retrieval service port Network news access port Network Management Border Gateway Protocol “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. the Middle East.They are assigned by IANA for specific service upon application by a requesting entity. or private. ports that cannot be registered with IANA.Registry AfriNIC APNIC ARIN Area Covered Africa Region Asia/Pacific Region North America Region Latin America and some Caribbean LACNIC Islands Europe.They are used by system processes that provide widely-used types of network services. private or ephemeral ports: 49152–65535: . port numbers used by protocols of the Transport Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite for the establishment of host-to-host communications. • Well-known ports: 0–1023:. Service address (Software port no.): • It is 16 bit number . • Registered ports: 1024–49151: .manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • Dynamic. and Central RIPE NCC Asia 3.The range above the registered ports contains dynamic. It is used for custom or temporary purposes. which is used identify a service.com .

.mobile. Fiber Optic Cable 2. pc to pc “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. email: .. 1. Ex:. Ex. Cable. And every layer has distinct function.com . • It divides network communication process into seven layers.It takes data from Data link layer in form of Frame. • First Network developed by IBM. Bluetooth. 7 layers of OSI Model:- Physical Layer:• It layer 7 of OSI Model • Data unit == Bits • Devices == Hub. Wireless == infrared. Then dived frame into byte and byte into bits.OSI Model: • Open system interconnection. 1. Connector • Working of Physical Layer: . • Responsibilities of Physical layer: 1. • OSI model provides Common Platform for different Vendor to develop their devices. Microwaves 2. Radio waves. Transmission Media: .walkie talkie. Full duplex == Two way simultaneous Communication. Simplex == One way communication. NIC. Wired == coaxial cable. Wireless 3.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.There are three types of transmission Mode.FM radio 2. Half duplex == two way but not simultaneously. and it operates only IBM devices. Repeater. • It developed by ISO (international standard organization ‘or’ international organization for standardization) in 1977. Ex.manish.there are two types of transmission media. Transmission Mode: . Twisted Pair Cable. 9926210940.

STP • Working of Data Link Layer: . Then attach Header and trailer on this Packet.It receives data from Network Layer in Form of Packet. email: . Contention media access is “first come/first served” access where everyone shares the same bandwidth 2. ATM.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.2 • Responsible for identifying Network layer protocols and then encapsulating them. 1 Group of 4 bit == 1 Nibble Group of 8 Bit == 1 Byte == single character 1024 byte == 1 kB (kilo byte) 1024 kB == 1 MB (mega byte) 1024 MB = 1 GB (giga byte) 1024 GB = 1TB (Tera Byte) 1024 TB == 1 PB (Peta Byte) 1024 PB == 1 EB (exa Byte) Data Link Layer: • It is layer 2 of OSI model. Source MAC address and Length. HDLC .0 pattern provides a 5MHz clock at the start of each packet. Destination MAC address. Preamble: . and we measure it in bits/seconds. Bridge • Protocol == PPP. 9926210940. Bits == 0. and its Trailer has FCS (Frame check sequence). • Data Unit == Frames • Devices == Switch .manish.com .An alternating 1. And its Header has information about Preamble. Now packet becomes Frame.3 • Defines how frames are placed on the media. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. MAC (media Access Control) sub layer • It has IEEE Standard 802. which allows the receiving devices to lock the incoming bit stream • There are Two sub layer of Data link Layer:1. LLC (Logical Link Control) Sub Layer • It has IEEE standard 802.Transmission Speed depends on Physical layer.3. Transmission Speed:. VTP . Frame Relay.

Network Layer:• It is Layer 3 of OSI model.FCS code is used to Control flow of data. Path Selection: . This is called logical addressing.com . Protocol.IP. IPv6. Layer 3 Switch • Protocol == there are two types of Protocol on network layer. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. 2. Ex. TTL (time to live).Responsibilities of Data Link Layer: • Physical Addressing: . AppleTalk. 9926210940.. Responsibilities of Network Layer: Logical Addressing: . this is called Physical Addressing. IGRP. 1. Ex. . Routing Protocol: . email: . Then attaché header on this segment.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. IPX. now segment becomes packet.it attaches logical address (ip address) information on data. OSPF.RIP. Internetwork communication: . source ip address and • 1. And router is used to select best path for packet transmission. Routed Protocol: .manish.It receives data from transport layer in form of segment. EIGRP. • Working of Network Layer: . destination ip address.It selects the best path for Packet transmission. • Flow control: .To make communication in two different network. Its header has information about IP version.Router operates on network.it defines the method of Packet transmission. 2. • Data unit == Packets • Devices == Router . 3.it attaches Physical address (destination and source Mac addresses) on data frame.

email: . Flow control prevents a sending host on one side of the connection from overflowing the buffers in the receiving host—an event that can result in lost data. . Its header has source port no. 3. and destination port no. and sequence no. 2. o TCP (transmission control Protocol) = connection oriented o UDP (User Datagram Protocol) = connection less protocol 4. And attaches header on every segment. 5.It receives data from Upper layers (application.it attaches source port no. Data is then transferred. It provides end-to-end data transport services and can establish a logical connection between the sending host and destination host on an internetwork. Working of Transport Layer: .Transport Layer: 1. destination port no.Data integrity is ensured at the Transport layer by maintaining flow control.The transmitting device first establishes a connection-oriented session with its peer system. Protocols == there are two protocols work on transport layer. Flow control: . 2. Data Unit == Segment 5.manish. 4. a call termination takes place to tear down the virtual circuit. session). Service Addressing: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com . Responsibilities of Transport Layer: 1. It is layer 4 of OSI Model. which is called a call setup or a three-way handshake. The Transport layer can be connectionless or connection-oriented. information. information on data. then divides this data into smaller unit called Segment. when the transfer is finished. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. 3. 9926210940. this is called service addressing. Connection-Oriented Communication: . presentation.

The quantity of data segments (measured in bytes) that the transmitting machine is allowed to send without receiving an acknowledgment for them is called a window. 9926210940. email: . Windowing: . 5. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com .4.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish.

The Application Layer: • It is layer 7 of OSI model. or nodes. TCP/IP Model: • The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite was created by the Department of Defense (DoD) to ensure and preserve data integrity.The Session Layer: • It is layer 5 of OSI model • Data unit == data • The Session layer is responsible for setting up. • The Application layer is acting as an interface between the actual application programs. • By providing translation services. • This layer also provides dialog control between devices.manish. • The Session layer basically keeps different applications’ data separate from other applications’ data. Network Access layer • “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Host-to-Host layer 3. layers: 1. managing.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Process/Application layer 2.com . The Presentation Layer: • It is layer 6 of OSI model. • Data Unit == data • The Application layer of the OSI model marks the spot where users actually communicate to the computer. and then tearing down sessions between Presentation layer entities. • it’s composed of four instead of seven. This means that Microsoft Word does not reside at the Application layer but instead interfaces with the Application layer protocols. • Data Unit == data • It presents data to the Application layer and is responsible for data translation and code formatting. email: . 9926210940. encryption. decompression. Internet layer 4. the Presentation layer ensures that data transferred from the Application layer of one system can be read by the Application layer of another one. and decryption are associated with this layer. • Data compression.

• The DoD and OSI models are alike in design and concept and have similar functions in similar layers. 9926210940. email: .com .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • 1.manish. The Process/Application Layer Protocols: The following protocols and applications are covered in this section: • Telnet • FTP • TFTP “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) • Port no. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Port no. called the Telnet client. = 69 • It uses UDP (user datagram protocol) protocol to establish connection. such as relocating into different ones. so it’s insecure. • Network File System (NFS) is a jewel of a protocol specializing in file sharing. stock version of FTP. and it can accomplish this between any two machines using it. 9926210940. • TFTP has no directory-browsing abilities. • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish. to access the resources of another machine. = 21 (control). email: . • It allows two different types of file systems to interoperate. the Telnet server.com . Network File System (NFS) • Port no. • FTP isn’t just a protocol. • Its specialty is terminal emulation. It works like this: Suppose the NFS server software is running on an NT server and the NFS client software is running on a UNIX host. FTP allows for access to both directories and files and can accomplish certain types of directory operations. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. It allows a user on a remote client machine. • As a program. it can do nothing but send and receive files. = 2049 • It uses UDP (user datagram protocol) protocol to establish connection.• • • • • • • NFS SMTP LPD X Window SNMP DNS DHCP/BootP Telnet: • Port no. • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the protocol that actually lets us transfer files. • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is the stripped-down. it’s also a program. 20 (data) • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection. • There’s no authentication as with FTP. = 23.

443 (HTTPS) • It uses TCP and UDP protocols to establish connection. • It is also used to receive emails.manish. • With POP3.Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • Port no. HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) • Port no. or queued. = 143 • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection. = 25 • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection. allows print jobs to be spooled and sent to the network’s printers using TCP/IP. • SMTP is used to send mail. = 109 (POP2). IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) • Port no. POP3 is used to receive mail. = 80 (HTTP). along with • The Line Printer (LPR) program. • It is the protocol used to convey information of World Wide Web (WWW). POP3 (Post office Protocol) • Port no. • LPD protocol is designed for printer sharing.com . and HTTPS uses TCP and UDP both . • SMTP is used to send mail. • POP3 always downloads all new emails locally to your computer. • The LPD. 110 (POP3) • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection. • IMAP keeps all emails on the server until you erase them. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • HTTP uses TCP. = 515 • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection. • HTTP protocol is a stateless and connectionless protocol. POP3 is used to receive mail. • IMAP downloads message summaries and doesn't download the entire message until you explicitly select it. • SMTP answering our ubiquitous call to email uses a spooled. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. method of mail delivery. your emails can be automatically erased from the server after they are downloaded freeing up space in your account. 9926210940. Line Printer Daemon (LPD) • Port no..

• DHCP assigns IP addresses to hosts automatically. • list of the information a DHCP server can provide: 1. Default gateway (routers) 5.manish. IP address 2. 67 (DHCP Server) • It uses udp protocol to establish connection. • DHCP differs from BootP in that BootP assigns an IP address to a host but the host’s hardware address must be entered manually in a BootP table. Domain Name Service (DNS) • Port no. To resolve client query it uses UDP. DHCP can’t do that. 9926210940. = 53 • It uses TCP and UDP both to establish connection. WINS information “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. agents send an alert called a trap to the management station. quickly notifying managers of any sudden turn of events. = 161(SNMP). email: . 162(SNMP TRAP) • It uses udp protocol to establish connection.com . Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)/Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) • Port no. = 68 (DHCP Client). It uses TCP. • These network watchdogs are called agents. and to synchronize Data between two DNS server. • X Window defines a protocol for writing client/server applications based on a graphical user interface (GUI). Subnet mask 3. = 6000 • It uses TCP protocol to establish connection.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) • Port no. • That BootP is also used to send an operating system that a host can boot from. • This protocol can also stand as a watchdog over the network. DNS 6. Domain name 4.X Window • Port no. • SNMP collects and manipulates valuable network information. • Domain Name Service (DNS) resolves hostnames into IP address and IP address resolves into Hostname.

= 17 • It is connectionless Protocol.2. email: . • It does not use three way Handshake methods to establish connection.manish. Just give me your data stream. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) • Protocol No. with any instructions. The following sections describe the two protocols at this layer: 1. The Host-to-Host Layer Protocols: This layer says to the upper layer. = 6 • It is connection oriented Protocol. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 2. and I’ll begin the process of getting your information ready to send. 9926210940. • It provides acknowledgement. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) • Protocol No.com . • It does not support acknowledgement. • It uses three way Handshake methods to establish connection. • It is reliable protocol for communication. • It is unreliable protocol for communication.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.

manish. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. The Internet Layer Protocols: • There are two main reasons for the Internet layer’s existence: routing and providing a single network interface to the upper layers. Then. • IP looks at each packet’s address. • The following sections describe the protocols at the Internet layer: 1.com . Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) 5. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 3.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.3. using a routing table. it decides where a packet is to be sent next. choosing the best path. 9926210940. Internet Protocol (IP) • Internet Protocol (IP) essentially is the Internet layer. The other protocols found here merely exist to support it. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 4. email: . Internet Protocol (IP) 2.

• RP resolves IP addresses to Ethernet (MAC) addresses. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. • Buffer Full: . advising it of the situation.Packet Internet Groper (Ping) uses ICMP echo request and reply messages to check the physical and logical connectivity of machines on an internetwork. it uses ICMP to send a message back to the sender.If a router can’t send an IP datagram any further. it will use ICMP to send out this message until the congestion abates.manish. • Ping: . responds with the answer and the identity crisis is over. • A designated machine. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • ICMP can provide hosts with information about network problems. • Traceroute: . Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) finds the hardware address of a host from a known IP address.Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • ICMP is a management protocol and messaging service provider for IP. called a RARP server.com . Traceroute is used to discover the path a packet takes as it traverses an internetwork.Using ICMP time-outs.If a router’s memory buffer for receiving incoming datagrams is full. 9926210940. The following are some common events and messages that ICMP relates to: • Destination Unreachable: . • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) • RARP resolves Ethernet (MAC) addresses to IP addresses.Using ICMP time-outs. Windows supports tracert command instead of traceroute. • Tracert: . Traceroute is used to discover the path a packet takes as it traverses an internetwork.

Byte: -A byte is 7 or 8 bits.0. email: . Broadcast address: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail.16. 3.255. 9926210940. 172.IP Addressing • An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. Examples include 255. • These bits are divided into four sections.255. 4. We always assume a byte is 8 bits. Network address: . and 192.168. referred to as octets or bytes. Octet: .This is the designation used in routing to send packets to a remote net-work—for example. is just an ordinary 8-bit binary number.0 5. made up of 8 bits. IP Terminology 1. • IP addressing was designed to allow hosts on one network to communicate with a host on a different network.com . The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme • An IP address consists of 32 bits of information.manish.The address used by applications and hosts to send information to all nodes on a network is called the broadcast address.255. 2.An octet.0. • Every IP address has two portion: Network id + Host id = 32 Bit • “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. 10. Bit: -A bit is one digit.255.0.255. depending on whether parity is used. all nodes.16.0. 172. either a 1 or a 0.0. each containing 1 byte (8 bits). which is all networks.10.

255 means “all nodes” on network 128. Fix bit = 1. sometimes called an “all 1s broadcast” or limited broadcast.Reserved for loopback tests. Could also mean “any network.• Reserved IP Addresses Network 127.255. email: .0. Entire IP address set to all 0s Used by Cisco routers to designate the default route.” Entire IP address set to all 1s (same as 255.manish. of Host Bit= 24 Host/network = 224.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.255) Broadcast to all nodes on the current network.1. networks in class A = 28-1= 27 = 128 • No. 123.127) • No. Node address of all 1s Interpreted to mean “all nodes” on the specified network.1.23 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. No.0.1 :. 128. for example.255. of Network Bit = 8 .2.0.12.10. Class A Addresses • Identification of Class A = First Octet value = (0. Node address of all 0s Interpreted to mean “network address” or any host on specified network. 9926210940.com . Designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic.2 = 16777216 – 2 =16777214 host/network. • Example:.0.255.2 (Class B address).

23 Private IP Addresses: • These addresses can be used on a private network.223) • No. • They allow other people to know about and access your computer. No. 173. email: . of Network Bit = 24 . Fix bit = 3.1. • It is free. networks in class C = 224-3= 221= 2097152 networks • No.23 Class C Addresses • Identification of Class C = First Octet value = (192 .129. Example: . Example: .Class B Addresses • Identification of Class B = First Octet value = (128 . of Network Bit = 16 .12. networks in class B = 216-2= 214 = 16384 networks • No. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0.0. of Host Bit= 8 Host/network = 28. of Host Bit= 16 Host/network = 216.0. 9926210940. Fix bit = 2.197.manish.1. like a Web server.com .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. but they’re not routable through the Internet. No. Public IP address:• Public IP Addresses (also known as Static IP Addresses) are IP addresses that are visible to the public.191) • No.2 = 256 – 2 = 254 host/network. 220.1.0.2 = 65636 – 2 = 65534 host/network.1.12. • You have to pay for these IP addresses.

• The 1s in the subnet mask represent the positions that refer to the network or subnet addresses. How many subnets? 2x = number of subnets. how you get the answers to those big questions: 1. This means that the first byte of the subnet mask is all ones (1s). The slash notation (/) means how many bits are turned on (1s). a home—a customer.168. or increment number. • 192.32/28. x is the number of masked bits. email: . which is 255. or the 0s.manish. or 11111111. How many hosts per subnet? 2y – 2 = number of hosts per subnet.Subnetting Basics: • In this method. • Class A default subnet mask.0. • To create sub-networks.0. y is the number of unmasked bits. Subnet Masks • A subnet mask is a 32-bit value that allows the recipient of IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID portion of the IP address. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. An example would be 256 – 192 = 64.10. we divide a large network into multiple small sub-networks. 9926210940. • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR):• It’s basically the method that ISPs (Internet service providers) use to allocate a number of addresses to a company.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. you take bits from the host portion of the IP address and reserve them to define the subnet address.com . 2. or the 1s. What are the valid subnets? 256 – subnet mask = block size.0. 3. This is telling you what your subnet mask is.

Subnetting Class C Addresses: “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. 9926210940. email: .manish.

raghuvanshi1985@gmail.• Class C address.manish. • Remember that subnet bits start at the left and go to the right. email: .com . without skipping bits. 9926210940. only 8 bits are available for defining the hosts. • “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

email: .0 (/23) 255.224 (/27) 255.255.254.0 (/17) 255.240 (/28) 255.255.0 (/24) 255.255.255.255.248 (/29) 255.255. 9926210940.0 (/18) 255.0 (/22) 255.0 (/21) 255.0 (/19) 255.240.224.0.0 (/16) 255.255.255.255. 255.255.255.Subnetting Class B Addresses • Class B network address has 16 bits available for host addressing.192 (/26) 255.0 (/20) 255.252.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.252 (/30) “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.255.255.255.255.com .255.192.manish.255. This means we can use up to 14 bits for subnetting (because we have to leave at least 2 bits for host addressing).128.255.255.255.128 (/25) 255.255.255.248.

9926210940.128.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.255.192 (/26) 255.255.255.0.0.255.0 (/11) 255.255.0 (/10) 255.0.255.0 (/15) 255. but there are 24 bits to play with instead of the 16 in a Class B address and the 8 in a Class C address.128.0 (/14) 255.192.255.240.com .248.0 (/9) 255.254.0 (/12) 255.0 (/20) 255.255.0.252 (/30) “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.255.224.0.240.224.252.0 (/19) 255.254.248.128 (/25) 255.255.255.255. Let’s start by listing all the Class A masks: 255.Subnetting Class A Addresses Class A subnetting is not performed any differently than Classes B and C.0 (/17) 255.0 (/24) 255.0.252. email: .255.255.0.255.0 (/23) 255.0 (/22) 255.192.0.255.0 (/16) 255.255.255.255.manish.224 (/27) 255.0 (/21) 255.248 (/29) 255.255.0.0 (/8) 255.240 (/28) 255.255.255.0 (/18) 255.0.0 (/13) 255.

9926210940. EIGRP.com .Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs): • Take one network and create many networks using sub-net masks of different lengths on different types of network designs. and OSPF. • “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. • You can use VLSM with routing protocols such as RIPv2.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. email: . This is called VLSM networking.manish.

traceroute Displays the list of routers on a path to a network destination by using TTL time-outs and ICMP error messages. but it’s a Microsoft Windows command and will not work on a Cisco router. • Troubleshooting IP Addressing: Packet InterNet Groper (ping) Uses ICMP echo request and replies to test if a node IP stack is initialized and alive on the network. • The purpose of this is to reduce the size of routing tables on routers to save memory as one address. 9926210940. also called route aggregation.manish. email: . This command will not work from a DOS prompt. allows routing protocols to advertise many networks. tracert Same command as traceroute. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.Summarization: • Summarization. they are not interchangeable through DOS and Cisco. arp -a Displays IP-to-MAC-address mappings on a Windows PC.com .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. show ip arp Same command as arp -a. ipconfig /all Used only from a DOS prompt. shows you the PC network configuration. but displays the ARP table on a Cisco router. Like the commands traceroute and tracert.

Connecting high-speed traffic between devices 3.manish. Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) • The Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is the kernel of Cisco routers and most switches. from a modem into the auxiliary (or Aux) port. Supplying network reliability for connecting to network resources Note: . The software provides an operating environment for the hardware. Carrying network protocols and functions 2. The hardware includes a processor.com . 9926210940. Adding security to control access and stop unauthorized network use 4. indispensable part of an operating system that allocates resources and manages things such as low-level hardware interfaces and security.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • a kernel is the basic.Routers Routers are specialized computers for networking services using hardware and software. Providing scalability for ease of network growth and redundancy 5. • The first IOS was written by William Yeager in 1986. or even through Telnet. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.You can access the Cisco IOS through the console port of a router. specialized chips. • I’m going to show you how to configure a Cisco IOS router using the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI). • These are some important things that the Cisco router IOS software is responsible for: 1. email: . and a selection of interfaces or ports. memory.

Router Components Bootstrap – stored in ROM microcode – brings router up during initialisation. as well as the decompressed IOS in later router models ROM – starts and maintains the router Flash memory – holds the IOS. software and data structure that allows the router to function. is not erased when the router is reloaded.a RXBOOT/boot loader by Cisco – small IOS ROM used to bring up an interface and load a Cisco IOS into flash memory from a TFTP server. can also perform a few other maintenance operations RAM – holds packet buffers.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. POST – Power On Self Test . routing table. is an EEPROM [Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory] created by Intel.stored in ROM microcode – checks for basic functionality of router hardware and determines which interfaces are present ROM Monitor – stored in ROM microcode – used for manufacturing. 9926210940. boots router and loads the IOS.com . testing and troubleshooting Mini-IOS – a.manish. running-config is stored in RAM.k. email: . ARP cache. that can be erased and reprogrammed repeatedly through an application of higher than normal electric voltage “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

router loads it and runs embedded configuration. value can be seen with “show version” command. which tells the router to load the IOS from flash memory and the startup-config file from NVRAM System Startup POST – loaded from ROM and runs diagnostics on all router hardware Bootstrap – locates and loads the IOS image.com . 9926210940. file is called startupconfig. is not erased when router is reloaded Config-Register controls how router boots. router enters setup mode “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. only exists if you copy the running-config to NVRAM startup-config – if found. default setting is to load the IOS from flash memory IOS – locates and loads a valid configuration from NVRAM.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.NVRAM – Non-Volatile RAM .holds router configuration. if not found. is typically 0x2102. email: .manish.

raghuvanshi1985@gmail.Where is the Configuration? Router always has two configurations: Running configuration In RAM. locate the HyperTerminal program (choose Start > Programs >Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal). determines how the router is currently operating Is modified using the configure command To see it: show running-config Startup confguration In NVRAM. determines how the router will operate after next reload Is modified using the copy command To see it: show startup-config Can also be stored in more permanent places: External hosts. 9926210940. Step 2. Step 1.g. CiscoWorks Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal:Connect one end of the rollover cable to the Console port on the router and the other end to the PC COM port using a DB9 adapter. using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) In flash memory in the router Copy command is used to move it around copy run start copy run tftp copy start tftp copy tftp start copy flash start copy start flash External Configuration Sources Console Direct PC serial access Auxiliary port Modem access Virtual terminals Telnet/SSH access TFTP Server Copy configuration file into router RAM Network Management Software e. ■ Bits per second = 9600 ■ Data bits = 8 ■ Parity = None ■ Stop bits = 1 ■ Flow control = None “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com . Turn on the computer and router. email: .manish. From the Windows taskbar.

router interfaces are data terminal equipment (DTE). 9926210940. • The CSU/DSU then plugs into a demarcation location (demarc) and is the service provider’s last responsibility.com .Router Prompts – How to tell where you are on the router You can tell in which area of the router’s configuration you are by looking at the router prompts: Router> – USER prompt mode Router# – PRIVILEGED EXEC prompt mode Router(config) – terminal configuration prompt Router(config-if) – interface configuration prompt Router(config-subif) – sub-interface configuration prompt Router(config-route-map)# – route-map configuration prompt Router(config-router)# – router configuration prompt Router(config-line)# – line configuration prompt rommon 1> . email: . “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.ROM Monitor mode Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment: • By default. and they connect into data communication equipment (DCE) like a channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU).manish. • The network’s DCE device (CSU/DSU) provides clocking to the DTE-connected interface (the router’s serial interface).

9926210940.1.0 Indore(config-if)#no shut “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.1 255.0.2 255. email: .255.0 Bhopal(config-if)#no shut Bhopal(config-if)#end Bhopal#copy run start 2.1 255.0.255.0.168.0.0.com .0 Bhopal(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Bhopal(config-if)#no shut Bhopal(config-if)#exit Bhopal(config)#int f0/0 Bhopal(config-if)#ip add 192.0.0. configure IP addressing on Indore router :Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname Indore Indore(config)#int s1/0 Indore(config-if)#ip address 11.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.1. configure ip addressing on Bhopal router :Router>enable Router#config t Router(config)#hostname Bhopal Bhopal(config)#int s1/0 Bhopal(config-if)#ip add 11.0.manish.

16. Enable password: .1. configure Indore router as DHCP for network 172.16. b.255.1.1 255. Enable password: .16.0.168. console password 2. bhopal>en “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com . bhopal>en bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#line console 0 bhopal(config-line)#password india bhopal(config-line)#login bhopal(config-line)#end bhopal#copy run start 2.it is ask between user exec mode and privilege mode.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. console password :.0 255.0.1.0 Indore(config-if)#no shut Indore(config-if)#end Indore#copy run start 3.0. enable password 3.2 Indore(dhcp-config)#exit Indore(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address 172.16.Indore(config-if)#exit Indore(config)#int f0/0 Indore(config-if)#ip add 172.0.it is ask when we want to configure router through the console port.1 172. a. email: . And there are two types of enable password.16.0.it stores password in md5 encryption. telnet password 4. Enable secret: . auxiliary password 1.1. 9926210940.manish.it stores password in plain text.1 Indore(config)#end Indore#copy run start Router passwords:There are four types of router passwords – 1.1 Indore(dhcp-config)#dns-server 192.0 :Indore#conf t Indore(config)#ip dhcp pool cisco Indore(dhcp-config)#network 172.16.255.0 Indore(dhcp-config)#default-router 172.

9926210940. Router has 5 virtual line (vty 0-4) for telnet session. router must have vty and enable password. Telnet password: . Then router will ask only enable secret password.it is ask if want to configure router from remote location or through the telnet connection. bhopal#conf t “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.it is ask when we want to configure router from remote location .bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#enable password cisco bhopal(config)#enable secret tendulkar bhopal(config)#end bhopal#copy run start Note:.manish. auxiliary password: .if we configured both password enable and enable secret. by using modem or auxiliary port. Command to remove router console and enable passwords:bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#line console 0 bhopal(config-line)#no password bhopal(config-line)#exit bhopal(config)#no enable secret bhopal(config)#no enable password bhopal(config)#end bhopal#copy run start 3. bhopal>en bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#line vty 0 4 bhopal(config-line)#password telnet bhopal(config-line)#login bhopal(config-line)#exit bhopal(config)#enable password cisco bhopal(config)#end bhopal#copy run start Command to remove telnet password: bhopal>en bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#line vty 0 4 bhopal(config-line)#no password 4.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. email: . To take router on telnet.com .

9926210940. command to show information about router’s hardware . software and configuration register value :Router>enable Router#show version 2. command to show router’s running configuration (database in DRAM):Router#show running-config “Or” Router#sh run “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. command to show ip configuration of router :Router#show ip interface brief “or” Router#show ip interface “or” Router#show ip interface s1/0 3.manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. command show interface information in detail .Router#show interfaces “or” Router#show interfaces s1/0 4.bhopal(config)#line aux 0 bhopal(config-line)# password rahul bhopal(config-line)#exit 5 command to encrypt router passwords: Router(config)#service password-encryption ================================================================== Router Basic commands :1. email: .Router#clock set 08:30:14 6 april 2011 5.com . command to router date and time :Router#show clock Command to set date and time.

255.Router#terminal history size 50 Note: we can set size between 0-256.1 255. 9926210940. 10.commands to assign ip address on router serial DCE interface :Router#conf t Router(config)#int s1/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 11.255. command to save running configuration in to nvram :Router#copy running-config startup-config “Or” Router#copy run start 8.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#end Router#copy run start 11.0 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#end Router#copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish. command to show router’s routing table .1 255.0.168. command to show previous command history :Router#show history Command to show history size :Router#show terminal Command to increase history size .0.1.6.command to assign ip address on router interface :Router>enable Router#config t Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.0. email: .Router#show ip route 9.0. command to show router’s startup configuration (database in NVRAM):Router#show startup-config “or” Router#sh start 7.com .

Rommon>reset 4. which will take the router into ROM monitor mode. Boot the router and interrupt the boot sequence by performing a break by pressing ctrl+break key . email: . Enter privileged mode. rommon>confreg 0x2142 3.command to shutdown the port or disable the port :bhopal(config)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#shutdown Here are the main steps to password recovery: 1. 2.configure description command to router interfaces:bhopal>en bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#description "this port connect with indore router port s1/0" bhopal(config-if)#exit bhopal(config)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#description "this port connect with lan switch" 14.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Change the configuration register to turn on bit 6 (with the value 0x2142).manish.configure banner or welcome message in router: bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#banner motd @ welcome in router world. prohibited unathorized access. Router>en “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Reload the router. @ 13. 9926210940.commnd to remove ip address :bhopal(config)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#no ip address 15.com .12.

Static routing 2. Router#reload Routing: • Routing or routeing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Router#copy start run 6.5. Copy the startup-config file to running-config. Change the password. Dynamic routing “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. bridges.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes.manish. • In packet switching networks. types of routing :1. Router#copy run start 9.com . Reload the router (optional). gateways. Default routing 3. 9926210940. firewalls. routing directs packet forwarding. or switches. Save the router configuration. 7. typically hardware devices called routers. Reset the configuration register to the default value. email: . Router(config)#config-register 0x2102 8.

Static Routing Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in each router’s routing table.0 192.0. Static routing has the following benefits: 1.124.3. syntax you use to add a static route to a routing table: ip route [destination_network] [mask] [next-hop_address or exitinterface] [administrative_distance] [permanent] Router(config)#ip route 172.0.0.0.0.255. Gateway(config)#ip route 0.4 Default Routing :We use default routing to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing table.0.0.0 255.2.0. There is no overhead on the router CPU 2.16.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.0 <next hop ip/ exit interface> Gateway(config)#ip route 0.0 0.168.manish.0.6.1 Gateway(config)#ip route 0. You should only use default routing on stub networks those with only one exit path out of the network.0.. It adds security because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain networks only.com .0 217. 3.0 0.0.0 0. 9926210940.0 s0/0 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. There is no bandwidth usage between routers. email: .0.255.

email: .manish. 4.1 255.168.255.0 bhopal(config-if)#no shut bhopal(config-if)#exit bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip add 11.com . configure static routing. 3.Practical: - 1.0. configure above network with respective ip addressing.0.0. 2.1.0. configure defalult routing on Bhopal routing.0 bhopal(config-if)#clock rate 64000 bhopal(config-if)#no shut bhopal(config-if)#end “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Remove static routing on Bhopal router. configure ip addressing on Bhopal router :Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname bhopal bhopal(config)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip add 192.1 255.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. 9926210940.255. 1.

configuring ip address on Raipure router :Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname raipur raipur(config)#int f0/0 raipur(config-if)#ip add 10.0.0 raipur(config-if)#no shut raipur(config-if)#^Z raipur#copy run start 4.0 11.0.0 raipur(config-if)#no shut raipur(config-if)#exit raipur(config)#int s1/0 raipur(config-if)#ip add 12.0.0.0.0 11.com .0.0.0 11.255.2 bhopal(config)#ip route 10. 9926210940.0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0.2 bhopal(config)#end bhopal#copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0 indore(config-if)#no shut indore(config-if)#exit indore(config-if)#int s1/1 indore(config-if)#ip add 12.0.0.0.0. configure static routing on Bhopal router :bhopal(config)#ip route 172.0.2 255.0 255.bhopal#copy run start 2.0.1.2 255.0.0.0 indore(config-if)#clock rate 64000 indore(config-if)#no shut indore(config-if)#end indore#copy run start 3.manish.0.0.0.1 255.0.0.16.0.0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. configure ip addressing on Indore router :Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname indore indore(config)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#ip add 172.0.16.0.1 255.0.2 bhopal(config)#ip route 12.0 indore(config-if)#no shut indore(config-if)#exit indore(config)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#ip add 11.0.255.1 255.0. email: .0 255.

bhopal(config)#ip route 0.16.0.0. configure default routing on Bhopal router .2 bhopal(config)#no ip route 12.indore#sh ip router 6.0.2 bhopal(config)#end bhopal#copy run start Dynamic Routing: • Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update routing tables on routers. email: .0.0.0.5.255.0 12.raipur(config)#ip route 192.0.0. configure static routing on indore router :indore(config)#ip route 192.255.0 11.0.0 11.0 255.0 11.0.1 raipur(config)#ip route 11.255.0.0 255.com .0 255.0 255.0.0 12.0.1.168.0.0.0.0.0 255. 9926210940.1 raipur(config)#do copy run start 7.manish.0.0 12.255.0.16.0 255.0.255.0 255.0.0.0. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0.2 indore(config)#do copy run start command to show routing table .0.0.1 raipur(config)#ip route 172.Two types of routing protocols are used in internetworks: 1.255.0 11.0 255.0 0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Exterior gateway protocols (EGPs). configure static routing on raipur router .168.2 bhopal(config)#no ip route 172.0. command to remove static routing :bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#no ip route 10.0.1.0.0. Interior gateway protocols (IGPs) 2.0.0.0.0.0.1 indore(config)#ip route 10.0 11.2 bhopal(config)#do copy run start 8.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0 12.

com .manish. 9926210940. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. The vector indicates the direction to the remote network.There are three classes of routing protocols: Distance vector The distance-vector protocols find the best path to a remote network by judging distance. email: . for example. also called shortest-path-first protocol. Both RIP and IGRP are distancevector routing protocols. Link state Link state In link-state protocols. They send the entire routing table to directly connected neighbors. Hybrid Hybrid protocols use aspects of both distance vector and link state. EIGRP. OSPF is an IP routing protocol that is completely link state.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Link-state protocols send updates containing the state of their own links to all other routers on the network.

raghuvanshi1985@gmail.Administrative Distances The administrative distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information received on a router from a neighbor router.com . email: . An administrative distance is an integer from 0 to 255. 9926210940.manish. where 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traffic will be passed via this route. Route Source Connected interface Static route EIGRP IGRP OSPF RIP External EIGRP Unknown Default AD 0 1 90 100 110 120 170 255 (this route will never be used) “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

• RIPv1 sends broadcasts every 30 seconds and has an AD of 120. • It has a maximum allowable hop count of 15 by default. Maximum Hop Count. which allows it to support • It Supports Load balancing on 4 equal paths. Holddowns “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0.0. 2.com .Routing Information Protocol (RIP) • Distance-vector routing protocol.9 No support for VLSM Supports VLSM networks No authentication Allows for MD5 authentication Syntex :Corp#config t Corp(config)#router rip Corp(config-router)#version <1/2> Corp(config-router)#network <directly connected networks> Routing Loops Distance-vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internetwork by broadcasting periodic routing updates out all active interfaces.9) every 30 seconds and also has an AD of 120. (by default).0. email: . • RIP only uses hop count to determine the best path. Loop Avoidance Methods:1. This is because RIP version 1 doesn’t send updates with subnet mask information. • Administrative distance (120). Route Poisoning 4. • RIP works on Bellman Ford algorithm. RIPv2 sends subnet mask information with the route updates.manish.0. 9926210940. • RIP sends the complete routing table out to all active interfaces every 30 seconds. RIPv2 sends multicasts (224. • RIP version 1 uses only classful routing. RIPv1 RIPv2 Maximum hop count of 15 Maximum hop counts of 15 Classfull Classless Broadcast based Uses multicast 224. • RIPv2 is considered classless because subnet information is sent with each route update.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Split Horizon 3.

Route invalid timer Determines the length of time that must elapse (180 seconds) before a router determines that a route has become invalid. Route flush timer Sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its removal from the routing table (240 seconds). and once this is determined.com . RIP permits a hop count of up to 15. One way of solving this problem is to define a maximum hop count.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. it won’t advertise the route back out that same interface.manish. Holddown timer Routes will enter into the holddown state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is unreachable.Maximum Hop Count The routing loop problem just described is called counting to infinity. email: . The default is 180 seconds. Router initiates route poisoning by advertising Network as 16. 9926210940. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Route Poisoning when Network goes down. RIP Timers:Route update timer Sets the interval (typically 30 seconds) between periodic routing updates in which the router sends a complete copy of its routing table out to all neighbors. or unreachable. This continues either until an update packet is received with a better metric or until the holddown timer expires. Holddowns A holddown prevents regular update messages from reinstating a route that is going up and down (called flapping). so anything that requires 16 hops is deemed unreachable. Split Horizon the routing protocol differentiates which interface a network route was learned on.

0.0.0.0.0 raipur(config-router)#network 12.0.16.0.168. email: .0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.0 indore(config-router)#network 172.0.0 bhopal(config-router)#network 192.0 indore(config-router)#end indore#copy run start configure rip routing on Raipur router :raipur(config)#router rip raipur(config-router)#network 10.0. 9926210940.manish.0 indore(config-router)#network 12.0.0.0 raipur(config-router)#end raipur#copy run start command to show information of sending and receiving of routing update :bhopal#debug ip rip “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0 configure rip routing on indore router :indore(config)#router rip indore(config-router)#network 11.Practical: - configure rip routing on Bhopal router :bhopal(config)#router rip bhopal(config-router)#network 11.com .1.

manish. 9926210940.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. bhopal(config)#router rip bhopal(config-router)#passive-interface s1/0 bhopal(config-router)#end bhopal#copy run start command to clear routing updates :indore#clear ip route * indore#clear ip route 192.com . route flush= 100) bhopal#conf t. bhopal(config)#router rip bhopal(config-router)#timers basic 60 80 90 100 command to change administrative distance of rip :bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#router rip bhopal(config-router)#distance 50 command to change rip version :bhopal(config)#router rip bhopal(config-router)#version 2 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. route invalid timer = 80.command to stop debugging :Bhopal#undebug all command to show information of routing protocol :bhopal#sh ip protocols command to configure passive interface :Passive interface :.1.168.0 command to change rip tiemers (route update timer = 60 .if we configure router interface as passive interface it receive routing update but does not send routing update. route holddown = 90. email: .

• IGRP uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as a metric for determining the best route to an internetwork. Syntax :R3#config t R3(config)#router igrp <autonomous system no. • The main difference between RIP and IGRP configuration is that when you configure IGRP. email: . 9926210940.> R3(config-router)#network <directly connected network address> Note:Cisco no longer supports IGRP.com .Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) • IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary distance-vector routing protocol. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. All routers must use the same number in order to share routing table information. you supply the autonomous system number.manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. This is called a composite metric. • IGRP has a maximum hop count of 255 with the default being 100 (same as EIGRP).

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) • EIGRP) is a proprietary Cisco protocol that runs on Cisco routers. • Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is a classless, enhanced distance-vector protocol. • EIGRP is sometimes referred to as a hybrid routing protocol because it has characteristics of both distance-vector and link-state protocols. • EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 255 (the default is set to 100). • it provides routing support for multiple Network layer protocols: IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and now IPv6. • Considered classless (same as RIPv2 and OSPF) • Support for VLSM/CIDR • Support for summaries and discontiguous networks • Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) • Best path selection via Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) • Neighbor Discovery There are three conditions that must be met for neighborship establishment: 1. Hello or ACK received 2. AS numbers match 3. Identical metrics (K values) Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) • EIGRP uses a proprietary protocol called Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) to manage the communication of messages between EIGRP-speaking routers. • EIGRP sends multicast traffic, it uses the Class D address 224.0.0.10 • If EIGRP doesn’t get a reply from a neighbor, it will switch to using unicasts to resend the same data. If it still doesn’t get a reply after 16 unicast attempts, the neighbor is declared dead. EIGRP Metrics 1. Bandwidth 2. Delay 3. Load 4. Reliability Like IGRP, EIGRP uses only bandwidth and delay of the line to determine the best path to a remote network by default EIGRP creates three tables :Neighborship table The neighborship table (usually referred to as the neighbor table) records information about routers with whom neighborship relationships have been formed. Topology table The topology table stores the route advertisements about every route in the internetwork received from each neighbor. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi”
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Route table The route table stores the routes that are currently used to make routing decisions. There would be separate copies of each of these tables for each protocol that is actively being supported by EIGRP, whether it’s IP or IPv6.

Define some terms Feasible distance This is the best metric along all paths to a remote network, including the metric to the neighbor that is advertising that remote network. Reported/advertised distance This is the metric of a remote network, as reported by a neighbor. Neighbor table Each router keeps state information about adjacent neighbors. Topology table It contains all destinations advertised by neighboring routers, holding each destination address and a list of neighbors that have advertised the destination. Feasible successor A feasible successor is a path whose reported distance is less than the feasible distance, and it is considered a backup route. EIGRP will keep up to six feasible successors in the topology table. Only the one with the best metric (the successor) is copied and placed in the routing table. Successor A successor route (think successful!) is the best route to a remote network.

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Configuring EIGRP Router#config t Router(config)#router eigrp <1-65535> Router(config-router)#network <directly connected network>

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0.0 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R1(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip add 192.com .168.0 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#int s1/0 R1(config-if)#int s1/1 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.255.0.1.1.0.255.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. configure ip addressing on router 1 :Router>enable Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)#int s1/0 R1(config-if)#ip add 11.manish.1 255.0. 9926210940.1 255. email: .

email: .0.0.0 R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R2(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R2(config-if)#end R2#copy run start 3.0.0 R3(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R3(config-if)#no shut R3(config-if)#int s1/1 R3(config-if)#ip add 13.1 255. configure ip addressing on router 3 :Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R3 R3(config)#int s1/0 R3(config-if)#ip add 12.0.0.0.2 255.0.0.1 255.0 R3(config-if)#no shut R3(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R3(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R3(config-if)#exit R3(config-if)#end R3#copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com .0 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R1(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R1(config)#end R1#copy run start 2.manish. 9926210940.0 R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R2(config-if)#int s1/1 R2(config-if)#ip add 12. configure ip addressing on router 2 :Router>enable Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R2 R2(config)#int s1/0 R2(config-if)#ip add 11.0.0.2 255.0.0.0.0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.0.0.0.0.R1(config-if)#ip add 14.0.0.1 255.

0.0.0.0. configuring EIGRP routing :R1(config)#router eigrp 10 R1(config-router)#network 11.0.1 255.2 255.0.0 R4(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R4(config-if)#bandwidth 64 R4(config-if)#no shut R4(config-if)#end R4#copy run start 5.0.1.1.0. configure ip addressing on router 5 :Router>enable Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R5 R5(config)#int s1/0 R5(config-if)#ip add 13.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 14. email: . configure ip addressing on router 4 :Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R4 R4(config)#int s1/0 R4(config-if)#ip add 14.16.0 R1(config-router)#network 192.0.0 R5(config-if)#no shut R5(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R5(config-if)#exit R5(config)#int s1/1 R5(config-if)#ip add 15.2 255.com .0.168.0.1 255.0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.2 255.manish.0.0 R4(config-if)#no shut R4(config-if)#bandwidth 128 R4(config-if)#int s1/1 R4(config-if)#ip add 15.0.0 R5(config-if)#bandwidth 64 R5(config-if)#no shut R5(config-if)#int f0/0= R5(config-if)#ip add 172.0.0. 9926210940.255.0.0 R5(config-if)#no shut R5(config-if)#end R5#copy run start 6.0.4.0.0.0 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

R1(config-router)#end R1#copy run start R2(config)#router eigrp 10 R2(config-router)#network 11.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 12.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#end R2#copy run start

R3(config)#router eigrp 10 R3(config-router)#network 12.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#network 13.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#end R3#copy run start R4(config)#router eigrp 10 R4(config-router)#network 14.0.0.0 R4(config-router)#network 15.0.0.0 R4(config-router)#end R4#copy run start R5(config)#router eigrp 10 R5(config-router)#network 13.0.0.0 R5(config-router)#network 15.0.0.0 R5(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0 R5(config-router)#end R5#copy run start

Maximum Paths and Hop Count By default, EIGRP can provide equal-cost load balancing of up to four links. you can have EIGRP actually load-balance across up to six links (equal or unequal) by using the following command: Pod1R1(config)#router eigrp 10 Pod1R1(config-router)#maximum-paths <1-6> EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 100, but it can be set up to 255. Pod1R1(config)#router eigrp 10 Pod1R1(config-router)#metric maximum-hops <1-255> “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi”
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EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands

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Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 1. (OSPF) is an open standard routing protocol. 2. OSPF works by using the Dijkstra algorithm. 3. it supports multiple, equal-cost routes to the same destination. Like EIGRP, it does support both IP and IPv6 routed protocols. 4. Consists of areas and autonomous systems 5. Minimizes routing update traffic 6. Allows scalability 7. Supports VLSM/CIDR 8. Has unlimited hop count 9. Allows multi-vendor deployment (open standard). OSPF uses a metric referred to as cost. Cisco uses a simple equation of COST =100000000/bandwidth in bps. And least cost path is best path for ospf. This value may be overridden by using the ip ospf cost command. Characteristic OSPF RIPv2 Type of protocol Link state Distance vector Classless support Yes Yes VLSM support Yes Yes Auto-summarization No Yes Manual summarization Yes No Discontinuous support Yes Yes Route propagation Multicast on change Periodic multicast metric Bandwidth Hops Hop count limit None 15 Convergence Fast Slow Peer authentication Yes Yes Hierarchical network Yes (using areas) No (flat only) Updates Event triggered Route table updates Route computation Dijkstra Bellman-Ford RIPv1 Distance vector No No Yes No No Periodic broadcast Path Hops 15 Slow No No (flat only) Route table updates Bellman-Ford

OSPF areas OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical fashion, which basically means that you can separate the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas. The following are reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical design: • To decrease routing overhead • To speed up convergence • To confine network instability to single areas of the network An OSPF area is a grouping of contiguous networks and routers. All routers in the same area share a common Area ID. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi”
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OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all active physical interfaces. email: . 9926210940.0. Hello protocol The OSPF Hello protocol provides dynamic neighbor discovery and maintains neighbor relationships.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Neighbor Neighbors are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network. DR is chosen (elected) to disseminate/receive routing information to/from the remaining routers on the broadcast network or link. If no loopback interfaces are configured with addresses.5.com . Topological database The topological database contains information from all of the Link State Advertisement packets that have been received for an area. such as two routers connected on a point-to-point serial link. Hello packets are addressed to 224. Link State Advertisement A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containing link-state and routing information that’s shared among OSPF routers.manish.0. Designated router A Designated Router (DR) is elected whenever OSPF routers are connected to the same multi-access network. Neighborship database The neighborship database is a list of all OSPF routers for which Hello packets have been seen. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Cisco chooses the Router ID by using the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces. Router ID The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router.OSPF Terminology Link A link is a network or router interface assigned to any given network. Adjacency An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates.

255. R1#config t R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#network <directly connected n/w> <wildcard mask> area <no. The OSPF Process ID is needed to identify a unique instance of an OSPF database and is locally significant.0.255.80 0.3 area 0 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. which is from 1 to 65.168. > The areas can be any number from 0 to 4.535.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.64 0.0. email: .2 billion.7 area 0 Lab_A(config-router)#network 10. Lab_A#config t Lab_A(config)#router ospf 1 Lab_A(config-router)#network 192.com .535 identifies the OSPF Process ID. Don’t get these numbers confused with the Process ID.manish. 9926210940. BDR receives all routing updates from OSPF adjacent routers but doesn’t flood LSA updates.0.10.Backup designated router A Backup Designated Router (BDR) is a hot standby for the DR on multi-access links.0. Configuring OSPF Enabling OSPF Lab_A(config)#router ospf <1-65535> A value in the range 1–65.

7 area 0 Lab_B(config-router)#network 10.com .manish.3 area 0 Verifying OSPF Configuration Corp#sh ip ospf This command provides information about the Router ID.0.Lab_B#config t Lab_B(config)#router ospf 1 Lab_B(config-router)#network 192. SPF statistics. Corp#sh ip ospf database This command will give you information about the number of routers in the internetwork (AS) plus the neighboring router’s ID.0.0.7 area 0 Lab_C(config-router)#network 10.8 0.255. Corp#sh ip ospf interface f0/1 The following information is displayed by this command:  Interface IP address  Area assignment  Process ID  Router ID  Network type  Cost  Priority  DR/BDR election information (if applicable)  Hello and Dead timer intervals  Adjacent neighbor information Corp#sh ip ospf neighbor Corp#sh ip protocols “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.3 area 0 Lab_B(config-router)#network 10.255.8 0.255.168. area information.0.0.0.16 0.0.255. 9926210940.10.0.0. and LSA timer information.255.48 0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. email: .3 area 0 Lab_C#config t Lab_C(config)#router ospf 1 Lab_C(config-router)#network 192.0.255.80 0.168.10.

and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). These networks allow for multi-access but have no broadcast ability like Ethernet. X.manish. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. 9926210940. Point-to-point Point-to-point refers to a type of network topology consisting of a direct connection between two routers that provides a single communication path. Point-to-multipoint Point-to-multipoint refers to a type of network topology consisting of a series of connections between a single interface on one router and multiple destination routers.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Non-broadcast multi-access Non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) networks are types such as Frame Relay.Broadcast (multi-access) Broadcast (multi-access) networks such as Ethernet allow multiple devices to connect to (or access) the same network as well as provide a broadcast ability in which a single packet is delivered to all nodes on the network. email: .25.com .

Standard Access-List 2.0. Extended Access-List Standard Access-List:• It has numeric identification from 1-99. and so on. Telnet. UDP.5 0. • These use only the source IP address in an IP packet as the condition test. a network.0 0.0. Extended Access-List:• It has numeric identification from 100-199.0. those packets are routed to the outbound interface and then processed through the access list before being queued. • Router can filter the packets according to this list. 2000-2699 (expanded range).0 • how a /24 subnet is specified with a wildcard: 172. • There are two main types of access lists: 1.manish. 9926210940. the address would look like this: 172. you can have only one inbound access list and one outbound access list per interface.When an access list is applied to outbound packets on an interface.ACCESS-LIST: • An access list is essentially a list of conditions that categorize packets. and the port number at the Transport layer header. Access lists for inbound and outbound traffic on a single interface:• Inbound access lists: . those packets are processed through the access list before being routed to the outbound interface.16. or a certain range of a network or networks. • This means that standard access lists basically permit or deny an entire suite of protocols.When an access list is applied to inbound packets on an interface. • Wildcard Is opposite of subnet mask. • They don’t distinguish between any of the many types of IP traffic such as web. • To specify a host. 1300-1999 (expanded range).You can assign only one access list per interface per protocol per direction.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. This means that when creating IP access lists. • Outbound access lists: .com .30.255 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0.16. • They can evaluate source and destination IP addresses. email: . Wildcard Masking: • Wildcards are used with access lists to specify an individual host.30. Note: . the protocol field in the Network layer header.

0 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#int f0/1 R1(config-if)#ip add 192.0.1.0.Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)#int s1/0 R1(config-if)#ip add 11. email: .0.1 255.0 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#end R1#copy run start 2.0 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0. configure ip addressing on router 1 .2 255.168.0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com .0.0.1.0. configure ip addressing on router 2 :Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname R2 R2(config)#int s1/0 R2(config-if)#ip add 11.1 255.0.0.1 255.manish.255.0 R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip add 10. 9926210940.0.0.255.

0 R1(config-router)#network 192.0.255.0.0.1.1.com .0.0.0.16.16.0 R1(config-router)#network 11.0 :R1>en R1#conf t.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 11. 9926210940.0.0. command to show access-list :R1#sh access-list 6.1. configure standard access-list 10 on router 1.2 should not communicate with network 10.1. pc 172.0. configure eigrp routing :R1#conf t R1(config)#router eigrp 11 R1(config-router)#network 10.16. R1(config)#no access-list 10 R1(config)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#no ip access-group 10 out R1(config-if)#do copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.1 255.0.0.2 0.manish. command to delete access-list :R1#conf t.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.0 R1(config-router)#do copy run start R2#conf t R2(config)#router eigrp 11 R2(config-router)#network 172.0 R1(config)#access-list 10 permit any R1(config)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 10 out R1(config-if)#do copy run start 5.R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#int f0/0 R2(config-if)#ip add 172.0 R2(config-router)#do copy run start 4. email: .0 R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#end R2#copy run start 3.168.16. R1(config)#access-list 10 deny 172.

2 0.2 . configure standard access-list 11 on router 1 . R1(config)#access-list 11 deny 172.51 R1(config)#access-list 12 deny 172. pc 172.0.1.2 should not access website of webserver 192.R1(config)#access-list 102 deny tcp host 172.1. network 172.0 :R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 12 permit host 172.168.168.1.0.255.168.16.16.1.255 R1(config)#access-list 11 permit any R1(config)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 11 out R1(config-if)#do copy run start 8.1. 9926210940.0.31 R1(config)#access-list 12 deny 172.0.0.32 0.0.0 0.0.3 0.0 R1(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any R1(config)#int s1/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in R1(config-if)#do copy run start 10.0.2 eq 80 R1(config)#access-list 102 permit ip any any R1(config)#int f0/1 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 102 out R1(config-if)#do copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.1.16.1.0 192.1.16.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. pc 172. pc range 172.0.1.2 should not communicate with pc 192.0.15 R1(config)#access-list 12 deny 172.16.0.0.16.3 R1(config)#access-list 12 permit any R1(config)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 12 out R1(config-if)#do copy run start 9.16.0 should not access network 10.1.1.7.0.com .16.16.16.2 host 192.1.172.48 0.1.0.0 :R1>en R1#conf t. configure extended access-list 101 on router 1.configure extended access-list on router 1. on router 1.0. configure access-list 12.16.0. email: .0.1.manish.0 0.3 :R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 172.168.1.16.50 should not access network 10.

1-172.1.0.0.63 192.1.1.0.0 R1(config-std-nacl)#permit any R1(config-std-nacl)#exit R1(config)#int f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group rocky out R1(config-if)#do copy run start 2.31 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.3 192.1.1.1.1. email: .configure extended access-list 105 on router 1.31 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.1.1.168.16.16.1.16.16.15 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.3 192.168.0.0.64 0.2 should not access network 10.0 0.168.31 192.168.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.1.0.0.0.0.16.0.16.0.3 R1(config)#access-list 105 permit ip any any R1(config)#int s1/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 105 in R1(config-if)#do copy run start ==== name access-list :1.2 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#int s1/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group kalsi in R1(config-if)#do copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0.1.168.2 :R1(config)#ip access-list extended kalsi R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip 172.63 192.16.1.1.manish.48 0.16.0.0.16.1. 9926210940.0 0.1-192.0.0.168.0.168.32 0.168.48 0.1.11.16.168.3 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.16.168.1.0.51 } :R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.0.0 0.1. host range {172.0.0.16.32 0.48 0.16.3 0.0.64 0.0.1.0.3 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.0 0.0.32 0. pc 172.64 0.1.99 } should not communicate with host range 192. pc 172.0. configure name standard access-list “rocky” .0.63 192.0 R1(config)#ip access-list standard rocky R1(config-std-nacl)#deny 172.0.1.1.15 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.0.0.0.0.0 0.16.0 0.0.0.0.96 0.0.1.31 192.0.31 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.96 0.0 host 192.0.168.0.2 0.15 R1(config)#access-list 105 deny ip 172.16.1.168.168.3 should not communicate with pc 192.1.0.0.1.1.3 192.31 192.0.1.96 0. configure name extended access-list “kalsi” .com .

The frame is only forwarded out the specified destination port. Low latency 4. • Forward/filter decisions When a frame is received on an interface. • Layer 2 switching provides the following: 1.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. LAN Switching • Bridges are software based. network loops can occur. • Layer 2 switches and bridges are faster than routers because they don’t take up time looking at the Network layer header information. • A switch can be viewed as a multiport bridge.Layer 2 Switching and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Switching Services • Switches use application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to build and maintain their filter tables. 9926210940. • Loop avoidance if multiple connections between switches are created for redundancy purposes. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. they look at the frame’s hardware addresses before deciding to either forward. Wire speed 3. • Both bridges and switches make forwarding decisions based on layer 2 addresses. flood or drop the frame. and they enter this information into a MAC database called a forward/filter table. Hardware-based bridging (ASIC) 2. • Switches have a higher number of ports than most bridges. Low cost Bridging vs.com . while switches are hardware based because they use ASIC chips to help make filtering decisions. Instead. • Both bridges and switches forward layer 2 broadcasts. Three Switch Functions at Layer 2 • Address learning Layer 2 switches and bridges remember the source hardware address of each frame received on an interface.manish. • Bridges and switches learn MAC addresses by examining the source address of each frame received. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is used to stop network loops while still permitting redundancy. email: . the switch looks at the destination hardware address and finds the exit interface in the MAC database.

then the frame is flooded out all active interfaces except the interface the frame was received on.8c01.com . Host B’s MAC address is 0000. Host A’s MAC address is 0000. • if the destination hardware address is not listed in the MAC database.000A. 4. Hosts C and D will not see the frames. 2. 3. Host A and Host B can now make a point-to-point connection and only the two devices will receive the frames. 9926210940. nor are their MAC addresses Found in the database because they haven’t yet sent a frame to the switch. the frame is forwarded out all Interfaces except the source port. Forward/Filter Decisions • When a frame arrives at a switch interface. 5. the destination hardware address is compared to the forward/filter MAC database.Address Learning Let me give you an example of how a forward/filter table is populated: 1. The switch receives this frame on Interface E0/1 and places the source hardware address in the MAC database.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Host B receives the frame and responds to Host A. The switch receives the frame on the E0/0 interface and places the source address in the MAC address table. Host A sends a frame to Host B.8c01.manish. email: .000B. Since the destination address is not in the MAC database.

configure swithcport security on port f0/1. email: .manish.Port Security: If you want to set up a switch port to allow only one host per port.d3bc.com . use the following commands: Switch#config t Switch(config)#int f0/1 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 1 Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown 1. only conneceted pc can connect with switch :Switch(config)#int range f0/1 -f0/24 Switch(config-if-range)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if-range)#switchport port-security Switch(config-if-range)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky Switch(config-if-range)#switchport port-security maximum 1 Switch(config-if-range)#switchport port-security violation shutdown Switch(config-if-range)#do copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. only connected pc can connect with this port :Switch(config)#int f0/1 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 00d0. configure switchport security on swith.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. and to shut down the port if this rule is violated. 9926210940. command to remove swithchport security :Switch(config)#int f0/1 Switch(config-if)#no switchport port-security Switch(config-if)#do copy run start 5. command to show mac-address table .Switch#sh mac-address-table 2.bd45 Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown Switch(config-if)#do copy run start 3. command to show switch port security :Switch#sh port-security interface f0/1 4.

Spanning Tree Protocols: - “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.manish.com .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. email: . 9926210940.

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But the new 802. and BackboneFast to “fix” the holes and liabilities the IEEE 802.com . UplinkFast.manish.Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) 802. The drawbacks to these enhancements are only that they are Cisco proprietary and need additional configuration.1w standard (RSTP) addresses all these “issues” in one tight package—just turn on RSTP and you’re good to go. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. 9926210940.1d standard presented. Core(config)#spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.1w Cisco created PortFast.

> Switch(config)#name <name> “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) • VLAN is used to create multiple broadcast domains in switched network.com . email: . • By defaults all switch ports are member of VLAN 1. • A VLAN is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively defined ports on a switch. 9926210940.manish. • How do we break up broadcast domains in a pure switched internetwork? By creating a virtual local area network (VLAN). • Creating VLAN: Switch(config)#vlan <no. • So we start creation of VLAN from VLAN 2.

“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com .manish. 9926210940. email: .

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com .manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.VLAN WITH EIGRP ROUTING “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. 9926210940. email: .

11 1. email: . 9926210940. Create and configure VLAN on switch 1. 3. Configure EIGRP Routing with autonomous system no.1.com . 2. Switch>en Switch#conf t Switch(config)#hostname switch1 switch1(config)#vlan 2 switch1(config-vlan)#name account switch1(config-vlan)#vlan 3 switch1(config-vlan)#name sales switch1(config-vlan)#vlan 4 switch1(config-vlan)#name technical switch1(config-vlan)#vlan 5 switch1(config-vlan)#name management “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Create and configure VLAN on switch 1.manish. Configure Router 1 as Dhcp server and communicate different vlan with the help router.

manish.255.1. Command to show information about vlan.1.255.com . email: .168.switch1(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 4 switch1(config-if-range)#exit switch1(config)#int range f0/7 -8 switch1(config-if-range)#switchport mode access switch1(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 5 switch1(config)#int f0/9 switch1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk 3. Configure Router 1 as Dhcp server and communicate different vlan with the help router.168.168.255.97 255. switch1#sh vlan 4.3 router1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 4 router1(config-subif)#ip add 192. switch1(config)#int range f0/1 -2 switch1(config-if-range)#switchport mode access switch1(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 2 switch1(config-if-range)#exit switch1(config)#int range f0/3 -4 switch1(config-if-range)#switchport mode access switch1(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 3 switch1(config-if-range)#exit switch1(config)#int range f0/5 -6 switch1(config-if-range)#switchport mode access .2 router1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 3 router1(config-subif)#ip add 192.255.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.1 router1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 2 router1(config-subif)#ip add 192.224 router1(config-subif)#int f0/0.192 router1(config-subif)#int f0/0.2. Add switch port in vlan.1 255.224 router1(config-subif)#int f0/0.65 255.4 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.255.255. Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname router1 router1(config)#int f0/0 router1(config-if)#no ip add router1(config-if)#no shutdown router1(config-if)#int f0/0.1. 9926210940.

1.96 255.0 router2(config-if)#no shut router2(config-if)#exit router2(config)#int f router2(config)#int f0/0 router2(config-if)#ip add 12.manish.1.0.192 router1(dhcp-config)#default-router 192.1.0 255.0.0. Configure EIGRP Routing with autonomous system no.168.0.168.129 router1#conf t router1(config)#int s1/0 router1(config-if)#ip add 11.168.255.0.255.0.1 255.224 router1(dhcp-config)#default-router 192.168.0.0 router1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 router1(config-if)#no shut 5.129 255.0.255.0. Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname router2 router2(config)#int s1/0 router2(config-if)#ip add 11.224 router1(dhcp-config)#default-router 192.97 router1(dhcp-config)#exit router1(config)#ip dhcp pool cisco4 router1(dhcp-config)#network 192.64 255.Configure Router 2.255.255.2 255.com .1.1 255. 9926210940.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.255.1.255.1.168.168.65 router1(dhcp-config)#exit router1(config)#ip dhcp pool cisco3 router1(dhcp-config)#network 192.router1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 5 router1(config-subif)#ip add 192.128 255.0.240 router1(dhcp-config)#default-router 192.0.0. 11 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.255.168.240 router1(config-subif)#exit configure router as dhcp:router1(config)#ip dhcp pool cisco1 router1(dhcp-config)#network 192.1 router1(dhcp-config)#exit router1(config)#ip dhcp pool cisco2 router1(dhcp-config)#network 192.255.168.0 router2(config-if)#no shut 6. email: .255.168.1.1.1.

0. 9926210940.168. email: .1.0.0 router1(config-router)#network 192.1.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.0.0 VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0 router2(config-router)#network 12.168.0.168.router1(config)#router eigrp 11 router1(config-router)#network 192.96 router1(config-router)#network 192.1.0.64 router1(config-router)#network 192.168.128 router1(config-router)#network 11.0.0 router2(config)#router eigrp 11 router2(config-router)#network 11.manish.1.com .

com . 9926210940. email: .“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish.

email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. 9926210940.com .manish.Network Address Translation (NAT) “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

• NAT translates private IP address into Public IP address. • By using PAT (NAT Overload). Static NAT 2. NAT Names “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. Dynamic NAT 3. 9926210940.manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. • the static version requires you to have one real Internet IP address for every host on your network. you get to have thousands of users connect to the Internet using only one real global IP address. • Types of Network Address Translation 1. NAT Overload [PAT (Port Address translation)] Static NAT • This type of NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mapping between local and global addresses. email: . NAT Overload [PAT (Port Address translation)] • Understand that overloading really is a form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered IP address—many-to-one—by using different ports. Dynamic NAT • This version gives you the ability to map an unregistered IP address to a registered IP address from out of a pool of registered IP addresses.com . It saves valuable public IP address.

email: .manish. 9926210940.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.com .How NAT Works “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.

raghuvanshi1985@gmail. email: .PRACTICAL: - “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. 9926210940.manish.com .

2 INTO PUBLIC IP 11.0.1.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.0.0.31 Bhopal(config)#access-list 10 permit 172.1.3 netmask 255.1. configure dynamic nat :bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#ip nat pool cisco 11.0.0.0.0.1.255.0.0. 9926210940.168.5 netmask 255.168.16. configure pat(port address translation) :bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#ip nat pool cisco 11.0.3 11.168.0 0.0.0.168.0 0.0 bhopal(config)#access-list 10 permit 192.3 11.0.3 bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip nat outside bhopal(config-if)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip nat inside bhopal(config-if)#do copy run start 2.0. CONFIGURE STATIC NAT MAP PRIVATE 192.0.com .manish.0.0. email: .2 11.0 bhopal(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.0.0.1.0.0.0 0.0.31 bhopal(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool cisco bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip nat outside bhopal(config-if)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip nat inside bhopal(config-if)#do copy run start command to remove dynamic nat :bhopal#clear ip nat translation * bhopal#conf t bhopal(config)#no ip nat inside source list 1 pool cisco bhopal(config)#no ip nat pool cisco bhopal(config)#no access-list 1 bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#no ip nat outside bhopal(config-if)#exit bhopal(config)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#no ip nat inside bhopal(config-if)#do copy run start 3.255 bhopal(config)#ip nat inside source list 10 pool cisco overload bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip nat outside “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.3 :bhopal(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.

• A leased line is a pre-established WAN communications path that goes from the CPE through the DCE switch.bhopal(config-if)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip nat inside Bhopal(config-if)#exit Bhopal(config)#int f0/1 Bhopal(config-if)#ip nat inside bhopal(config-if)#do copy run start ================================================================= Wide Area Networks: • The Cisco IOS supports a ton of different wide area network (WAN) protocols that help you extend your local LANs to other LANs at remote sites. • Circuit switching uses dial-up modems or ISDN and is used for low-bandwidth data transfers.com . email: . think phone call. • HDLC and PPP encapsulations are frequently used on leased lines. • No data can transfer before an end-to-end connection is established. Circuit switching • When you hear the term circuit switching. then over to the CPE of the remote site.manish. 9926210940. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. • It uses synchronous serial lines up to 45Mbps. The big advantage is cost—you only pay for the time you actually use. Leased Line: • These are usually referred to as a point-to-point or dedicated connection. • WAN connection types that can be used to connect your LANs together (DTE) over a DCE network.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.

• The network’s DCE device (CSU/DSU) provides clocking to the DTE-connected interface (the router’s serial interface).WAN protocols used today: Frame Relay. and ATM. PPPoE. ] Defining WAN Terms:• Customer premises equipment (CPE) Customer premises equipment (CPE) is equipment that’s owned by the subscriber and located on the subscriber’s premises. • Demarcation point The demarcation point is the precise spot where the service Provider’s responsibility ends and the CPE begins. This network is a collection of switches and facilities owned by the ISP. and they connect into data communication equipment (DCE) like a channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU).manish. email: . Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment: • By default.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. which is called a central office. 9926210940. • Frame Relay and X. LAPB.25 are packet-switching technologies with speeds that can range from 56Kbps up to T3 (45Mbps). DSL. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. [Note: . MPLS. • Packet switching will only work for you if your data transfers are the bursty type not continuous. LAPD. • The CSU/DSU then plugs into a demarcation location (demarc) and is the service provider’s last responsibility. PPP. router interfaces are data terminal equipment (DTE). • Central office (CO) This point connects the customer’s network to the provider’s switching network. Cable.Packet switching • This is a WAN switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. ISDN. • Local loop The local loop connects the demarc to the closest switching office. • Toll network The toll network is a trunk line inside a WAN provider’s network. HDLC.com .

• PPP contains two components: 1. 2. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • It’s a Data Link layer protocol that can be used over either asynchronous serial (dialup) or synchronous serial (ISDN) media. • HDLC has its own way of identifying the Network layer protocol. which was created by IBM as a Data Link connection protocol.HDLC • High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC) was derived from Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC). email: . • HDLC is a point-to-point protocol used on leased lines. configuring. • HDLC is the default encapsulation used by Cisco routers over synchronous serial links. meaning each vendor’s HDLC is proprietary.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. NCP A method of establishing and configuring different Network layer protocols. • PPP can encapsulate several layer 3 routed protocols.com . LCP A method of establishing. PPP could be the best encapsulation solution for you instead of HDLC. and callback. maintaining. and terminating the point-to-point connection. dynamic addressing. • Provide authentication. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.manish. NCP is designed to allow the simultaneous use of multiple Network layer protocols. • Cisco’s HDLC is proprietary—it won’t communicate with any other vendor’s HDLC implementation. 9926210940. • No authentication can be used with HDLC.

• PPP callback Once authentication is completed. 9926210940. PPP decompresses the data frame on the receiving end.com . two T1s running multilink PPP would show up as a single 3Mbps path to a layer 3 routing protocol. PRACTICAL: - command to show encapsulatin type :appin#sh interfaces s1/0 “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.Link Control Protocol (LCP) Configuration Options: • Authentication This option tells the calling side of the link to send information that can identify the user.manish. email: . the link is immediately terminated.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. PPP Authentication Methods: • Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) The Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is the less secure of the two methods. • Multilink This option makes several separate physical paths appear to be one logical path at layer 3. If the values don’t match. The two methods are PAP and CHAP. Passwords are sent in clear text. For example. • Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) router sends a challenge request to the remote device. The remote device sends a value calculated using a one-way hash function called MD5. The local router checks this hash value to make sure it matches. • Compression This is used to increase the throughput of PPP connections by compressing the data or payload prior to transmission. the remote router will terminate the connection and then re-initiate a connection to the calling router from the remote router.

9926210940. • Frame Relay is packet-switching technologies with speeds that can range from 56Kbps up to T3 (45Mbps).raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish. • “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com .configure ppp protocol :appin(config)#username airtel password cisco appin(config)#int s1/0 appin(config-if)#encapsulation ppp appin(config-if)#ppp authentication chap appin(config-if)#do copy run start airtel#conf t airtel(config)#username appin password cisco airtel(config)#int s1/0 airtel(config-if)#encapsulation ppp airtel(config-if)#ppp authentication chap airtel(config-if)#do copy run start configure hdlc protocol :appin(config)#int s1/0 appin(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc appin(config-if)#do copy run start airtel(config)#int s1/0 airtel(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc airtel(config-if)#do copy run start Frame Relay • Frame Relay is classified as a non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) network. email: . meaning it doesn’t send any broadcasts.

which are used on Frame Relay interfaces to distinguish between different virtual circuits. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. • Inverse ARP (IARP). then it’s taken down when the data transfer is complete. CIR The maximum bandwidth of data guaranteed to be delivered. permanent virtual circuit (pvc) 2.com . • A Frame Relay service provider typically assigns DLCI values.manish. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. 2.it is somewhat similar to ARP in the fact that it maps a DLCI to an IP address. it’s the average amount that the service provider will allow you to transmit. Access rate The maximum speed at which the Frame Relay interface can transmit. they’ll remain in place.There are two separate bandwidth specifications with Frame Relay: 1. switched virtual circuit (svc) Permanent virtual circuit (pvc) • permanent” means here is that the telco creates the mappings inside their gear and as long as you pay the bill. In reality. 9926210940. • there are two types of virtual circuits: 1. switched virtual circuit (svc) • SVCs are more like a phone call. The virtual circuit is established when data needs to be transmitted. Virtual Circuits: • Frame Relay operates using virtual circuits as opposed to the actual circuits that leased lines use. Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs): • Frame Relay PVCs are identified to DTE end devices by Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs).

9926210940.0 delhi(config-if)#clock rate 64000 delhi(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay delhi(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco delhi(config-if)#no shut delhi(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 11.0. • There are three different types of LMI message formats: Cisco. email: . configure Delhi router :- Router>EN Router#CONF T Router(config)#hostname delhi delhi(config)#int s1/0 delhi(config-if)#ip add 11.0. 1.Local Management Interface (LMI) • Local Management Interface (LMI) is a signaling standard used between your router and the first Frame Relay switch it’s connected to.0.0.933A.0.1 255.0. ANSI.0.0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. and Q.manish.3 103 broadcast “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com .2 102 broadcast delhi(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 11.

0.lmi and pvc information .delhi(config-if)#exit delhi(config)#int f0/0 delhi(config-if)#ip add 192.1 255.com .255.0. configure Indore router :Router(config)#hostname indore indore(config)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#ip add 11.0.168.0 bhopal(config-if)#clock rate 64000 bhopal(config-if)#no shut bhopal(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay bhopal(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco bhopal(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 11. email: . 9926210940.0.0 indore(config-if)#no shut indore(config-if)#do copy run start 4.0.16.3 255.3 203 broadcast bhopal(config-if)#exit bhopal(config)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip add 172.0 indore(config-if)#no shut indore(config-if)#clock rate 64000 indore(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay indore(config-if)# indore(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco indore(config-if)#exit indore(config)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#ip add 10.1.255.1.0.0. Command to show frame-relay map.0.0.0.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. configure Bhopal router :Router(config)#hostname bhopal bhopal(config)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#ip add 11.0.1 255.0.0.0 delhi(config-if)#no shut delhi(config-if)#do copy run start 2.delhi#sh frame-relay map delhi#sh frame-relay lmi delhi#sh frame-relay pvc “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.1 255.2 255.0.255.0.manish.0 bhopal(config-if)#no shut bhopal(config-if)#do copy run start 3.

manish.4 * 1038 possible addressable nodes – 340.366.920.456 – 5 * 1028 addresses per person • IPv6 Addressing and Expressions: - Shortened Expression of IP v6 :• You can drop any leading zeros in each of the individual blocks.432.com .211. separated by colon (:0).Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) • It is 128 bit. 2001:db8:3c4d:12:0:0:1234:56ab • we can remove the two blocks of zeros by replacing them with double colons.000 possible addressable nodes IPv6 • 128 bits or 16 bytes: four times the bits of IPv4 – 3.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.607. IPv4 • 32 bits or 4 bytes long – 4.200.000. 9926210940. Hexadecimal number which is used to identify any host in network.938.374. like this: 2001:db8:3c4d:12:: 1234:56ab “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. • It divides in 8 parts of 16 bit.463.282. email: .768.

Link-local addresses These are like the private addresses in IPv4 in that they’re not meant to be routed.Check out this example: 2001:0000:0000:0012:0000:0000:1234:56ab And just know that you can’t do this: 2001::12::1234:56ab Instead. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com . email: .manish. it is routable to multiple local networks. • Sometimes people call them one-to-many addresses. • There are a few different types of unicast addresses: 1. Multicast address • Packets addressed to a multicast address are delivered to all interfaces identified by the multicast address. 3. but they are nearly globally unique. an anycast address identifies multiple interfaces. 9926210940. and they’re the same as they are in IPv4.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Example: FE80::/10 The link-local unicast range. to the first one it finds defined in terms of routing distance. Global unicast addresses These are your typical publicly routable addresses. 2. this is the best that you can do: 2001::12:0:0:1234:56ab Address Types in IPv6:Unicast address • Packets addressed to a unicast address are delivered to a single interface. but there’s a big difference: the anycast packet is only delivered to one address—actually. • FF00::/8 The multicast range Anycast address • Like multicast addresses. Example: 2000::/3 The global unicast address range. Unique local addresses These addresses are also intended for non-routing purposes. Example: FC00::/7 The unique local unicast range.

raghuvanshi1985@gmail. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Equals ::1. 1. Configure ospf routing.0. 9926210940. "configure ipv6 address on indore router" Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname indore indore(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing indore(config)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 add 2001:db8:3c4d:1::2/64 indore(config-if)#no shut indore(config-if)#exit “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.0. Configure ripng (routing information protocol new generation ) routing. 2001:0DB8::/32 Also reserved for examples and documentation. The equivalent of 127.0. email: . 3.Configure above network with ip v6 addrressing. 2.0.com .0.Special Addresses: 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 Equals :: This is the equivalent of IPv4’s 0. Configure eigrp routing.manish.1 in IPv4. 4.

one per line. email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#int f0/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 add 2001:db8:3c4d:3::1/64 Router(config-if)#no shut Router(config-if)#int s1/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 add 2001:db8:3c4d:2::2/64 Router(config-if)#no shut command to show ipv6 routing table :bhopal#sh ipv6 route command to show ipv6 interface configuration:bhopal#sh ipv6 int brief “configure ripng (routing information protocol new generation) in ipv6 network” indore(config)#ipv6 router rip 1 indore(config-rtr)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 rip 1 enable indore(config-if)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 rip 1 enable indore(config-if)#^Z indore#copy run start bhopal(config)#ipv6 router rip 1 bhopal(config-rtr)#int f0/0 bhopal(config-if)#ipv6 rip 1 enable bhopal(config-if)#int s1/0 bhopal(config-if)#ipv6 rip 1 enable bhopal(config-if)#^Z bhopal#copy run start “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.indore(config)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 add 2001:db8:3c4d:2::1/64 indore(config-if)#clock rate 64000 indore(config-if)#no shut “configure ipv6 address on bhopal router” Router>en Router#conf t Enter configuration commands. 9926210940.com .manish. End with CNTL/Z.

0.0 indore(config-if)#^Z indore#copy run start Wireless :802.0.manish.raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Transmitting a signal using the typical 802. and they both use the same frequency to both transmit and receive. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. water.11 specifications works a lot like it does with a basic Ethernet hub: They’re both two-way forms of communication. or reflected by walls. email: . resulting in low signal strength. refracted.0.command to remove ip6 ripng routing :indore(config)#no ipv6 router rip 1 indore(config-rtr)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#no ipv6 rip 1 enable indore(config-if)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#no ipv6 rip 1 enable indore(config-if)#^Z indore#copy run start “configure eigrp routing on ipv6 network” indore(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 10 indore(config-rtr)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 10 indore(config-if)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 10 indore(config-if)#^Z indore#copy run start {where 10 is autonomous system number} “configure ospf routing in ipv6 nework” indore(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1 indore(config-rtr)#int f0/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0. Wireless LANs (WLANs) use radio frequencies (RFs) that are radiated into the air from an antenna that creates radio waves. These waves can be absorbed. and metal surfaces. 9926210940.0.0 indore(config-if)#int s1/0 indore(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0.com . often referred to as halfduplex.11 Wireless LANs operate at layer 1 and 2 of the OSI Model.

and Medical (ISM) bands. Ethernet Layer 2 frames carry only two MAC addresses.FCC has released three unlicensed bands for public use: 900MHz. 9926210940. The 900MHz and 2.11g. Ethernet just defnes source and destination addresses. transmitter and receiver. email: . such as 802. while an 802.4GHz bands are referred to as the Industrial.11 standards and amendments.4GHz. and 5.11 frames have felds for four MAC addresses.11a. Most wireless LANs (WLANs) are based on the IEEE 802. and 802.7GHz. 802.11b. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. and the 5-GHz band is known as the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) band. 2.manish.com .raghuvanshi1985@gmail. Scientific.11n. 802. destination. while 802.11 frame can defne source.

“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888. making the WEP key either 64 or 128 bit.manish.network resources.WEP uses an RC4 64-bit or 128-bit encryption key to encrypt the Layer 2 data payload. This WEP key comprises a 40-bit or 104-bit user-defned key combined with a 24-bit Initialization Vector (IV).com . email: .raghuvanshi1985@gmail.Open system does not provide any security mechanisms but is simply a request to make a connection to the network. Extended Service Set (ESS) :- Mobile clients use a single AP for connectivity to each other or wired Two or more BSSs connected by a common distribution system (DS). 9926210940. shared-key authentication:. Wep key:.Basic Service Set (BSS) .11 standard for authenticating wireless LAN clients to an access point: open system :.Shared-key authentication has the wireless client hash a string of challenge text with the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) key to authenticate the client to the network. Two methods exist in the 802.• Infrastructure mode .

consequently. cracking attacks. “CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.com . email: . 9926210940. WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise authenticate WLAN users via a RADIUS server using the 802.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish. TKIP rotates the data encryption key to prevent the vulnerabilities of WEP and.WPA Personal and WPA2 Personal use a passphrase to authentication WLAN clients.1X/Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) standards.

email: .com .“CCNA Guide By Manish Raghuvanshi” Contact @ 9753338888.raghuvanshi1985@gmail.manish. 9926210940.

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